2021-10-28T10:18:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:37D0EB9189 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Association of angiotensin converting enzyme gene I/D polymorphism with vitiligo in South Indian population Farha Deebasup;, Kaiser Jamilsup;, Syed Rabbanisup;, M.A.Waheedsup; and Hanmanth Raosup; Full Length Research Paper Vitiligo or leukoderma is a chronic skin condition that causes loss of pigment due to destruction of melanocytes, resulting in irregular pale patches of skin. Vitiligo is polygenic disease and associated with autoimmunity. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is capable of modulating cutaneous neurogenic inflammation. An insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of a 287-base pair repetitive sequence in intron 16 of the ACE gene was reported to have been associated with autoimmunity and with the development of vitiligo. In our study, the distribution of ACE gene I/D genotype was investigated in a population of 186 South Indian vitiligo patients and 201 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction genotyping method. The ACE genotype and allele frequency (chi;sup2; = 9.576, P= 0.008)(chi;sup2; = 10.68, P = 0.001) were significantly different between vitiligo patients and healthy controls. However there was no significant difference between the segmental and non-segmental vitiligo(chi;sup2; = 0.182, P = 0.91) detected in ACE gene genotype distribution .This study suggests that the ACE genepolymorphism confers susceptibility to vitiligo. Key words: Angiotensin converting enzyme, gene polymorphism, vitiligo, autoimmunity Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/37D0EB9189 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000036 en Copyright © 2009 Farha Deebasup;, Kaiser Jamilsup;, Syed Rabbanisup;, M.A.Waheedsup; and Hanmanth Raosup;
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:051CC5F187 2009-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Diagnostic modeling with differences in plasma amino acid profiles between non-cachectic colorectal/breast cancer patients and healthy individuals Naoyuki Okamoto, Yohei Miyagi, Akihiko Chiba, Makoto Akaike, Manabu Shiozawa, Akira Imaizumi, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Toshihiko Ando, Minoru Yamakado and Osamu Tochikubo Full Length Research Paper Metabolic changes in patients with cancer lead to alterations in their amino-acid balances. Thus, amino-acid profiles may be useful as biomarkers of cancers. This study was conducted to analyze amino-acid profiles in plasma by multivariate analysis, in order to elucidate differences between cancer patients and controls. Venous blood samples were taken from colorectal and breast cancer patients, and healthy controls. Plasma free amino acids were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. No weight loss was observed in any of the cancer patients. Multiple logistic regression models were used to discriminate between cancer patients and controls. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for each discriminant score was calculated as 0.860 (95% confidence interval: 0.784 to 0.937) for colorectal cancer and 0.906 (95% CI: 0.845 to 0.967) for breast cancer. The performance of these discriminants was independent of the cancer stage. This study revealed significant differences in plasma amino acid profiles between cancer patients and controls. The development of a cancer alters plasma amino-acid profiles without cachexia or weight loss, and the pattern of change differs between two cancers. Plasma amino-acid profiling might therefore be useful for the early detection of cancer. Key words: amino acid profiles, plasma, screening, cancer, multivariate analysis Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/051CC5F187 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000074 en Copyright © 2009 Naoyuki Okamoto, Yohei Miyagi, Akihiko Chiba, Makoto Akaike, Manabu Shiozawa, Akira Imaizumi, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Toshihiko Ando, Minoru Yamakado and Osamu Tochikubo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:837DCFA197 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Biofeedback application for somatoform disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children Nada Pop-Jordanova Full Length Research Paper Biofeedback is a modern computer-related technique used mainly for assessment and therapy of psychophysiological disorders. The influx of about 800 patients per year with stress related disorders is the cause of extensive clinical use of biofeedback in our Department. In this article some results obtained with electrodermal (EDR) and electroencephalography (EEG) biofeedback in the assessment and therapy of children with two most common disorders somatoform and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the period of fifteen years are presented and discussed. The two groups of patients comprised 243 children with somatoform problems (age 10.31 plusmn; 2.75 years) and 50 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (age 11.11 plusmn; 4.51 years). Before application of individually adapted biofeedback modalities, interviews with parents and children, large scale of psychometric tests, as well as evaluations with Quantitative EEG (Mitzar, Russia) were performed. For EDR biofeedback relax plus and Inner Tunner Professional, Ultramind, UK, while for EEG biofeedback Biograph ProComp, Thought Technology LTD, Canada were applied. For somatoform problems 10 - 15 sessions of EDR biofeedback were sufficient, while for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder the number of needed sessions was 20 - 40, twice a week. Our experiences with these non-pharmacologic methods in the assessment and therapy of somatoform problems and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are quite positive, providing that biofeedback is combined with psychological support and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy. The results showed that the EDR biofeedback is more effective in the case of somatoform disorders, and the EEG biofeedback (neurofeedback) in the case of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Still, EDR biofeedback appeared to be more preferable method by young children than EEG biofeedback, either as a unique treatment or as a first step preceding the neurofeedback therapy. Key words: Electrodermal biofeedback, EEG-biofeedback, somatofoam disorders, ADHD Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/837DCFA197 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000045 en Copyright © 2009 Nada Pop-Jordanova
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:BF59738196 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Isolation and characterization of a new chalcone from the leaves of Heteropyxis natalensis Adesanwo, J. K., Shode, F. O., Aiyelaagbe, O., Oyede, R. T. and Baijnath, H. Full Length Research Paper Chromatographic analysis of the defatted dichloromethane extract of the leaves ofHeteropyxis natalensis afforded the isolation of (E)-1-(2rsquo;,4rsquo;-dihydroxy, 5rsquo;-methoxy, 3rsquo;-methylphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (R1 = Me; R2 = OH; R3 = OMe; R4 = H) a chalcone. The structure of this compound was established by its spectroscopic data-1D, 2D-NMR, EIMS and HR-EIMS. Key words: Chalcones, Heteropyxis natalensis, heteropyxidaceae, flavone Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/BF59738196 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000142 en Copyright © 2009 Adesanwo, J. K., Shode, F. O., Aiyelaagbe, O., Oyede, R. T. and Baijnath, H.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:FC29362194 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Bacteriology of automobile accident wounds infection Akinjogunla, O. J., Adegoke, A. A., Mboto, C. I., Chukwudebelu, I. C. and Udokang, I. P. Full Length Research Paper Purulent materials were collected aseptically with the aid of sterile swab sticks from Forty (40) patients with automobile accident wounds at University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH) and James Accident and Bone Victim Hospital (JABH) in Uyo. These samples were examined microbiologically for the presence of aerobic bacteria and the susceptibility of these organisms to different conventional antibiotics was assessed using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. A total of Seventy-four (74) bacterial isolates were obtained from the wound cultures. A single etiological agent was identified in 13 (32.5%) samples while multiple agents were found in 26 (65%), but no bacterial isolate was obtained in one case. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant microorganism (37.8%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa(27.0%), Escherichia coli (14.9%), Streptococcus pyogenes (12.2%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.11%). Automobile accident wound infection was most prevalent in the age group of 21 - 40 and less prevalent in the age group 61 and above. Automobile accident infection was more prevalent (71.6%) in males than in females (28.4%).The results of the antibiotics susceptibility showed that most of the isolates were highly resistant to penicillin (80.4%), streptomycin (67%) and gentamycin (71.6%), and moderately sensitive to augmentin (46.2%), and nalidixic acid (56.8%), but highly sensitive to ofloxacin (81.6%), ciprofloxacin (75.8%) and pefloxacin (81%). The findings of this study showed that ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin may be drugs of choice for the treatment of automobile accident wound infection, while penicillin, streptomycin and gentamycin may not be used unless culture and sensitivity tests are done. Key words: Prevalence, susceptibility, automobile, wound, bacteriology, Uyo. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/FC29362194 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000041 en Copyright © 2009 Akinjogunla, O. J., Adegoke, A. A., Mboto, C. I., Chukwudebelu, I. C. and Udokang, I. P.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:FA5BB8D192 2009-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Granulomatous inflammation in lymph nodes draining cancer: A coincidence or a significant association! Alka Bhatia, Yashwant kumar and Anjali Solanki Kathpalia Review Granulomatous inflammation is considered to be an immune mechanism against infections or certain non-neoplastic conditions. Rarely granuloma formation may be noted in neoplastic disorders also. However a granulomatous response in the lymph nodes draining cancers is unusual. Such granulomas may sometimes show tumour cells in their centre. The exact cause of this phenomenon is not known but an immunologic reaction to tumour antigens has been suggested. A close scrutiny of such granuloma is necessary to avoid under diagnosis of a metastatic disease. Subtle morphological fea-tures which may be helpful in differentiating a co-existing infection or tumour induced granuloma need to be addressed. Moreover the biologic significance of such a granulomatous response in inducing tu-mour remission or in shielding tumour cells from host lymphocytes also requires further investigation. Key words: Granuloma, cancer, metastasis Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/FA5BB8D192 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000114 en Copyright © 2009 Alka Bhatia, Yashwant kumar and Anjali Solanki Kathpalia
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:1AFCA7C219 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Effect of metformin and folic acid on plasma homocysteine level in type 2 diabetic patients Mohammad Mohammadi, Masoud Amini, Ashraf Aminiorroay, Hasan Rezvanian, Ali Kachuei, Mansour Siyavash, Soodabeh- Rahimi Saghandand Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani Short Communication Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of metformin and folic acid on plasma homocysteine level in diabetic patients. In this clinical trial 47 new cases of type 2 diabetes were randomized to two groups. We treated patients in trial group with metformin and 1 mg folic acid, whereas patients in control group treated with metformin and placebo for 16 weeks. There was no significant difference in plasma homocysteine level and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between two groups at the start of study. After 16 weeks plasma homocysteine level in the trial group did not change. In contrast plasma homocysteine level increased in the placebo group. There was significant difference in mean plasma homocysteine level between two groups (P-value lt; 0.01). This difference was highly significant in males (P-value lt; 0.0001). Correlation between glycosylated hemoglobin and plasma homocysteine level at start and end of study was not significant. This finding indicated that metformin increases plasma homocysteine level in diabetic patients especially males, whereas administration of folic acid with metformin can prevent this process. Key words: Type 2 diabetes, homocysteine, metformin, folic acid, glycosylated hemoglobin, sex Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/1AFCA7C219 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000079 en Copyright © 2009 Mohammad Mohammadi, Masoud Amini, Ashraf Aminiorroay, Hasan Rezvanian, Ali Kachuei, Mansour Siyavash, Soodabeh- Rahimi Saghandand Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:6769110218 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Hepatocellular carcinoma: Risk factors, pattern of presentation and outcome in a tertiary health facility Akande Oladimeji Ajayi, Ebenezer Adekunle Ajayi and Oluwole Akinwumi Komolafe Full Length Research Paper Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common cancer in the world. Its incidence is increasing worldwide ranging between 3 and 9% annually. The aim of this study was to see the pattern of clinical presentation, identify the possible risk factors and the clinical outcome among HCC patients presenting at our health facility. The case records of all patients with histopathological diagnosis of HCC within the study period June 2003-May 2008 were scrutinized. Demographic, clinical presentation, investigations, risk factors and outcome data were extracted. Data analysis was done using the SPSS computer soft ware. Logistic regression model was fitted to identify the impact of the various risk factors on HCC. A total number of 53 patients with histopathological diagnosis of HCC were registered. Their ages ranged from 35 to 73 and mean age of 50plusmn;21.8 years. Thirty seven (69.8%) were males while sixteen (30.2%) were females giving M: F ratio of 2.31:1. The left lobe was affected in 15.1% (8), right lobe in 22.6% (12) and both lobes in 62.3% (33). 54.7% tested positive for HBsAg, 3.8% were HCV-Ab positive. All the patients in this study presented at an advanced stage of the disease. Aflatoxin exposure, though not proven, because no test was done to incriminate it, was highly suspected and could be a major risk factor in this study; hence efforts need to be doubled up as regards effective awareness campaigns, general health /social education and food perseveration methods. Key words: Hepatocellular carcinoma, aflatoxin, hepatitis B and C Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/6769110218 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000120 en Copyright © 2009 Akande Oladimeji Ajayi, Ebenezer Adekunle Ajayi and Oluwole Akinwumi Komolafe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:6A6B24D217 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the surgical unit of a university teaching hospital in north central Nigeria A. T. Olayinka, B. O. Olayinka and B. A. Onile Full Length Research Paper This study determined the susceptibility pattern and multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of 92 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from clinical samples comprising mainly urine (51.1%) and wounds (41.3%) obtained from the surgical units of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria; over a 24-month period. The strains were susceptible to imipenem (94.6%), ciprofloxacin (90.2%), amikacin (89.1%) and ceftazidime (78.3%) but resistant to ofloxacin (82.6%), perfloxacin (58.7%) and gentamicin (35.8%). Analysis of the MAR index of isolates revealed that 60.9% had MAR index of 0.3 and above, which is an indication of probable origin from the hospital environment where antibiotics are extensively used. A strict management of antibiotic policies and a continuous surveillance programme for multidrug resistant pathogens like P. aeruginosa in specialised units is advocated. Key words: Antibiotic resistance, plasmid, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/6A6B24D217 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000025 en Copyright © 2009 A. T. Olayinka, B. O. Olayinka and B. A. Onile
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:FDBF923216 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Serum total cholesterol in hypertensive Northern Nigerians Akuyam S. A., Aghogho U. B., Aliyu I. S.and Bakari A. G. Full Length Research Paper Hypertension is associated with several lipid abnormalities including elevated total cholesterol (TC) concentrations. The presence of dyslipidaemia increases risks of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is paucity of data on the pattern of serum TC in hypertensive patients in northern Nigeria. The objective of the present study was therefore to evaluate serum total cholesterol in hypertensive patients and normotensive subjects in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) were measured in 100 hypertensive patients and fifty 50 normotensive. Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were also measured in both hypertensive patients and normotensive subjects. The data obtained were analysed using Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Two-tailed studentrsquo;s t- test for matched samples and Pearsonrsquo;s linear correlation analysis statistical methods were employed for the analyses. A p-value of equal to or less than 0.05 (p le; 0.05) was considered as statistically significant. The results of serum TC in hypertensive patients and normotensive subjects were 5.12 plusmn; 0.12 and 4.50 plusmn; 0.11 mmol/L, respectively (p lt; 0.05). Furthermore, there were positive and significant correlations between serum TC and BP in both hypertensive patients and normotensive subjects. Similarly, there were positive and significant correlations between serum TC and BMI in hypertensive patients and normotensive subjects. These findings demonstrate that serum TC levels increase as the BP and BMI rise in both hypertensive patients and normotensive subjects. Hypertensive patients demonstrate higher serum TC concentrations than their normotensive counterparts, suggesting a high risk of developing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, such as coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke among hypertensives. We recommend routine evaluation and proper management of serum TC in hypertensive patients. Key words: Hypertensive patients, serum total cholesterol, cardiovascular disease Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/FDBF923216 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000220 en Copyright © 2009 Akuyam S. A., Aghogho U. B., Aliyu I. S.and Bakari A. G.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:6327F5C215 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in clinical cases in Ile-Ife, Southwest Nigeria Adegoke, Anthony Ayodeji and Komolafe, Amos Omoniyi Full Length Research Paper A study to investigate the susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus to conventional antibiotics being frequently prescribed in Ile-Ife, South Western Nigeria was carried out. One hundred and seven samples from various clinical samples were collected from Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The isolates of S. aureuswere characterized and identified using standard microbiological techniques. The isolates harvested were subjected to in-vitro antibiotic susceptibility tests using the disc diffusion method and beta-lactamase test was carried out using starch paper hydrolysis. One hundred and five isolates of S. aureus were harvested. The in vitro susceptibility of the bacterial isolates to antibiotics indicated 75.3-92.5% sensitivity to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin. However, they were 65% producers of beta lactamase while 45-72% resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. Out of the 56 isolates tested with methicillin, 28 (50%) were resistant while 18 (32.1%) were sensitive. It was observed 70% of the tested isolates were beta lactamase producers. Multiple resistance was observed to 10 frequently prescribed antibiotics in the area. This suggests possible abuse of these drugs, poor hospital attendance and the need for better enlightenment campaign against the use of drug without prescription. Key words: Staphylococcus aureus, ciprofloxacin, multiple antibiotic resistant index, beta lactamase test. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/6327F5C215 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000158 en Copyright © 2009 Adegoke, Anthony Ayodeji and Komolafe, Amos Omoniyi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:7F7D0DF214 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Hepatoprotective and some haematological effects of Allium sativum and vitamin C in lead-exposed Wistar rats G. O. Ajayi, T. T. Adeniyi and D. O. Babayemi Full Length Research Paper The hepatoprotective and some haematological effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) and vitamin C were studied on experimental rats that were exposed to lead (Pb) for one week. Twenty ndash; four female Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six rats per group. Rats in group A were kept as the control. Rats in groups B, C and D were exposed to 100 mol/kg body weight of lead acetate intraperitoneally for seven days. Garlic diet (200 g minced garlic/kg diet) and vitamin C (500 mg/kg body weight) were given to rats in groups C and D for additional seven days respectively. Garlic and vitamin C produced significant reduction at p lt; 0.05 in the levels of ALT, ALP and PCV while the level of AST increases significantly at p lt; 0.05. The level of Hb increases significantly at p lt; 0.05 in rats treated with garlic and reduces significantly at p lt; 0.05 in rats treated with Vitamin C. This study, therefore suggests that garlic and vitamin C have some hepatoprotective and haematological effects. Key words: Hepatoprotective, haematological, Allium sativum, vitamin C, Lead (Pb) Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/7F7D0DF214 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000121 en Copyright © 2009 G. O. Ajayi, T. T. Adeniyi and D. O. Babayemi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:2B5DAD9207 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
In situ distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in the liver: Relationship to histopathology and serum HCV-RNA levels Thanaa El-Sayed Helal, Mahmoud Ismail Hassan, Munir Ali El-Ganzuri, Ahmed Mostafa Ahmed and Sahar Ezzelarab Full Length Research Paper In situ hybridization (ISH) technique was applied to 60 liver biopsies obtained from Egyptian patients with chronic HCV hepatitis in an attempt to: assess the tissue localization of HCV RNA in the liver and to investigate its relationship to the liver pathology, serum level of alanine transaminase (ALT) and viral load in the serum. No similar studies have been reported from Egypt, which is an area of high HCV prevalence. ISH labeling for HCV was observed in 24 of the 60 liver biopsies from HCV infected patients (40%) as compared to the complete negative ISH results in the 10 control liver biopsies from patients with non HCV hepatitis. ISH positivity was seen only in the liver cells and it was usually cytoplasmic. ISH results were not significantly related to the patientsrsquo; age, sex, histologic features of HCV hepatitis, grade of disease activity, stage of fibrosis, serum ALT levels or serum HCV RNA. However, ISH was statistically correlated to the grade of liver cell dysplasia (r = 0.49, P lt; 0.0001). The latter was also significantly correlated to the level of HCV RNA in the serum as measured by branched DNA technique (r = 0.75, P lt; 0.0001). In conclusion, the present study suggests that the load of HCV RNA in the liver is not related to extent of liver injury, serum ALT levels or the viral load in the serum. More importantly, the significant correlation between the grade of dysplasia and both the tissue and serum load of the virus, leads to the assumption that HCV has a direct carcinogenic effect on liver cells. Key words: HCV RNA, in situ hybridization, liver pathology, dysplasia Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/2B5DAD9207 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000134 en Copyright © 2009 Thanaa El-Sayed Helal, Mahmoud Ismail Hassan, Munir Ali El-Ganzuri, Ahmed Mostafa Ahmed and Sahar Ezzelarab
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:84FBB11205 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Differential induction of LRP16 by liganded and unliganded estrogen receptor a in SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cells Liyuan Tian, Zhiqiang Wu, Yali Zhao, Yuanguang. Meng, Yiling Si, Xiaobing Fu, Yiming Mu and W-D Han Full Length Research Paper Previously, we investigated the induction effect of LRP16 expression by estrogen (E2) and established a feed-forward mechanism that activated ERa transactivation in estrogen-dependent epithelial cancer cells. LRP16 is required for ERa signaling transduction by functioning as an ERa coactivator. In this study, we demonstrated that LRP16 expression was up-regulated in E2-responsive BG-1 ovarian cancer cells, but was down-regulated in estrogen-resistant SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. Pure estrogen antagonist ICI 182 780 did not affect LRP16 expression in SKOV3 cell. The unliganded ERa up-regulated LRP16 expression and enhanced LRP16 promoter activity in SKOV3 cells; however, this induction was blocked by estrogen stimulation. Results from chromatin immunoprecipitation experiment revealed a strong recruitment of the unliganded ERa at LRP16 promoter in the absence of estrogen; however, ERa was largely released from the DNA upon E2 stimulation. Although LRP16 did not significantly change the proliferation rate of SKOV3 cells, it seemed to slightly modulate the growth responsiveness of cells to E2. Knockdown of LRP16 by RNA interference in SKOV3 cells markedly attenuated estrogen response element-dependent ERa reporter gene activity and E2-induced c-myc expression. Our study suggests a novel mechanism of estrogen resistance of ovarian cancer by which estrogen-repressed signaling pathway antagonizes estrogen-activated signaling transduction. Key words: LRP16, estrogen, estrogen receptor a, SKOV3 Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/84FBB11205 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000075 en Copyright © 2009 Liyuan Tian, Zhiqiang Wu, Yali Zhao, Yuanguang. Meng, Yiling Si, Xiaobing Fu, Yiming Mu and W-D Han
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:4208E89204 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Brief review of sarcoidosis of the thyroid gland Talal Hussain Muzaffar, Jaber Mohammed Al-Ansari and Hassan Al-Humrani Review Sarcoidosis of the thyroid gland is rare. It is rarely reported in the medical literature. In this review article we go over various presentation of sarcoidosis of the thyroid gland, ways to diagnose it, and treatment options. Key words: Sarcoidosis, thyroid gland, hypothyroidism, Graves#39; disease Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/4208E89204 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000050 en Copyright © 2009 Talal Hussain Muzaffar, Jaber Mohammed Al-Ansari and Hassan Al-Humrani
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:03B2801202 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Update to risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma Nabil Abdel-Hamid Review Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) became a prevalent disease in many populations worldwide. It initiates many economic problems in management modalities and leads to increasing mortality rates. Many trials are made all over the world to implement specific early markers for detection and prediction of the disease, hoping to set a more precise strategy for liver cancer prevention. Unfortunately, many economic, cultural and disciplinary levels contribute to confounding preventive strategies. Many risk factors seem to predispose HCC, which either present individually or collectively depending on the environmental situations. Previous articles discussed many risk factors participating in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, although most of them did not handle collectively the current up to date causes. In this article, the pathogenesis and most of risk factors of HCC are briefly discussed. Most of the intermediating steps of HCC pass through molecular and transcriptional events leading eventually to hepatocyte malignant transformation. These steps are mainly triggered by hepatitis B, C or transfusion-transmitted virus, either alone, or with other factors. Diabetes seems to be greatly a leading disease. Schistosomiasis, a blood infestation, mostly disturbs Nile habitants leading also to bladder, renal and hepatic cancers. Alcoholism, food and water pollutants and some other drugs can lead to HCC. Additionally, some hereditary diseases, as hemochromatosis, alpha;-1-antitrypsin deficiency and tyrosinaemia are known to develop to HCC, if not discovered. Key words: HCC, HCV, HBV, TTV, schistosomiasis, alcoholism, NASH, hereditary diseases Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/03B2801202 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000252 en Copyright © 2009 Nabil Abdel-Hamid
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:AA81D23200 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Prostatic adenocarcinoma coexisting with schistosomiasis: A case report and review of literature Agabus N. Manasseh, Godwins O. Echejoh, Matthew N. Tanko, Olugbenga O. Silas, Nuhu K. Dakum and Barnabas M. Mandong Review Adenocarcinoma of the prostate is the commonest form of cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer death. Not much is known about the aetiology of prostatic cancer. We report a rare case of prostatic adenocarcinoma coexisting with schistosomiasis of the prostate, and review of literature. The association between schistosomiasis and cancer has been well documented in bladder cancer, implicating the genotoxic effect of chronic inflammatory process from the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nitrosating action of bacterial infection. There are no data yet proving the association of this disease with prostate neoplasia. The theory of the genotoxic effect of chronic inflammatory process may explain a ldquo;cause and effectrdquo; association between prostate cancer and schistosomiasis. A pertinent question therefore is, does schistosomiasis cause tumorigenesis in all tissues affected? This is the first record of prostatic schistosomiasis in association with prostatic cancer in our centre. Key words: Tropical disease, parasite, carcinoma, prostate Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/AA81D23200 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000193 en Copyright © 2009 Agabus N. Manasseh, Godwins O. Echejoh, Matthew N. Tanko, Olugbenga O. Silas, Nuhu K. Dakum and Barnabas M. Mandong
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:DD3E5C6232 2009-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Editorial: Chemists at Max Planck Institute (Germany) regenerate Artemisinin from its waste product Dr. John Ibekwe Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/DD3E5C6232 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000076 en Copyright © 2009 Dr. John Ibekwe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:2938DF7224 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Efficacy of some antibacterial agents on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various burn cases Ihsan Edan Alsaimary Full Length Research Paper The present study aimed to determine the major bacterial types from various burn cases and a study of antibacterial activity of plant extracts against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from burn cases in comparison with standard antibiotics.A total of 35 specimens were collected from burned patients (both sex, various degrees of burns) in burns unit of Al-Basrah General Hospital and Alsader Teaching Hospital in Basrah city during October 2006 to August 2007. Aqueous extracts from leaves and fruits of Zizyphus spine christi L. and Olea europaea L. were used as antibacterial agents against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from burned patients in comparison with standard antibiotics.The predominant bacterial types arePseudomonas sp. (74.19%) (23 isolates) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (54.83%) (17 isolates), another types distributed in various percentages from burn cases. The greatest effect of plant extracts was for 1000 g/ml of leaves of Z. spain-christi which gave 20 mm of inhibition zone; the fruit of O. europaea: 1000 Mg/ml gave 16 mm; while the standard antibiotics gave the following diameters of growth inhibition zones: kanamycin and gentamicin (26 mm), neomycin (25 mm), cephalexin (24 mm), fusidic acid (22 mm), tobramycin (16 mm).Various burns are highly infected with diversity of bacterial pathogens, the plant extracts shows a variable activity against S. aureus . Key words: Staphylococcus aureus, antibiotics, burn cases Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/2938DF7224 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000090 en Copyright © 2009 Ihsan Edan Alsaimary
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:68B3615223 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Intraoperative low molecular weight heparin and postoperative bleeding Michael K. F. Choo Case Report A case of postoperative bleeding associated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) administration is reported. A literature search suggests that perioperative bleeding can be as high as 11% when LMWH is administered intraoperatively. When administered 6 h postoperatively, LMWH does not signi-ficantly increase the risk of bleeding whilst retaining efficacy for venous thromboembolism prop-hylaxis. Although LMWH has not been shown to be superior when compared to unfractionated heparin for general surgery, advantages include no need for monitoring and once daily dosage. During an acute bleeding episode, bedside functional monitoring (e.g. thromboelastography) is appropriate rather than anti-Xa levels. To reverse LMWH, use protamine first to reverse its effects partially, followed by replenishing factor X and II with FFP/Prothrombinex. If bleeding continues, consider using activated factor VIIa. Key words: Heparin, postoperative bleeding, venous thromboembolism Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/68B3615223 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000141 en Copyright © 2009 Michael K. F. Choo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:FDDD0AA222 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Methotrexate-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis: a case report I. Tazi, A. Madani, S. Zafad, M. Harif, A. Quessar and S. Benchekroun Case Report Methotrexate (MTX) is a folic acid antagonist that inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase resulting in decreased cell levels of tetrahydrofolate. Adverse cutaneous reactions to MTX are usually dose-related and have been mainly reported in patients receiving extremely large doses of chemotherapy. Toxicity can affect multiple organ systems including bone marrow, liver, intestinal tract, kidneys, lungs, skin, and blood vessels, resulting in death in severe cases. In this report we describe the case of a 9 year old boy who developed toxic epidermal necrolysis after high-dose MTX treatment and discuss the important clinical and therapeutic features of this condition. Key words: Methotrexate, skin, toxicity, necrolysis Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/FDDD0AA222 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000153 en Copyright © 2009 I. Tazi, A. Madani, S. Zafad, M. Harif, A. Quessar and S. Benchekroun
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:E93D8C7221 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
An unusual cause of acute tympanic membrane perforation: a case report Anelechi B. Chukuezi and Jones N. Nwosu Case Report This is a case report of a 26 ndash; year old lady who presented in the Accident and Emergency Department of our hospital with complaints of sudden onset of right otalgia, tinnitus and loss of hearing which she claimed started at about 12:30 h after vigorous kissing incident. The tympanic membrane was ruptured. She was managed conservatively with oral antibiotics with spontaneous and complete healing of the perforated tympanic membrane within one month of follow-up. It was shown that ear kissing can lead to auditory injury and loss of hearing and so kissing should be made as gentle as possible in all circumstances. Key words: Unusual cause, kissing, acute tympanic membrane perforation Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/E93D8C7221 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000017 en Copyright © 2009 Anelechi B. Chukuezi and Jones N. Nwosu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:9ECA6B8220 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Pharmacogenomics: benefits of personalized medicines Avinash Puri Review Pharmacogenomics is a science that examines the inherited variations in genes that dictate drug response and explores the ways these variations can be used to predict whether a patient will have a good, bad, or no response at all to a drug. It refers to the general study of all of the many different genes that determine drug behavior. It could also guide companies in designing clinical trials that would more definitively prove drug efficacy, in turn decreasing the time, costs, and risks of drug development. In the clinical setting, pharmacogenomics will help physicians to better define the long-term health risks that patients face, diagnose the stage of patientrsquo;s diseases more precisely and predict patientsrsquo; responsiveness to specific drugs more accurately or the likelihood for adverse events. Key words: Pharmacogenomics, biomarkers, gene variations Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/9ECA6B8220 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000172 en Copyright © 2009 Avinash Puri
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:3652220226 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Bone tumors at Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia: agreement between radiological and histopathological diagnoses, a -5-year analysis at Black-Lion Teaching Hospital Bayush E. Negash, Daniel Admasie, Biruk L. Wamisho and Mihiret W. Tinsay Full Length Research Paper The study aims at looking into clinical, radiological and histopathological agreement in diagnosing bone tumors and elaborates the spectrum of bone tumors referred to Black-Lion Hospital, BLH. All bone tumor patients, who presented to all the three departments at BLH between the study periods of December 2003 ndash; March 2008 were recruited. the radiological and histopathological diagnoses made were categorized separately using WHO classification of bone tumors. Strength of agreement was measured using Cohenrsquo;s Kappa test. From the total of 216 bone tumor patients presented and biopsied in the five year period, complete information could not be gathered only for 11 (5%) of the patients. Hence there were 111(51.3%) males and 94(48.7%) females with histopathological tissue diagnosis of the bone tumor. Male to female ratio was nearly 1. Commonest age range generally affected was 15-29 (7-55 years). Of the tumors histopathologically diagnosed, 36%( 74/205) of the tumors were malignant. The commonest primary malignant tumor from bone biopsy was osteosarcoma (52/182, 28.5%). It was also the single most common clinical, radiological and histological diagnosis made. Exostosis was second. Considering all bone tumors together, radiological diagnosis was confirmed by similar histological diagnosis in 172 out 205 cases (84%) and the corresponding Cohen#39;s kappa value (0.82) showed excellent agreement between radiological and histological diagnoses of all bone tumors. In set-ups where there is limited or no histopathological service, joint clinical and radiological decision could lead to a higher degree of accuracy in diagnosis of bone tumors. Key words: Bone tumors, diagnostic agreement, radiological, orthopedic, histopathology. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/3652220226 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000049 en Copyright © 2009 Bayush E. Negash, Daniel Admasie, Biruk L. Wamisho and Mihiret W. Tinsay
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:6FDCB61227 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Aminothienoandrostane: novel promising anti-tumor agent Gamal A. Elmegeed, Mohamed El-Far, Hanaa Mahrous and Mohamed A. Tantawy Full Length Research Paper The sensitivity of liver to chemotherapy provides the basis of novel investigational treatment. An amino thienoandrostane derivative was synthesized and tested in vitro for anti-tumor activity against heapto-ma cell lines (HepG2) using MTT assay. Also the in vivo anti-tumor activity was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). After 24 h of tumor inoculation, the tested compound was adminis-tered intraperitoneal (i.p.) with concentration of 25 mg/kg day after day for 14 days. The effect of amino-thienoandrostane on the growth of transplantable tumor and simultaneous alterations in hematological profile was estimated. Aminothienoandrostane in olive oil induced significantly high cytotoxic effect against HepG2cell line (IC50 = 36). Aminothienoandrostane completely inhibited tumor growth and maintained the hemoglobin content, body weight, and WBCs near normal values and similar to what obtained for standard drug 5-flurouracil which is one of the most commonly used drugs to treat cancers. Key words: Anti-cancer, androstane, hepatoma (Hep-G2), Ehrlich ascites carcinoma(EAC), cytotoxicity. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/6FDCB61227 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000014 en Copyright © 2009 Gamal A. Elmegeed, Mohamed El-Far, Hanaa Mahrous and Mohamed A. Tantawy
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:388D012228 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Insulin resistance and blood pressure in Nigerian type 2 diabetic patients A. G. Bakari and G. C. Onyemelukwe Short Communication Considerable interest has been generated on the possible role of insulin resistance (IR) in the etiology and sustenance of hypertension among type-2 diabetic subjects. There is paucity of data on this relationship on African diabetic patients. The aim of this study is to show the relationship between homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) derived insulin resistance (IR) scores and blood pressure among type-2 diabetic patients in Nigeria. Anthropometric data, age, sex and duration of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus were taken. Blood pressures were measured using standard methods. Fasting plasma insulin (FPI) levels were measured using an ELISA technique. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were measured using standard methods. Using the HOMA method, insulin resistance scores were derived for each subject. Forty type-2 diabetic patients 13 (32.5%) of whom were hypertensive and 27 (67.5%) of whom were normotensive were studied. Mean HOMA-IR scores were 1.96 plusmn; 1.04 (range 0.49 ndash; 2.92) among diabetic-hypertensive individuals and 2.28 plusmn; 1.89 (range 0.39 ndash; 7.6) among normotensive-diabetic patients (p = 0.5350). There was no significant correlation between mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and HOMA-IR score among the normotensive group was (r = +0.087, p gt; 0.5). There is no statistically significant relationship between mean arterial blood pressure and HOMA derived Insulin resistance in type-2 diabetic patients in this study. Key words: Insulin resistance, blood pressure, type-2 diabetes, Nigerians, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/388D012228 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000139 en Copyright © 2009 A. G. Bakari and G. C. Onyemelukwe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:240DF0B229 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Anthropometric comparison of nasal indices between Andoni and Okrika tribes of Rivers State, Nigeria Oladipo, G. S., Eroje M. A. and Fahwehinmi H. B. Short Communication A comparative study on Nasal Index was carried out on subjects from Andoni and Okrika tribes of Rivers State in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Four hundred individuals were randomly selected from each tribe comprising 200 males and 200 females, respectively. The ages of the subjects ranged from 21-30 years. The height of the nose (NH) and the breadth of the nose (NB) were measured for each subject using a sliding caliper and the nasal index calculated. The mean nasal index of the Adonis was 79.83 plusmn; 4.19 and 83.77 plusmn; 1.09 for male and female respectively while that of the Okrikas males and females were 86.23 plusmn;1.72 and 86.46 plusmn; 2.37, respectively. The mean nasal index of the Okrika tribe was 86.38 plusmn; 1.35 and this was significantly higher than the mean nasal index of Andoni tribe (81.86 plusmn; 2.26) plt; 0.05. Thus the Okrikas fall within the Platyrrhine nose type while the Andonis fall within the Mesorrhine nose type. Key words: Nasal indices, platyrrhine, mesorrhine, Okrika, Andoni, Nigeria Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/240DF0B229 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000019 en Copyright © 2009 Oladipo, G. S., Eroje M. A. and Fahwehinmi H. B.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:2850FA1230 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Performance of syphilis serology in students of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria Eyaufe, A. A., Osagie, R. N., Isibor, J. O., Okwu, G. I., Oriakhi, R. E. and Turay, A. A. Short Communication 5 ml of venous blood was aseptically collected from 112 consenting, apparently healthy students of Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma, Nigeria. The enrollees were 62 males and 50 females (age range, 15 ndash; 44 years). The Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) and Immunochromatographic tests (Spodex Diagnostic Company) were used to screen and confirm the presence of syphilitic antibodies in their serum and plasma. Out of the 112 samples, the males had a higher rate of seropositivity (17.74%) than the females (12.0%). The age groups that were mostly affected were 21 ndash; 26 years (21.4%), followed by 27 ndash; 32 years (18.2%) and 15 ndash; 20 years (15.8%). Although the advent of HIV infection has relegated other sexually transmitted diseases to the back ground, results from this study show that syphilis is still prevalent in our community with an overall seropositivity of 15.20%. Key words: Syphilis, serology, students, Ekpoma, Nigeria Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/2850FA1230 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000171 en Copyright © 2009 Eyaufe, A. A., Osagie, R. N., Isibor, J. O., Okwu, G. I., Oriakhi, R. E. and Turay, A. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:6C11D79225 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
The influence of mode of delivery on the levels of high-sensitivity C - reactive protein determined in umbilical cord blood Ayem Kaya, Guuml;ner Karatekin, Il Uzunhasan and Sami Hatpolu Full Length Research Paper Data suggest that the fetus responds to chronic hypoxia by higher umbilical cord blood high-sensitive CRP concentrations. In order to evaluate the effects of acute hypoxia on fetus, cord blood high-sensitive CRP concentrations according to the delivery mode were compared. High-sensitive CRP concentration was measured by an immunonephelometric method in umbilical cord blood samples from 45 newborns born by different delivery modes (15 newborns by vaginal delivery, 15 newborns by elective cesarean section and 15 newborns by emergency section delivery due to acute hypoxia). No significant differences in high-sensitive CRP concentrations were documented between the three groups of newborns. However, a moderate negative correlation was determined between cord blood pH, pO2, and hs-CRP concentrations (plt;0.05). In conclusion, the mode of delivery reflecting acute hypoxia did not influence cord blood high-sensitive CRP levels in newborns. Key words: Inflammation, CRP, mode of delivery Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/6C11D79225 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000240 en Copyright © 2009 Ayem Kaya, Guuml;ner Karatekin, Il Uzunhasan and Sami Hatpolu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:EC8F012231 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Influenza virus A (H1N1) Dr. John Ibekwe Editorial Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/EC8F012231 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000138 en Copyright © 2009 Dr. John Ibekwe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:005E814233 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Recommended approach of the obese Greek military personnel Elias E. Mazokopakis, Christos M. Karefilakis and Ioannis K. Starakis Perspective The worldwide ldquo;escalating epidemicrdquo; of obesity merits a high priority for preventive strategies in the Greek Armed Forces. In this report a brief realistic approach of the overweight Greek military personnel based on new developments is presented. Key words: Obesity, military personnel, Greek Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/005E814233 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000201 en Copyright © 2009 Elias E. Mazokopakis, Christos M. Karefilakis and Ioannis K. Starakis
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:6A96781379 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Implications of I/ D (rs4340) polymorphism in CAD among South Indian population Kaiser Jamil, Rabbani Syed, and Hygriv Rao Full Length Research Paper Genetic factors are important in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The I/D polymorphism in the Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene is a genetic risk factor for CAD patients who have a history of Myocardial Infraction (MI). We investigated the association between I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene and the presence of CAD in one hundred patients (79 males and 21 females, aged between 21- 82) who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography and compared with one hundred patients-as controls (62 males and 38 females, aged between 20- 72) who had false symptoms of CAD. The presence of risk factors including age, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, tobacco use, diabetes mellitus and hyperuricemia was also determined. ACE I/D polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction. The D allele frequency was higher (p lt;0-01) in CAD patients. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the D allele in association with classical risk factors had the potential to induce CAD, with odds ratio = 0.58(95% CI; 0.37-0.90). This study revealed that, the I/D polymorphism of ACE gene (carrying D allele) was found to be an independent risk factor for CAD in the studied South Indian population. The number of risk factors did not alter the frequency of ACE gene genotype among patients with CAD, however, in normotensives, the odds ratio of DD-genotype was significantly higher, as the D allele of ACE gene polymorphism was found to be associated with morbidity in CAD in this study population. Key words: ACE gene polymorphism, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, risk factors. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/6A96781379 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000133 en Copyright © 2009 Kaiser Jamil, Rabbani Syed, and Hygriv Rao
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:8CDCAF8381 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Biochemical markers of bone metabolism after a 3-mo Zizyphus spina-christi supplementation on postmenopausal women with osteoporosis Hala M. Hussein, Adawy A. H., Haggag M. H. and EL-Shobaki F. A. Full Length Research Paper The use of dietary phyto-oestrogens as a possible option for the prevention of osteoporosis has raised considerable interest because of the increased concern about the risks associated with the use of hormone-replacement therapy. However, the evidence in support of a bone-sparing effect in post-menopausal women is still not sufficiently convincing. Most studies have been performed on soyabean isoflavones (genistein and daidzein). The purpose of this study is to evaluate Zizyphus spina-christi extract and compare to rutin in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. This study was done on 46 patients suffering from osteoporosis. Patients were classified into three groups: Gp 1: patients were given orange juice in addition to calcium (1000 mg daily) and vitamin D (0.25 g daily), Gp 2: patients were given orange juice fortified with rutin, a synthetic isoflavone (180 mg/d), in addition to a daily dose of Ca and vitamin D3 as in group 1, Gp 3: patients were given orange juice fortified with Z. spina-christi extract (50 mg/d), in addition to a daily dose of Ca and vitamin D3 as in group 1. These regimens continued for a period of 3 months and followed up weekly. The serum levels of calcium, osteocalcin (OC), urinary deoxypyridinoline (U-Dpd) and urinary creatinine were estimated for all patients before and after the intervention. There were a significant increase (plt; 0.05) in the level of serum OC and a significant decrease (plt; 0. 01) of U-Dpd of postmenopausal women in groups (2, 3) after three months follow-up. There was a highly significant positive correlation (plt; 0.05) between serum OC and U-Dpd in postmenopausal women before intervention trials. The Ca/Cr ratio (plt; 0.01) was significantly decreased in postmenopausal women after given rutin or ZSC extract, but the decrease in case of ZSC extract was higher relative to rutin. No significant change in the level of serum calcium was noticed as for the three routes of intervention. It was concluded that Z. spina-christi extract is a novel functional food ingredients which suggests that this product could potentially be used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis that may occur among women after menopause. Also, it is a more potent alternative with less oestrogen-related side effects for hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal osteoporosis, Key words: Rutin, Zizyphus spina-christi, bone markers, vitamin D, calcium, osteoporosis and postmenopausal women. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/8CDCAF8381 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000043 en Copyright © 2009 Hala M. Hussein, Adawy A. H., Haggag M. H. and EL-Shobaki F. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:A3748DC385 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Causes and renal morphological changes in chronic renal failure: a retrospective study of 50 autopsy cases Martin A Nzegwu, J.U. Aligbe and Femi Ogunbiyi Full Length Research Paper The paper aims to determine the age and sex distribution of patients with end stage renal disease in Benin City, Nigeria, to study renal changes in chronic renal failure and determine where possible the causal/associated aetiopathologic agents in relation to chronic renal failure, and to compare results with those of similar studies done in other parts of the country. Complete autopsy was carried out on bodies of 50 patients who died of chronic renal failure at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City, after securing informed consent from the relatives. The kidneys were measured, weighed and described. In addition tissue samples were taken for histology using haematoxylin and eosin stain and the slides were subsequently read. Periodic acid Schiff and Massonrsquo;s Trichrome stains were applied to kidneys to address unresolved cases. All cases of acute renal failure due to shock were excluded from the study. As an inclusive criterion all cases used for the study were confirmed chronic renal failure patients who had been on dialysis for at least a period of 6 months and they all had a renal biopsy with histological confirmation of the type of renal lesions involved. Ethical approval was sought and granted by relevant authorities in UBTH before the study commenced in 2004. Twenty nine of the patients (58%) are males, 21 (42%) are females, with a male to female ratio of 1.38:1. The largest concentration of chronic renal failure (CRF) related deaths occurred in the 30-39 years 18 (36%), with the age range varying from 8 years in a male child who died of Good Pastures syndrome, to a 65 year old woman dying of chronic hypertensive renal disease. The average age of patients dying CRF is 43.9 years SD 6.6. Adult polycystic kidney disease is responsible for 2 deaths (4%), Systemic lupus erythematosus one death (2%). Chronic glomerulonephritis is responsible for 21 deaths (42%), the most significant cause of both end stage kidney disease and CRF. Diabetic nephropathy is responsible for 7 deaths (14%); hypertension is responsible for 15 cases (30%). Chronic renal failure related deaths in Benin City have a slight male preponderance of 1.38:1, and occurred in the average age group of 43.9 years SD 6.6. The commonest causes here include chronic glomerulonephritis accounting for 42%; hypertension, 30% and Diabetic Mellitus, 14% of cases. Key words: Chronic renal failure, changes, autopsy, retrospective study. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/A3748DC385 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000051 en Copyright © 2009 Martin A Nzegwu, J.U. Aligbe and Femi Ogunbiyi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:712357C386 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Frequency of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections and its association with development of factor VIII inhibitor in hemophiliacs in Hamadan Province of Iran Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh, Mehdi Rezazadeh, Mitra Ranjbar, Kianoush Donboli, Farahnaz Fallahian, Mehrdad Hadjilooi, Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Mohammad Abbasi and Seyed Moayed Alavian Full Length Research Paper The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of hepatitis B and C infections; to analyze the markers of inflammation and liver function tests; and to assess the possible association between factor VIII inhibitor and hepatitis C and/or hepatitis B infections in hemophiliacs of Hamadan province of Iran. Subjects with confirmed diagnosis of hemophilia who agreed to participate were recruited in this case-series study. Hepatitis B and C serology, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and factor VIII levels, and factor VIII inhibitor titer were analyzed. Frequency of anti hepatitis C antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were 59.1 and 5%, respectively. Factor VIII inhibitor was present in 47.8% of hemophilia A group, and its presence was neither associated with hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections nor with AST, ALT levels. Studentrsquo;s t-test showed a significant statistical association between duration of hemophilia and development of factor VIII inhibitor (p value =0.038). Frequency of hepatitis B and C infections in hemophiliacs is significant. There was a significant association between duration of hemophilia and hepatitis C infection (p value lt;0.011). One suggestion is that current blood product screening methods for eliminating blood-borne viruses might not be effective enough. Further investigation is recommended. Key words: Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hemophilia, Iran. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/712357C386 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000112 en Copyright © 2009 Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh, Mehdi Rezazadeh, Mitra Ranjbar, Kianoush Donboli, Farahnaz Fallahian, Mehrdad Hadjilooi, Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Mohammad Abbasi and Seyed Moayed Alavian
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:F72047A388 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Prolonged administration of high doses of copper nicotinate to rats: Effect on biochemical and cellular constituents of blood and on copper level in serum, liver and muscle Attia H. Atta, Salah Fathy, Gohar, M. , Reem Jan, Gihan Kamel, Samar M. Mouneir and Soad M. Nasr Full Length Research Paper The effect of prolonged administration of high doses of copper nicotinate on biochemical and cellular constituents of blood and on copper level in serum, liver and muscle was studied in rats. Oral administration of copper nicotinate at doses of 0.8 or 4.0 mg/kg body weight (b. wt.) for 6 weeks did not affect GOT, creatinine or cholesterol in serum of rats. When given at 4.0 mg/kg b. wt. for 8 weeks copper nicotinate significantly (P lt;0.05) increased GOT, GPT, urea, creatinine and cholesterol in serum of rats. Minimal hematological changes were observed particularly when copper nicotinate was given at the high dose for 8 weeks. After administration of copper nicotinate at a dose of 0.8 and 4.0 mg/kg b. wt. copper level increased in the serum. The concentration of copper in liver and muscle tissue initially increased through the first 2 weeks, but its level decreased within the next 2 weeks and remained almost at this level up to the 10th week. The present data indicate the safety of copper nicotinate complex when given at a high dose for 6-8 weeks. This was also confirmed by the high LD50 in mice (1104.17 and 128.33 mg/kg b. wt. after oral and intraperitoneal route respectively. Key words: Copper nicotinate, copper complex, copper high doses, copper concentration, serum biochemical changes, hematological changes. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/F72047A388 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000191 en Copyright © 2009 Attia H. Atta, Salah Fathy, Gohar, M. , Reem Jan, Gihan Kamel, Samar M. Mouneir and Soad M. Nasr
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:9BB5413390 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Antimicrobial compounds from marine halophytes for silkworm disease treatment S. Ravi Kumar, G. Ramanathan, M. Subhakaran and S. Jacob Inbaneson Full Length Research Paper Forty-five crude methanolic extracts from 23 marine halophytes were screened against five bacterial and two fungal saprophytic pathogens of diseased silkworm Bombyx mori. Amongthirty-four mangrove samples screened for antibacterial activity, the leaf extract of Rhizophora mucronata showed maximum inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus (20 mm dia.). The seaweed species of Padina tetrostomatica showed maximum inhibitory activity againstProteus vulgaris (11 mm dia) and the seagrass species of Syringodium isoetifolium showed maximum inhibition against P. vulgaris (9 mm dia). The solar saltern cyanobacteriumPhormidium fragile exhibits higher inhibitory activity against P. vulgaris (17 mm dia). The growth of fungal pathogens of Aspergillus niger was highly inhibited by S. isoetifolium (15 mm dia) and Padina tetrostomatica (13 mm dia) respectively compared with the other extracts. It is also noted that 16x concentration of the leaf extract of R. mucronata and S. isoetifoliumshowed complete reduction in the bacterial and fungal viable counts within 3 h of exposure. Key words: Mangroves, Bombyx mori, seaweed, sea grass, time kill assay herbal disinfectants, cyanobacteria. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/9BB5413390 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000031 en Copyright © 2009 S. Ravi Kumar, G. Ramanathan, M. Subhakaran and S. Jacob Inbaneson
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:31D6505392 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Ethnomedicinal studies on some pteridophytes of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa, India S. D. Rout, T. Panda and N. Mishra Full Length Research Paper Investigations had been made on medicinal values of higher plants but pteridophytes are often ignored. In spite of the luxuriant growth of these plants in and around Similipal in Mayurbhanj district of Orissa, northern India, they had not been studied taxonomically or ethnobotanically. The dominant tribes involved in using pteridophyte as medicines in the district are Santhal,Kol, Bhumija, Bhuyan, Mahalis, Sounti and Saharas. The plant parts, viz. leaves, roots, rhizomes and fronds were used in raw or cooked forms for the treatment of malaria, gonorrhea, leprosy, rheumatism etc. Mostly used genera are Adiantum, Asplenium, Lygodiumand Pteris .The present study had been designed to assess the medicinal uses of 33 pteridophyte species belonging to 21 families on the basis of field surveys and taxonomic identification of plants. Key words: Ethnomedicinal, pteridophytes, similipal biosphere reserve, Orissa. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/31D6505392 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000099 en Copyright © 2009 S. D. Rout, T. Panda and N. Mishra
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:6C830AB394 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Feasibility of a nested PCR for the diagnosis of vaginal trichomoniasis: Study in Al-Madinah Al-Munwarrha, Saudi Arabia Fawzia A. Habib, Amany A. El-Aal, Nabeil S Yamany, Ahmed M. mohamadein, Omima Hamed, Ahmed Bahashwan, Nabeil Shehata and Lamia A. El-Hosseiny Full Length Research Paper In the present study, three vaginal swabs were collected from 1469 females clinically suspected of having Trichomonas vaginalis (T. v) infection. All samples were screened by both wet mount and Diamond#39;s culture media that was considered as the golden standard in this study. T. vaginalis gene detection by nested PCR using 4 primers targeting the Tv-E650 gene was performed on the preserved vaginal uncultivated samples corresponding to the culture positive vaginal specimens plus 30 randomly selected samples equaled to those obtained negative culture results. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection among our patients was calculated according to the results of the golden standard culture method to be 1.43% (21 out of 1469). Wet preparation was positive for only 13 samples and missed 8 samples. PCR diagnosed 20 samples and missed one specimen that became positive after 4 days of cultivation. In this study, PCR for trichomonads does not appear to offer a diagnosticadvantage and its sensitivity did not exceed that of culture. Successful culture of T. vaginalisrequires only the multiplication of a single or63ganism, the same as that needed for PCR. Therefore, the present work is highly recommending the use of Diamond#39;s culture in the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in women. Key words: Trichomonas vaginalis, nested PCR, wet mount, diamond#39;s culture, vaginal swabs, Saudi Arabia, Al-Madina Al-Munawarah. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/6C830AB394 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000111 en Copyright © 2009 Fawzia A. Habib, Amany A. El-Aal, Nabeil S Yamany, Ahmed M. mohamadein, Omima Hamed, Ahmed Bahashwan, Nabeil Shehata and Lamia A. El-Hosseiny
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:FE7588E396 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Evaluation of the association of NOD2/CARD15 gene polymorphisms with clinical course of Turkish Crohn’s disease patients Fatih Tekin, Afig Berdeli, Omer Ozutemiz, Ahmet Aydin, Ahmet Musoglu, Necla Osmanoglu and Tankut Ilter Full Length Research Paper NOD2/CARD15 gene variants may be associated with distinct phenotypic expressions of Crohnrsquo;s disease, however, this association may change according to the ethnic and regional variation. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of NOD2/CARD15 gene mutations on disease phenotype in Turkish Crohnrsquo;s disease patients. Fourty-five Crohnrsquo;s disease patients (32 males, 13 females) with a mean age of 38,7 plusmn; 12,1 (range: 19-78) were enrolled into this prospective study. The three major polymorphisms (R702W, G908R, 3020insC) on NOD2/CARD15 gene were studied from the peripheral blood genomic DNA. R702W and G908R mutations were studied by PCR-RFLP method, and 3020insC mutation was studied by DNA sequencing. No homozygous mutation was detected. Heterozygous R702W, G908R, and 3020insC mutations were detected in 4, 3, and 4 patients, respectively. The frequency of R702W, G908R, and 3020insC mutations was found to be 4.4, 3.3, and 4.4%, respectively. The overall mutation frequency was found to be 12.2%. There was no statistically difference between the clinical course of the patients with (n = 11) and without (n = 34) mutations (pgt;0.05). NOD2/CARD15 gene polymorphisms do not have impact on disease phenotype in Turkish Crohnrsquo;s disease patients. Key words: NOD2/CARD15 gene, Crohnrsquo;s disease, phenotype. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/FE7588E396 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000106 en Copyright © 2009 Fatih Tekin, Afig Berdeli, Omer Ozutemiz, Ahmet Aydin, Ahmet Musoglu, Necla Osmanoglu and Tankut Ilter
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:0B33898398 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Evaluation of immunohistochemistry with a panel of antibodies against recombinant mycobacterial antigens for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis S. Sumi and V. V. Radhakrishnan Full Length Research Paper Diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis can be an enigma owing to its varied clinical manifestation and also due to the low sensitivity of conventional bacteriological methods to confirm the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present study was precisely designed to evaluate the potential diagnostic application of immunohistochemistry using a panel of antibodies against mycobacterial antigens for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Immunohistochemistry was performed on the formalin-fixed paraffin sections of lymph node biopsies using rabbit polyclonal antibodies against four recombinant mycobacterial proteins, that is, ESAT-6, HspX, Tb8.4 and PlcA. The results of immunohistochemistry were correlated with Zeihl-Neelsen staining method. Immunohistochemistry using anti-ESAT-6 antibody was found to be highly sensitive (88.6%). Anti-ESAT-6 and anti-PlcA antibodies were found to be highly specific. Results of the study suggest that immunohistochemistry using anti-ESAT-6 antibody has potential application for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis, in patients in whom conventional diagnostic methods did not confirm the presence of acid-fast bacilli. Key words: Immunohistochemistry, tuberculous lymphadenitis, recombinant mycobacterial antigens. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/0B33898398 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000103 en Copyright © 2009 S. Sumi and V. V. Radhakrishnan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:98AD755399 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Cerebral malaria among children from central Sudan and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mutation Mohammed S. Zaroog, Ahmed El Tahir, Adil Mergani, El Fatih Hashim, Mohamed Gumma, Bella Awadelseed, Ali Babkier Haboor and Nase El Din M. A. Elwali Full Length Research Paper The study was carried out to investigate the distribution of cerebral malaria in central region and to identify ICAM-1 alleles and genotypes frequency in Sudanese population in the region. Fifty children with cerebral malaria and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls with no history of cerebral malaria were enrolled in the study. The highest incidence of cerebral malaria was found between the ages of 4 ndash; 8 years. From 10 different tribal stocks, 28% of incidents belong to the Johayna tribe in the western region of central Sudan. The incidence of cerebral malaria in this study is influenced by geographical, age, and ethnic factors with no gender variation. From this study four (8%) of study subjects died, 4 (8%) survived with neurological sequel and 42 (84%) were discharged alive and healthy after treatment regimen. The use of allele specific PCR (ASP) for genetic analysis in this study, indicated incidence of the heterozygous form (K29/M29) is 26% in cerebral malaria patients and 12% in the control group, while only one (2%) mutant homozygous (M29/M29) was detected in cerebral malaria patients group. All subjects who carried mutant allele (heterozygous and homozygous mutant) had 3 times susceptibility to cerebral malaria than the other group (P-value= 0.038, Odd Ratio = 2.5; 95% CI 1.011 - 6.181). The incidence of ICAM-1kilifi allele frequency in the study group was 11%, and this may increase the risk for susceptibility to cerebral malaria in Sudanese children inhabiting these regions. Key words: ICAM-1, cerebral malaria, children, central Sudan. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/98AD755399 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000053 en Copyright © 2009 Mohammed S. Zaroog, Ahmed El Tahir, Adil Mergani, El Fatih Hashim, Mohamed Gumma, Bella Awadelseed, Ali Babkier Haboor and Nase El Din M. A. Elwali
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:8BC7A14401 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Plasma lipids in Helicobacter pylori infected pregnant women Emmanuel Ike Ugwuja and Nicholas C. Ugwu Short Communication Dyslipidaemia is a common feature of pregnancy and Helicobacter pylori infection respectively. We hypothesised that pregnant women infected with H. pylori may have increased disorder in lipid metabolism than non-infected pregnant women and thus estimated the plasma lipids in pregnant women with H. pylori infection. Forty (40) pregnant women (GA ge; 11 weeks) attending ANC of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Federal Medical Centre, Abakaliki, Nigeria and found to be H. pylori positive by a serological test and 40 age- and socioeconomically matched H. pylori seronegative pregnant women who served as controls participated in this study. Fasting plasma lipids were determined by standard colorimetric methods. H. pylori infected pregnant women had significantly (p lt; 0.05) higher BMI than their non-infected counterparts. Although the total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol were higher in H. pylori infected than non-infected pregnant women, only LDL-cholesterol was statistically significant (3.38 plusmn; 1.52 vs. 2.34 plusmn; 1.19, p = 0.001). On the other hand, HDL-cholesterol was lower in the H. pylori infected than non-infected pregnant women (0.68 plusmn; 0.23 vs. 0.81 plusmn; 0.49, p gt; 0.05). H. pylori infected than non-infected pregnant women exhibit greater disordered lipid metabolism that may be predisposing to increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Further studies using larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. Key words: Helicobacter pylori, dyslipidaemia, pregnant women, coronary heart disease. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/8BC7A14401 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000174 en Copyright © 2009 Emmanuel Ike Ugwuja and Nicholas C. Ugwu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:604B06F402 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Platelets: Indicator of inflammation in COPD Gulfidan Cakmak, Zuhal Aydan Saglam, Tayyibe Saler, Mustafa Yenigun, Esra Ataoglu, Levent Umit Temiz and Tuncalp Demir Short Communication COPD is a disease presenting with pulmonary inflammation as well as a systemic one. The present study was conducted to see if platelet count may be accepted as an indicator of systemic inflammation other than erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). 964 smoker patients without any concomitant disease were divided into groups as COPD and non-COPD according to spirometric values. Physical examination, posteroanterior chest x-rays and blood samples were determined. Patients with COPD had higher ESR, CRP levels and platelet count than the group without COPD. According to spirometric parameters, as the severity of the disease increased, platelet counts also revealed a statistically significant increase. We conclude that the increase in the number of platelets may be an indicator of severity of the disease and sytemic inflammation in patients with COPD. Key words: Platelet, inflammation, COPD. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/604B06F402 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000175 en Copyright © 2009 Gulfidan Cakmak, Zuhal Aydan Saglam, Tayyibe Saler, Mustafa Yenigun, Esra Ataoglu, Levent Umit Temiz and Tuncalp Demir
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:9E670E3403 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Relationship between homocystein blood level and multiple sclerosis Seyed Ali Masoud and Esmail Neurosurjery Fakharian Short Communication Multiple sclerosis which is identified by the triad of inflammation, demyelination, and gliosis, is a chronic disease beginning early in adulthood. It is a disease of time and place, meaning involves different locations in different time intervals, and results in a variability of symptoms and signs including visual complains, motor weakness, and cerebellar problems. Although the main cause of the disease is unknown, however, induced autoimmune responses, particularly in a compromised genetic background, to some environmental factors are well known causes for it. The effect of serum homocystein on this disease is the focus of many recent studies. In this study we have assessed serum homocystein level in normal and patients with multiple sclerosis in Kashan in 2007. This case controlled study has carried on 26 cases of multiple sclerosis (MS) and 26 normal cases referred to Neurology Clinics in Kashan. After obtaining informed consent form from the enrolled cases, data including age, sex, history of hypertension, cardiac or cerebral vascular attacks, TIA, and Parkinson were recorded and matched in the groups. Two cubic centimeters (cc) of venous blood obtained from each person and sent for measurement of serum homocystein with HP_LC method. The obtained data were analyzed with T test, Chi Square test, and Odds Ratio. In each group there were 21(81%) female and 5 (19%) males. The age range of 20 to 29 with 10 cases (38%) was commonest category in both groups. Mean homocystein level in MS group was 9.22 plusmn; 3.58 mu;m/dl and in normal group was 6.93 plusmn; 6.03 mu;m/dl. It was 8.07 plusmn; 5.04 mu;m/dl for all of the cases. There is a significant difference between seum level of case group with that of normals (P lt; 0.05). The highest level of homocystein was 33 mu;m/dl in a normal 30 year old female and the least amount was zero in a diseased 39 year old female. Mean age for case group was 34.73 plusmn; 8.46 and 34.53 plusmn; 7.51 in controls. It was 34.62 plusmn; 7.93 for the whole cases. There was no significant difference in age between the groups (P gt; 0.005). Higher levels of homocystein in patients with MS in comparison with their normal counterparts may be a clue to a relationship useful in control of the disease progress or flare ups. Key words: Homocystein, multiple sclerosis. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/9E670E3403 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000204 en Copyright © 2009 Seyed Ali Masoud and Esmail Neurosurjery Fakharian
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:A1EC477405 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Could we reduce the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in Otitis externa Hasanin Al Chalabi, Peter Walshe and C. Timon Short Communication The incidence of MRSA is once again on the agenda for the hospital management. This strain of micro organism presents a challenge for ENT doctors worldwide. Despite many strict measures taken all over the world, the figures appear to be rising; there has been a steady increase in the number of cases of nosocomial MRSA infections. We examined all external ear swabs samples taken from patients complaining of Otitis externa clinically, in the Royal Victoria Eye and Ear Hospital from 1st January, 2004 to 12th December, 2004. We analysed the results of the compared MRSA O. externa to previous study conducted 8 years ago in the same hospital. Key words: Otitis externa, MRSA in Otitis externa, external ear infections. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/A1EC477405 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000065 en Copyright © 2009 Hasanin Al Chalabi, Peter Walshe and C. Timon
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:D69EAC2407 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Serum malondialdehyde, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in patients infected with Entamoeba coli Ulku Karaman, Tugba Raika Kiran, Cemil Colak, Meryem Iraz, Tuncay Celik and Aysun Bay Karabulut, Short Communication While Entamoeba histolytica is a major human pathogen, other species like Entamoeba coliare not known to be pathogenic. Thus, there have been studies investigating the possible pathogenic nature of E. coli. The aim of this study is to evaluate the serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in E. coli-infected patients. The study was conducted between January 2005 and December 2007. In this study the sera of 35 patients with E. coli infection and 40 healthy people in the control group were analyzed for MDA, NO and GSH levels. The mean values for the cases were 1.37 +/- 0.03mmol/L for GSH, 42.38 +/- 2.96 nmol/L for MDA and 44.71 +/- 1.12 mmol/dl for NO. For the control group, the mean values were 2.49 +/- 0.10 for GSH, 19.47 +/- 2.25 nmol/L for MDA, and 17.83 +/- 0.50 mmol/dl for NO. A statistically significant difference existed between the cases control groups. In the present study, significant increases were detected in the serum levels of MDA and NO while there was a significant decrease in the serum levels of, GSH. It is concluded that the E. coli infection was associated with significant oxidative stress. Key words: Entamoeba coli, Oxidative stress, Malondiadehyde, Glutathone and Nitric Oxide Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/D69EAC2407 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000217 en Copyright © 2009 Ulku Karaman, Tugba Raika Kiran, Cemil Colak, Meryem Iraz, Tuncay Celik and Aysun Bay Karabulut,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:50C7D67408 2009-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
A faster and safer staining technique for acid fast bacilli in resource-poor setting Darsquo;si Kemgni Raoul, Ogboi Sonny Johnbull and Idoko John Short Communication The traditional Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) method used for the staining of acid fast bacilli contains phenol and because of the hazardous nature and inherent danger of phenol, this study was carried out to develop a faster and safer method in our environment that will exclude toxic phenol from the staining solution. ldquo;Morning freshrdquo;, a commercial liquid dish washing solution with super grease cutting power and citrus extract distributed by PZ Industry PLC, Nigeria was substituted for phenol in preparing carbol fuchsin. This study was carried out between September 2006 ndash; May 2007 at the Public Health Laboratory, Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University and Histopathology Department, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Departmental slides known to contain acid fast bacilli were stained in duplicates using both the traditional carbol fuchsin and the staining solution containing ldquo;Morning freshrdquo; following the standard procedures. The modified and the traditional ZN stained red for acid fast bacilli, nuclei, cytoplasm and cytoplasmic element stained blue on a clear background. The results were compared with departmental control slides for acid fast bacilli stained by traditional ZN method. The liquid dish washing solution ldquo;Morning freshrdquo; with super grease cutting power and citrus extract was found to be very efficient because of its affinity for lipids, its ease to handle and safety when compared to phenol. This study method stains acid fast bacilli more efficiently than the traditional carbol fuchsin method using phenol and it is also cheaper and readily available for use in our environment, and in the light of this finding, this may be a more suitable alternative in the detection of acid fast bacilli especially in resource poor and constrained countries where mycobacterial infections are a major public health problem. Key words: Tuberculosis, Morning fresh, PZ, traditional ZN stain, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/50C7D67408 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000005 en Copyright © 2009 Darsquo;si Kemgni Raoul, Ogboi Sonny Johnbull and Idoko John
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:16348E6234 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Microscopic thymoma accompanying simple thymic hyperplasia Elif U. Akyildiz, Hale Demir, Ahmet Demirkaya, Canan Akman, Buge Oz and Nil U. Comunoglu Case Report Thymic pathologies such as lymphoid follicular hyperplasia or thymoma are seen in 75% of myasthenia gravis subjects. Microscopic thymoma is a lesion that is seen in 15% of myasthenia gravis patients. The World Health Organization defines microscopic thymoma as a ldquo; usually multifocal epithelial proliferation lt;1 mm in diameterrdquo;. Microthymoma, in other words microscopic-sized thymoma, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of microscopic timoma. We present the case of a 28-year-old male patient followed-up for myasthenia gravis and diagnosed with ldquo;microscopic thymomardquo; following thymectomy. Key words: Thymus, microscopic thymoma, thymoma, myasthenia gravis. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/16348E6234 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000154 en Copyright © 2009 Elif U. Akyildiz, Hale Demir, Ahmet Demirkaya, Canan Akman, Buge Oz and Nil U. Comunoglu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:A1FD564235 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia and cerebral lymphoplasmocytic proliferation: Bing-Neel syndrome Tazi, I. Case Report Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/A1FD564235 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000255 en Copyright © 2009 Tazi, I.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:2BF8A73236 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
A rare phenomenon: Purple urine bag syndrome in a chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patient Tazi, I. Case Report Key words: Purple urine bag syndrome, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, Proteus mirabilis. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/2BF8A73236 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000006 en Copyright © 2009 Tazi, I.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:F60DECA237 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Lasthenie de Ferjol syndrome in child: Is it possible? Tazi, I. Case Report Key words: Hypochromic anemia, Lasthenie de Ferjol, psychotherapy. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/F60DECA237 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000147 en Copyright © 2009 Tazi, I.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:332FA0B238 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Unilateral cerebellar calcification with surrounding gliotic changes in a child Amit Agrawal, Rafael Cincu and Brij R Singh Case Report Key words: Cerebellar calaification, gliotic, consciousness. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/332FA0B238 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000250 en Copyright © 2009 Amit Agrawal, Rafael Cincu and Brij R Singh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:49CB9CB419 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Biofilm formation by Mycoplasma fermentans on intrauterine devices Antonio Rivera, Lilia Cedillo, Silvia Giono and Nadia Rodriguez Full Length Research Paper Microbial biofilm are communities of sessile microorganisms formed by cells that are attached irreversibly to a substratum or interface or to each other and embedded in hydrated matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Bacterial biofilm formation on intrauterine devices is a very important event in the pathogenesis and evolution of infections associated with the use of these medical devices. Mycoplasmas are typical surface parasites colonizing the mucous membranes of animals and man. Efficient adherence mechanisms are therefore a prerequisite for survival and, in some species, for pathogenicity. The purpose of this study was to examine biofilm formation by Mycoplasma fermentans on intrauterine devices. Intrauterine devices were placed in M. fermentans cultures during 72 h. Mycoplasmas were analyzed for biofilm formation and cell counts compared for both biofilm and planktonic cells. The examination was carried with stereoscopic and scanning electron microscope. Crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopic analysis of intrauterine devices indicated that M. fermentans formed a biofilm. This study might allow for clearer understanding of the rate of biofilm formation and the importance of different materials, contaminating organisms, and treatments which could control the process. Key words: Adherence, biofilm, Mycoplasma fermentans, intrauterine devices. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/49CB9CB419 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000046 en Copyright © 2009 Antonio Rivera, Lilia Cedillo, Silvia Giono and Nadia Rodriguez
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:EBB78A9415 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Cysteamine in 3- nitropropionic acid model of Huntington’s disease in rats: Modulation of mitochondrial function and amino acid pattern Hanan M. Abd El Gawad, Hanan S. El-Abhar and Nadia M. S. Arafa Full Length Research Paper Huntington disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by selective atrophy and cell loss within the striatum. 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a mitochondrial toxin that induces experimental HD-like disorders. Currently, although there is no treatment that can prevent the striatal neuropathology, cysteamine is considered one of the most promising candidate drugs for HD. Previous studies showed that cysteamine modulates 3-NP-induced HD, via several mechanisms; however, its effect on amino-acids profile and mitochondrial function was not tested before, which is the main aim of the current study. Male Wistar albino rats (200-250 g) were injected subcutaneously by 3-NP (20 mg/ kg/ day for 7 days), to serve as positive control group. Another group received cysteamine intraperitonealy in a building dose from 25 up to 75 mg/kg/day for 7 days, one hour before 3-NP. Normal untreated rats were used as negative control. The striatal biochemical parameters and serum amino acid pattern were assessed one hour after the last 3-NP injection. The mitochondrial toxin resulted in significant decrease in striatal citrate synthase (CS), creatine kinase (CK) and glutathione (GSH) accompanied by a marked increase in nitric oxide (NO) activity/ content. Significant reduction in branched chain amino acids, glycine, alanine, serine, taurine, tyrosine and histidine was also demonstrated in 3-NP- treated rats. Cysteamine administration markedly improved the mitochondrial function as exhibited by restoration of CS activity; however, no effect was noticed on the rest of the striatal biochemical parameters. In addition, some of the amino acids altered by 3-NP were ameliorated by cysteamine. In conclusion, results of the present study explored the importance of amino acid pattern in the pathogenesis of HD and confirmed the neuroprotective efcacy of cysteamine against HD which may be related at least partly, to its inuence on amino acid metabolism and enhancement of mitochondrial function. Key words: Huntington disease, cysteamine, oxidative stress, mitochondria, amino acids. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/EBB78A9415 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000067 en Copyright © 2009 Hanan M. Abd El Gawad, Hanan S. El-Abhar and Nadia M. S. Arafa
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:3AB83E5414 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Maternal serum leptin levels in severe preeclamptic pregnant women in early postpartum stage Safiye Akansu Saylik, smet Alki, Nebahat Bayram, Volkan Tuna, Nilufer Imamoglu and Yavuz Ceylan Full Length Research Paper The aim of this study is to determine early postpartum maternal serum leptin levels in severe preeclamptic pregnant women. This study was planned as a prospective controlled trial. The patient and control groups in the study were composed in the period between January 2003 and January 2004. The study, performed in the Department of Perinatology of SSK Bakirkoy Maternal Hospital and Women and Child Diseases Education Hospital, consists of forty-four singleton pregnant women giving birth after hospitalized with diagnosis of severe preeclampsia and forty-four normotensive singleton pregnant women who were found to have healthy pregnancy on examination and analysis before given birth. The venous blood of all pregnants was taken from the antecubital region in early postpartum period while they were all hungry. We studied the relation between demographic data, biochemical data, baby weight at birth and the serum leptin levels. Comparing the preeclamptic pregnant women with control group in terms of leptin, although leptin levels in severe preeclamptic pregnant women were found to be higher than control group, statistically, no significant difference was determined (p: 0.069). In severe preeclamptic group, baby weight at birth was found to be significantly lower (p: 0.000). Evaluating all pregnant women, it was determined that there has been a positive significant relation between serum leptin levels and diastolic tension (p: 0.044), urea (p: 0.019), creatinine (p:0.000), uric acid (p: 0.000); and a negative significant relation between serum leptin levels and baby weight at birth (p: 0.038). No relation was found between the leptin level and the gender of infants. No significant difference of early postpartum maternal serum leptin levels between severe preeclamptic group and normotensive group was determined. Key words: Preeclampsia, early postpartum stage, serum leptin levels, severe preeclamptic pregnant women. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/3AB83E5414 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000152 en Copyright © 2009 Safiye Akansu Saylik, smet Alki, Nebahat Bayram, Volkan Tuna, Nilufer Imamoglu and Yavuz Ceylan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:CB445DA412 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Parameters of immune and antioxidative systems can be considered as surgical stress markers for gastric cancer patients Milasiene Vida, Surinenaite Birute, Prasmickiene Grazina, Didziapetriene Janina,and Stratilatovas Eugenijus Full Length Research Paper Cytokines, haematological indices, lipid peroxidation product and antioxidative system parameters were investigated for surgically treated and red blood cells transfused stages 3 and 4 gastric cancer patients. Serum of 58 patients was analysed at pre-surgical and post-surgical periods (after 7 and 14 days). TGF-beta1 and TNF-alpha were tested by ELISA. Haematological indices were analyzed by standard methods. Malondialdehyde level and antioxidative system parameters were analysed by specified methods spectrophotometrically. Level of TGF-beta1 increased and lymphocyte index decreased after surgery and the transfusion for both stages cancer patients. Level of malondialdehyde decreased at early post-surgical period for non-transfused both stages cancer patients while the parameter decreased only at late post-surgical period for transfused patients. Total glutathione concentration decreased during post-surgical period only for transfused stage 3 cancer patients. Pearson correlations were determined between cytokine and malondialdehyde levels and between cytokine levels and activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase at early post-surgical period. Decreased lymphocyte count, increased TGF-beta1 level and lower total glutathione concentration after surgery were related to red blood cells transfusion. Malondialdehyde level was not significantly influenced by gastric cancer stage while it was also affected by the transfusion. All altered parameters mentioned showed the additional transfusion-dependant stress to develop surgical stress. The parameters can be considered as possible surgical stress markers. Key words: Cytokines, lipid peroxidation, antioxidative system, surgical treatment, RBC transfusion. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/CB445DA412 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000166 en Copyright © 2009 Milasiene Vida, Surinenaite Birute, Prasmickiene Grazina, Didziapetriene Janina,and Stratilatovas Eugenijus
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:9BA983B410 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Artemisinin resistant malaria on the horizon Dr. John Ibekwe Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/9BA983B410 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000033 en Copyright © 2009 Dr. John Ibekwe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:FDB503B428 2009-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Effect of chlorine dioxide gas of extremely low concentration on absenteeism of schoolchildren Norio Ogata and Takashi Shibata Short Communication Gas-generating devices of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) are used as deodorant of rooms. We happened to use a commercial tabletop deodorant canister that releases extremely low-concentration ClO2 gas in a school classroom as deodorant. We found retrospectively and unexpectedly that during a period of 38 consecutive school days the rate of schoolchildren absent from the school was markedly lower (1.5%) in a classroom where the ClO2 device was placed than that (4.0%) in a classroom where it was not placed. The percentages of absenteeism between these classrooms (1.5% vs. 4.0%) were significantly (p lt; 0.00001) different. The predominant causes of absenteeism during the period were common cold and influenza. Judging from the known virucidal activity of ClO2, our unexpected finding in the school classrooms strongly suggests the usefulness of extremely low-concentration ClO2gas to prevent respiratory viral diseases in semi-closed areas, such as theaters, hospitals and aircraft, without necessitating evacuation. Key words: Chlorine dioxide, absenteeism, schoolchildren, gas, influenza, respiratory infection, virus. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/FDB503B428 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000077 en Copyright © 2009 Norio Ogata and Takashi Shibata
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:0CE0921427 2009-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Preclinical biochemical studies using a novel 5-aminolevulinic acid ester derivative with superior properties for photodynamic therapy of tumors Mohamed El-Far, Mohamed Elshal, Samir Bondock and Manar Refaat Full Length Research Paper We have synthesized a novel 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) ester derivative from reacting ALA with beta;-citronellol and tested its potential for treatment of tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT) in comparison to the widely used agents, ALA and Me-ALA (the methyl ester of ALA). The beta;-citronellol-ALA ester derivative was far superior to ALA in causing complete destruction of solid skin tumors after PDT treatment. Ex vivo PDT treatment of Ehrlich as cites carcinoma (EAC) cells indicated that the novel ester was effective in causing cell death and inhibition of cell growth, while flow cytometry studies revealed G0/G1 cell cycle arrest during the PDT-mediated response. Inoculation of healthy animals with EAC cell preparations extracted from tumor-bearing animals treated with various agents and then subjected to PDT treatment ex vivo revealed that the novel ester derivative was a significantly better agent than either ALA or Me-ALA at preventing or inhibiting growth of tumors in the inoculated animals. The findings suggest that the novel beta;-citronellol-ALA ester derivative offers a promising therapy for the treatment of apoptosis-reluctant tumors such as malignant tumors and may be superior to ALA or Me-ALA in PDT applications. Key words: Cancer, PDT, ALA, beta;-citronellol-ALA ester derivative, flow cytometry, tumor apoptosis, ALA-PDT. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/0CE0921427 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000178 en Copyright © 2009 Mohamed El-Far, Mohamed Elshal, Samir Bondock and Manar Refaat
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:B481EF3426 2009-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Immune-diagnosis of latent toxoplasmosis in childbearing age women in rural areas in EL Geizera State, Sudan Khalil Mohamed , Intisar EL RayahAlia Bilal EL Taib Gumaa, Ali Abdel Magid, Marek Maly and Petr Kodym Full Length Research Paper The current study is aimed to evaluate the prevalence rate of latent toxoplasmosis among childbearing women in rural areas in EL Geizera State. A total of 255 plasma samples were collected from two villages; AL Nuba and EL Massoudia in EL Geizera State, Sudan. and tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using three different screening tests (Latex Agglutination Test LAT,-Enzyme Link Immunosorbent Assay IgG, and Complement Fixation test (CFT) and one standard technique (Indirect Immunofluorescent Test (IIFT). The overall seroprevalence rate in the two villages was found 73.1%, using the standard method (IIFT). The prevalence rate was 60.7% in EL Nuba and 87.3% in EL Massoudia. The seroprevalence rate were found to be 62.3, 73.1, and 72.3% using the other three screening tests LAT, ELISA IgG, and CFT respectively. The prevalence rate was found increasing with age (plt;0.001). Infection rate was higher in EL Massoudia village (plt;0.001). This study indicated that there is a considerable rate of Toxoplasma infection among rural women and supported the concern that rural women in Sudan may be vulnerable to that infection. Key words: Prevalence, toxoplasma, childbearing, Sudan. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/B481EF3426 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000129 en Copyright © 2009 Khalil Mohamed , Intisar EL RayahAlia Bilal EL Taib Gumaa, Ali Abdel Magid, Marek Maly and Petr Kodym
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:C6BF002425 2009-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
The digitization of medical records Dr. John Ibekwe Editorial Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/C6BF002425 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000236 en Copyright © 2009 Dr. John Ibekwe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:F7A3B82439 2009-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Torsade de pointes in a patient with bronchopenumonia and atrial fibrillation treated with clarithromycin Lihua Fang, Chung-Jen Huang, Hwang-Daw Hua and Chung-Hsin Huang Full Length Research Paper Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic widely used in pulmonary infection and Helicobacter pylori eradication. QT prolongation on an electrocardiogram with torsade de pointes is an uncommon fatal side effect. We report a patient with atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure who develops torsade de pointes after clarithromycin, tamoxifen, amoxillin/clavulanate, digoxin and verapamil use, and discuss the pharmacological mechanism and prevention. Key words: Torsade de pointes, clarithromycin, atrial fibrillation, QT interval. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/F7A3B82439 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000247 en Copyright © 2009 Lihua Fang, Chung-Jen Huang, Hwang-Daw Hua and Chung-Hsin Huang
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:D9EC2AC438 2009-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Cerebrospinal fluid characteristics of PCR diagnosed enteroviral meningitis (EVM) in children Jaishen Rajah, Jurgen Sasse, Rula Essam, Tayseer Hassan, Marthinus Pitout Subashnie Devkaran and Afrozul Haq Full Length Research Paper Distinguishing bacterial from viral meningitis helps prevent unnecessary use of antibiotics and decreases the length of stay. The distinction may often be blurred by the typical textbook description of viral meningitis which states that mononuclear cells predominate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The aim of the work is to accurately describe the CSF response in a group of children with enteroviral meningitis proven by the gold standard, polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A cross sectional study was performed at Sheikh Khalifa Medical City (SKMC), Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). We examined retrospectively all children (lt; 12 years as per hospital definition) who tested PCR positive for enterovirus in the CSF from January 2005 to January 2007. 53 patients with mean age (SD) of 74.8 months (37.8) were included. There was a statistically significant dominance in polymorphnuclear cells (PMN) in both the CSF (Chi Square statistic 28.78, P lt; 0.001) and serum, which persisted after 24 h with mononuclear cells and PMN equally represented. A correlation between CSF and serum PMN% was also detected (Pearson#39;s r = 0.447, P=0.001, 95% CI = 0.196 to 0.643). Our peak season was in spring, there was a male predominance and the median (IQR) length of stay was 48 h (48 -72). The majority of children with aseptic meningitis had PMN predominance in both CSF and serum, which is not limited to the first 24 h. This finding differs from most standard textbook descriptions and may have relevance in using PMN counts to distinguish bacterial from viral meningitis. Key words: Enterovirus, viral meningitis, PCR, polymorphnuclear cells, length of stay, children. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/D9EC2AC438 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000054 en Copyright © 2009 Jaishen Rajah, Jurgen Sasse, Rula Essam, Tayseer Hassan, Marthinus Pitout Subashnie Devkaran and Afrozul Haq
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:D74F116437 2009-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS at booking among antenatal clinic attendees in Uyo, Nigeria E. A. Bassey, F. Abasiubong, U. Ekanem and A. M. Abasiatai Full Length Research Paper Sub-saharan Africa bears the major brunt of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic and 10% of these infections are due to vertical or mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in the developed world have resulted in a dramatic decline in pediatric HIV/AIDS. A study of the awareness, knowledge and previous testing for HIV/AIDS among antenatal clinic attendees at the university of Uyo teaching hospital was carried out as a strategy to develop site specific counselling interventions for PMTCT, information was elicited from 263 women who booked for ante-natal care between September and December 2005 with the use of a self administered structured questionnaire. The mean age of the respondents was 26.9 plusmn; 5.1 years, awareness of HIV/AIDS was high (95.8%) and general knowledge was good (86.7%), but with some misconceptions. There was a statistically significant association between knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the educational status of the respondents (P = 0.031) but none with occupation (P = 0.877). 117 women (44.5%) had previously been screened for HIV but there was no statistically significant association between knowledge of HIV/AIDS and previous HIV testing (P = 0.194). To reduce the burden of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS, adequate counselling should be given to all pregnant women. This should contain correct information on the mode of transmission of the virus, benefits of antiretroviral prophylaxis, other non drug interventions and proper infant feeding. Key words: Awareness, knowledge, antenatal, HIV/AIDS, Uyo. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/D74F116437 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000040 en Copyright © 2009 E. A. Bassey, F. Abasiubong, U. Ekanem and A. M. Abasiatai
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:FEC4954436 2009-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Study of periodic breathing and human respiratory system Vipin Kumar Verma, V. K. Katiyar and M. P. Singh Full Length Research Paper A theoretical study of respiratory stability, based on a simple CO2 and O2 model of the respiratory system has been investigated. A model of the human respiratory system is proposed which has a satisfactory performance under different physiological conditions. It is shown that the central component is not involved in respiratory instability phenomena such as periodic breathing whereas the peripheral component plays a major role. Key words: Respiratory, CO2 and O2 model, instability. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/FEC4954436 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000228 en Copyright © 2009 Vipin Kumar Verma, V. K. Katiyar and M. P. Singh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:FF38CBC435 2009-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Prevalence and determinants of unmet need for family planning in Nnewi, South-east Nigeria Anthony, O. Igwegbe, Joseph, O. Ugboaja and Emmanuel, N. Monago Full Length Research Paper The unmeet need for family planning is a very useful tool in measuring and predicting the contraceptive needs of a population. A descriptive cross sectional study of 356 women attending the antenatal clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria, was carried out to determine the level of unmeet need and its determinants. Three hundred and forty (95.5%) of the respondents had knowledge about family planning, while 260 (73.3%) had ever used a modern method. There is a significant lag between the knowledge and use of the common methods of family planning. Ninety eight out of 356 pregnancies (27.5%) were unintended. Seventy six of the unintended pregnancies were due to non use of contraceptives hence an unmeet need of 21.4% with 15.2% for spacing and 6.2% for limiting. Husbandrsquo;s disapproval (36.8%), fear of side effects (28.9%) and religious beliefs (14.8%) were the main constraints to the use of contraceptives. There is a significant association between parity and unmeet need. Age, level of education, religion and husbandrsquo;s occupation had no significant effects. There is great need to intensify reproductive health education and include men in programs and policies designed to improve family planning practices in Nigeria. Key words: Family planning, unmet need, antenatal women. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/FF38CBC435 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000183 en Copyright © 2009 Anthony, O. Igwegbe, Joseph, O. Ugboaja and Emmanuel, N. Monago
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:47C0E9D434 2009-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Nutritional status of undergraduates in a Nigerian university in South-west Nigeria O. B. Adu, A. M. Falade , E. J. Nwalutu, B. O. Elemo and O. A. Magbagbeola Full Length Research Paper The study evaluated the nutritional status and eating habits of undergraduate students in a Nigerian University. One hundred undergraduates (ages 15 to 40 years) of the Lagos State University, Ojo participated in the study. General information, anthropometric data, as well as a 7-day dietary recall were obtained by means of questionnaire. Venous blood samples were collected from the respondents and analyzed for vitamins A and C, creatinine, zinc, iron, total and differential blood counts. Mean body mass index (BMI), mid arm circumference (MAC), vitamins A and C, iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and creatinine concentrations were 24.56 plusmn; 3.3 kg/m2, 26.7 plusmn; 3.0 cm, 20.5 plusmn; 14.3 g/dl, 1.5 plusmn; 71.27 g/dl, 19.62 plusmn; 5.65 mol/L, 6.6 plusmn; 1.9 mg/kg and 1.24 plusmn; 1.53 g/dl, respectively. Mean PCV, WBC and Hb were 39.2 plusmn; 4.9%, 5.34 plusmn;1.73 times; 106/L and 12.22 plusmn; 1.93 g/dl, respectively. 53% of the respondents were over-weight; 6%, obese and 15% under weight. PCV, Hb and lymphocytes were significantly higher in males than in females. There was positive correlation between serum vitamin C and Zn concentrations (r = 0.203), Fe and Zn (r = 0.539), Zn and neutrophil (r = 0.210) and vitamin A and basophil (r = 0.559). There was however a negative correlation between Zn and eosinophil count. Number of meals and milk intake had no effect on the status of the subjects. However, fruit intake positively affected neutrophil count (r = 0.202); vegetable intake positively affected serum Fe concentration (0.256); and intake of nutritional supplements positively affected serum Zn concentration. Also, serum vitamin A concentration in both male and female students was low. Key words: Adolescent nutrition, anthropometry, body mass index, hematology, nutritional status, serum zinc, vitamin A status, undergraduates. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/47C0E9D434 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000163 en Copyright © 2009 O. B. Adu, A. M. Falade , E. J. Nwalutu, B. O. Elemo and O. A. Magbagbeola
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:E9B3248433 2009-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Efficacy and safety of curative catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation Carlo Bonanno, Mariemma Paccanaro, Luigi La Vecchia, Renato Ometto and Alessandro Fontanelli Full Length Research Paper Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice. Its treatment is still widely debated due to the large variety of therapeutic options. Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) around pulmonary vein ostia and in left atrium has been proposed as a curative technique to treat AF and is now performed with increasing success worldwide. However, few randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are available. Some of these have been recently published and not yet included in meta-analyses. To address the efficacy and safety of RFCA for curative treatment of AF, we perform a systematic review, in order to provide a more precise estimate of post-procedural atrial tachyarrhythmias (ATs) recurrence, adverse effects and complications. Using electronic databases, we searched for RCTs comparing RFCA with anti-arrhythmic drugs for the management of AF. The efficacy end-point was freedom from ATs (including atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter and atrial tachycardia), following the procedure. The safety end-point was the rate complications and adverse events. The results are reported as relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), calculated using the RevMan software (The Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, 2008). A total of 8 RCTs were identified, including 844 patients. Overall, 98 (23.2%) of 421 patients in the treatment group and 324 (76.6%) of 423 patients in the control group had ATs recurrence. Catheter ablation decreased ATs recurrence by 71% (RR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.41, plt;0.00001, with random effects model). Fewer complications and adverse events were reported in the ablation group compared with the control group (RR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.30, p=0.28, with random effects model). In selected patients with AF, RFCA is a relatively efficacious and safe procedure for the curative treatment of AF. Even though the results of this systematic review favoUr ablation therapy, large, well-designed, multicenter RCTs are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of RFCA for AF. Key words: Atrial fibrillation, randomised controlled trials, radiofrequency catheter ablation, anti-arrhythmic drugs, meta-analysis. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/E9B3248433 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000088 en Copyright © 2009 Carlo Bonanno, Mariemma Paccanaro, Luigi La Vecchia, Renato Ometto and Alessandro Fontanelli
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:7E47884432 2009-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
End stage renal disease patient presenting with breast pain: Case report Manzoor Rather, Rohtesh S. Mehta, Shalini Vijaykumar, Orville Domingo and Colette D. Terry Case Report Key words: Calciphylaxis, end stage renal disease, breast necrosis, breast pain, secondary hyperparathyroidism Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/7E47884432 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000092 en Copyright © 2009 Manzoor Rather, Rohtesh S. Mehta, Shalini Vijaykumar, Orville Domingo and Colette D. Terry
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:785DCE6431 2009-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Pemphigus vulgaris associated with significant periodontal findings: A case report A. R. Pradeep, S. Thorat Manojkumar and Arjun Raju Case Report The purpose of this article is to report a case of Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) associated with periodontitis and role of dermatologist and periodontist in its management in the routine practice. Periodontitis is a plaque induced inflammation involving and destroying the supporting alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament. Pemphigus is a group of bullous diseases that affect the oral mucosa and the skin, leading to acantholysis that causes painful oral ulceration, making ineffective oral hygiene which allows for the accumulation of more plaque, a causative factor for the periodontitis. A 47 year-old male, a known case of PV presented with a complaint of oral ulceration and burning sensation of mouth and ulcerative skin lesions over the skin, since 3 years. A clinical examination revealed the existence of poor oral hygiene status, bleeding on probing, significant clinical attachment loss and probing pocket depth. Radiograph showed combination of horizontal and vertical alveolar bone loss. This case reaffirms the fact plaque control is the most important procedure in preventing periodontal infection in PV patients. These patients should be informed about the risk of periodontitis, and encouraged to pursue long-term periodontal follow up by the dental professionals to prevent their periodontal disease progression. Key words: Pemphigus vulgaris (PV), periodontitis, plaque. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/785DCE6431 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000168 en Copyright © 2009 A. R. Pradeep, S. Thorat Manojkumar and Arjun Raju
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:DE4DE41430 2009-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Regulation of tubulin expression: Multiple overlapping mechanisms Jennifer Saussede-Aim and Charles Dumontet Review Tubulin is the main constituent of microtubules, a macromolecule participating in a variety of essential cell phenomena. Although the roles of microtubules have been extensively described, the regulation of tubulin expression remains largely unexplored. This review gives an overall view of the regulatory mechanisms of tubulin expression reported in the literature. The first model proposed to explain the regulation of tubulin expression was based on an autoregulatory mechanism. This hypothesis suggests that soluble tubulin pools regulate the tubulin mRNA levels. This is due to the MREI sequence common to all beta;-tubulin isotypes. Nevertheless this model does not explain variations specific for each tubulin isotype. Transcriptional regulation has been suggested in multiple models. Indeed it appears that certain isotypes are expressed in defined conditions, and that this expression depends on gene regulatory sequences. To illustrate isotype specific regulatory mechanisms, the example of beta;3-tubulin is presented due to its particular expression pattern as well as its importance in certain physiological phenomena and pharmacological situations. Key words: Tubulin, expression, regulation. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/DE4DE41430 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000203 en Copyright © 2009 Jennifer Saussede-Aim and Charles Dumontet
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:AC93BA1429 2009-08-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Health disparity– a concern Dr. John Ibekwe Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/AC93BA1429 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000116 en Copyright © 2009 Dr. John Ibekwe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:91D1958450 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Effects of soy protein on selected enzymes in tissues of rats fed a cholesterol diet Olarewaju M. Oluba, E. Chukwu Onyeneke, Godwin C. Ojieh and George O. Eidangbe Full Length Research Paper Soy protein, an important component of soybeans is unique among plant-based protein because of its associated isoflavones. Isoflavones are a group of compounds with variety of biological properties that may potentially benefit human health. Their actions in various tissues have motivated researchers to access the possible related mechanisms and functions. This study is aimed at determining the effect of soy protein on selected tissue enzymes (used as aids in early diagnosis of cardiovascular disease) in rats fed a cholesterol diet. 24 male Wistar albino rats were assigned randomly into three groups. The first group serving as control was placed on normal diet while groups two and three were fed diet containing 5% cholesterol and 5% cholesterol plus 5% soy protein, respectively. The animals were placed on their respective diet for 7 weeks and at weekly interval LDH, ALT, AST and gamma;-GT activities in the liver, kidney and heart were monitored. At the end of the study period, LDH, ALT, AST and gamma;-GT activities were substantially reduced in the liver, kidney and heart of rats fed soy protein plus cholesterol diet compared with those fed cholesterol diet without soy protein. These results indicate that soy protein reduces the accumulation of excess fat in the liver, kidney and heart and thus prevent cell death due to lipotoxicity. Key words: Soy protein, cholesterol, diet, enzyme, lipotoxicity, cardiovascular disease. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/91D1958450 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000086 en Copyright © 2009 Olarewaju M. Oluba, E. Chukwu Onyeneke, Godwin C. Ojieh and George O. Eidangbe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:00EE8D5449 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Ameliorative effects of α-tocopherol on cypermethrin induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in Wistar rats Rajinder Raina, Pawan Kumar Verma, N. K. Pankaj and Vinay Kant Full Length Research Paper Environmental contamination of pyrethroids is responsible for increasing oxidative stress in man and animals. The present study was aimed to investigate the ameliorative effects of alpha;-tocopherol on different stress parameters in rats. Significant (plt;0.05) increased catalase activity in cypermethrin treated rats is maintained normal by the supplementation of alpha;-tocopherol. Significantly reduced (plt;0.05) SODs and GSH-Px activity by cypermethrin treated rats and activity of these enzymes were comparable to control animals by alpha;-tocopherol supplementation. Significantly reduced GSH and increased (plt;0.05) lipid peroxidation were observed in both groups, cypermethrin alone and along with the alpha;-tocopherol treated groups. Observations from the present study suggest that alpha;-tocopherol supplementation plays a protective role in cypermethrin induced oxidative stress in rats and linseed oil is not suitable as a vehicle for alpha;-tocopherol. Key words: Cypermethrin, oxidative stress, alpha;-tocopherol, Wistar rats. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/00EE8D5449 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000013 en Copyright © 2009 Rajinder Raina, Pawan Kumar Verma, N. K. Pankaj and Vinay Kant
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:513E179448 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
A study of the role of hydrogen peroxide production by lactobacilli in preterm labor Alaa Mosbah and Maggie Reda Mesbah Full Length Research Paper Some species of lactobacilli are hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) producers which may have a protective effect against vaginal colonization by pathogenic species. The aim of this study was to investigate the lactobacillary flora in normal pregnant women and pregnant women with preterm labor, by smear and Nugent score and to assess the distribution of lactobacilli generating hydrogen peroxide in both groups and its correlation to preterm labor. Vaginal specimens were obtained from 60 normal pregnant women and 40 pregnant women with preterm labor with intact membranes. Leukocytic counts, pH detection and Nugent score were done. Isolation and semi-quantification of vaginal lactobacilli on Man-Rogosa-Sharp media (MRS) and then identification of lactobacilli by detection of 1,350 bp fragment of 16S rRNA gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were done. Lactobacilli were finally tested for their production of hydrogen peroxide. Nugent score was significantly higher in women with preterm labor with intact membranes than normal pregnant women (Plt;0.001). There was significant high isolation of lactobacilli in normal pregnant women as it was isolated from 47(78.3%) normal pregnant women and from 15(37.5%) pregnant women with preterm labor with intact membranes (Plt;0.001). As regards hydrogen peroxide production from the isolated strains, there was a highly significant difference between both groups as after 30 min, hydrogen peroxide producing lactobacilli were isolated from 59.6% of normal pregnant women isolates and 20% of preterm labor women isolates (Plt;0.001). After 1 h, the percentage of isolation had increased to 72.5 and 30% in both groups, respectively. With regard to the pregnancy outcomes, the incidence of preterm delivery was significantly reduced in the strong positive group. Hydrogen peroxide production by vaginal lactobacilli may be used as a simple test for detection of women at high risk of preterm labor. Key words: Lactobacilli , hydrogen peroxide, vaginal flora, pregnant women. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/513E179448 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000008 en Copyright © 2009 Alaa Mosbah and Maggie Reda Mesbah
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:ABB634F447 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Penta- and hexapeptide sharing between HPV16 and Homo sapiens proteomes Darja Kanduc Full Length Research Paper The primary sequence of the HPV16 proteome was analyzed for penta- and hexa-peptide sequences shared with human proteins. The following data were obtained: 1) HPV16 andHomo sapiens proteomes share thousands of identical peptide motifs; 2) the overlaps are inter-dispersed among human proteins involved in fundamental housekeeping functions as well as crucial processes such as cell growth, differentiation and neurosensory regulation.The data are discussed in relationship to the potential cross-reactivity risk of an HPV16 vaccine. Key words: Similarity analysis, sequence-sequence peptide matching, viral versus human proteome over-lapping, vaccine-related cross-reactions Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/ABB634F447 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000169 en Copyright © 2009 Darja Kanduc
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:E1DA100446 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Preparation and evaluation of aceclofenac sustained release formulation and comparison of formulated and marketed product Santanu Ghosh and B. B. Barik Full Length Research Paper The objective of the study was to develop matrix tablets for oral controlled release of aceclofenac. Matrix tablets of aceclofenac, using various viscosity of hydrophilic polymer HPMC in two different proportions, hydrophobic polymer ethyl cellulose and Guar gum were prepared by wet granulation method and subjected to in vitro drug release studies. The drug release from all HPMC matrix tablets followed various release kinetics, formulation no -F7 followed higuchi kinetics. Furthermore, the results of the in vitro studies in pH 7.5 phosphate buffer medium showed that F7 tablets provided controlled release comparable with market sustained release formulation (Aeroff-SR tablets). F7 tablets showed no change in physical appearance, drug content, or in dissolution pattern after storage at 40deg;C with 75% RH for 6 months. Based on the results of the in vitro studies, it was concluded that the HPMC matrix tablets provided oral controlled release of aceclofenac. Key words: Aceclofenac, sustained release, matrix tablets, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/E1DA100446 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000180 en Copyright © 2009 Santanu Ghosh and B. B. Barik
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:50693C6445 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
An assessment of the histomorphometric evidences of doxorubicin-induced testicular cytotoxicity in Wistar rats L. C. Saalu, L. A. Enye and A. A. Osinubi Full Length Research Paper Doxorubicin (DOX) also known as hydroxydaunorubicin is a drug used in cancer chemotherapy. It is one of the earliest compounds derived from an antibiotic group of chemotherapy known as anthracycline. It strives to kill malignant cells and produces tumor regression in a variety of human neoplasms. However, its clinical usefulness is limited by its proven toxicity to certain organs particularly the heart and the kidney. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a single dose of DOX on the seminiferous tubulesof rats. Forty male adult (11 to 13 weeks old) wistar rats weighing 185-210 g were used for this research work. The rats were randomly divided into four groups of ten rats each. Group 1 rats were given a single dose of normal saline (2.5 ml/kg) body weight ip and then were sacrificed a day after. Group 2 animals had 10 mg DOX per kg body weight intraperitoneally (ip) as a single dose. These rats were sacrificed the day after DOX administration. Group 3 animals had 10 mg DOX per kg body weight ip as a single dose but were sacrificed on the 56th day. Group 4 rats had similar treatment as those in group 3, except that they were sacrificed at the end of the 16th week after DOX administration. The gross anatomical parameters assessed included the testicular weights and volumes while stereological parameters estimated include: diameter and cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubules; number of profiles per unit area and numerical density of seminiferous tubules. The results showed that there was a general destruction along with degeneration of cells of the seminiferous epithelium following DOX administration. There was also a demonstratable progressive worsening of the testicular derangement with passage of time following DOX challenge. We conclude that DOX has a deleterious effect on the testis. Key words: Doxorubicin, testis, histomorphometry. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/50693C6445 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000015 en Copyright © 2009 L. C. Saalu, L. A. Enye and A. A. Osinubi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:413DC1E444 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Determination of insulin resistance in non-diabetic Saudi adults by including fasting free fatty acids into QUICKI Eman M. Alissa, Suhad M. Bahijri, Daad H. Akbar and Tawfik M. Ghabrah Full Length Research Paper Most available diagnostic methods of insulin resistance are either unsuitable for screening or fail to detect marginal cases. It was reported that including plasma free fatty acids (FFA) into QUICK (quantitative insulin sensitivity check index) I improves its diagnostic power. The aim was to test the effectiveness of modified QUICK I against HOMA (homeostasis model assessment) and QUICK I in identifying insulin resistant subjects in the non-diabetic adult population. 357 healthy adults aged 18 - 50 years were recruited randomly. Their anthropometric and demographic information were taken. Biochemical parameters and FFA (free fatty acid) were measured in fasting blood samples and used to calculate modified QUICK I. Reported cut-off point was used to identify IR subjects, who were matched for age and sex to individuals from the rest of the subjects. 209 subjects satisfied the criteria. 97 individuals were identified to be IR. This group had statistically different anthropometric and biochemical parameters compared to NIR group. Biochemical parameters did not differ significantly when QUICK I was used to identify IR subjects. The modified QUICK I for all subjects correlated significantly (p = 0.01) with HOMA values (r = -0.756) and with QUICK I values (r = 0.758). Modified QUICK I is a more powerful diagnostic index of IR in Saudi non diabetic adults. Key words: Insulin resistance, non diabetic, QUICK, FFA. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/413DC1E444 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000072 en Copyright © 2009 Eman M. Alissa, Suhad M. Bahijri, Daad H. Akbar and Tawfik M. Ghabrah
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:2664EC6443 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Clinico-biochemical correlation with special reference to oxidized LDL and small dense LDL in Indian women with CAD Sunita Suman Bala Sharma, Dinesh Puri, Ram Lagan Tripathi and Sridhar Dwivedi Full Length Research Paper In women with coronary artery disease (CAD), clinical presentation is different enough from men which lead to missed or delayed diagnosis of CAD. We therefore assessed the major risk factors and biomarkers in female subjects with CAD. Venous sample of control, unstable angina (UA) and myocardial infarction (MI) patients were taken. In Both UA and MI patients, predominant risk factor was menopause (76.7% UA, 86.7% MI) followed by hypertension (56.7%UA, 60% MI), central obesity (56.7% MI, 56.7% UA), dyslipidemia (50% UA, 50% MI) and diabetes mellitus (50% UA, 33.3% MI). Total serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were highly significant (plt;0.001) in MI and UA as compared to controls. LDL cholesterol was significantly increased (plt;0.05) in MI as compared to UA. Triglycerides and HDL-Cholesterol were also increased but not at the significant level (pgt;0.05). Apolipoprotein (ApoB), small dense LDL and oxidized- LDL (Ox-LDL) were highly significant (plt;0.001) in MI and UA as compared to controls. Based on discriminate analysis ox-LDL is a potential marker to discriminate cases of UA from controls while ApoB is the reliable marker which can discriminate the cases of MI from UA and controls. Key words: Coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia, apolipoprotein B, small dense LDL, oxidized LDL. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/2664EC6443 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000058 en Copyright © 2009 Sunita Suman Bala Sharma, Dinesh Puri, Ram Lagan Tripathi and Sridhar Dwivedi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:895EC03442 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Knowledge of diabetes management and control by diabetic patients at Federal Medical Center Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria Okolie, V. Uchenna, Ehiemere, O. Ijeoma, Iheanacho, N. Peace and Kalu-Igwe I. Ngozi Full Length Research Paper This survey was undertaken to assess knowledge of diabetes management and control techniques on diabetic patients attending Federal Medical Center, Umuahia and Abia States, Nigeria. A descriptive research design was used for the study and a sample of 96 patients was used. The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire. The data were analyzed using percentages. The major findings showed that 80.2% knew what diabetes is, its signs and symptoms and complications. However, over 75.0% of the subjects did not know the major causes of diabetes. On knowledge of management of diabetes, 88.5 and 74.0% did not know how to avoid complications and prevent/control diabetes respectively. More than two- thirds of the respondents did not know how to take care of themselves in terms of testing their urine and types of food to eat. Majority of them stated that they did not receive any organized education/counseling on diabetes; rather, the health care providers were regimentally prescribing appropriate nutritional and pharmacological treatment for them. It is recommended therefore, that a well-organized and equipped diabetic clinic be established and an educational and counseling programme conducted by nurses once a week to improve the patientsrsquo; self-care measures in management of diabetes. Key words: Diabetes, diabetes knowledge and control, health education, self-care management. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/895EC03442 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000143 en Copyright © 2009 Okolie, V. Uchenna, Ehiemere, O. Ijeoma, Iheanacho, N. Peace and Kalu-Igwe I. Ngozi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:3DCD60E441 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
South Asian version of flatbush diabetes mellitus- A case report and review article Khurshid Ahmad Khan and Javed Akram Case Report Ketosis prone type 2 diabetes mellitus which was once described as ldquo;atypical diabetesrdquo; is being recognized increasingly worldwide; being originally described in African population has been seen in multiple ethnic groups, especially in urban areas. These patients are typically obese, middle-aged men with a strong family history of type 2 diabetes. The pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in its cause are unknown, but preliminary evidence suggests that patients with ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes have a unique propensity to glucose desensitization. These individuals have negative autoantibodies associated with type 1 diabetes but frequently HLA class II DRB1*03 and/or DRB1*04 are detected. Severe impairment of both insulin secretion and insulin action are found at presentation. Aggressive diabetes management results in marked improvement in beta cell function and insulin sensitivity sufficient to allow discontinuation of insulin therapy within a few months of treatment. In the long run, insulin can be substituted with oral hypoglycemic agents in most of these patients under careful supervision and close follow up. Molecular investigations into KPD syndromes utilizing multiple approaches (genomic, metabolic, proteomic) to generate etiological hypotheses can help us understand the underlying defects of insulin secretion and sensitivity in these and other types of diabetic patients. Key words: Diabetesis mellitus (DM), ketosis prone diabetes (KPD), diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), latent auto-immune diabetes of adults (LADA). Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/3DCD60E441 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000224 en Copyright © 2009 Khurshid Ahmad Khan and Javed Akram
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:EC38C87440 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Research and Development of Drugs – unequal for certain diseases Dr. John Ibekwe Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/EC38C87440 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000205 en Copyright © 2009 Dr. John Ibekwe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:A2A30D3406 2009-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Geohelminthiasis among Nigerian preschool age children O. P. G. Nmorsi, C. Isaac, I. S. Aashikpelokhai and N. C. D. Ukwandu Full Length Research Paper A study of the prevalence, intensity and risk factors of geohelminth infections was investigated among preschool children aged 1-5 years old in Ibilo, Akoko-Edo Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Two hundred and ninety eight children (94.30%) out of 316 volunteers examined were infected with one or more geohelminth parasites. The predominant geohelminth was Ascaris lumbricoides (85.7%, 104.4 epg), followed by hookworm (65.7%, 172.2 epg) and Trichuiris trichuira (2.9%, 305 epg). The difference in the prevalence of infection of the geohelminths among the preschool children was statistically significant (F=6.708, p lt;0.05). Infection rate of A. lumbricoides and hookworm (35.6%) was more than for either Ascaris and Trichuris (2.7%) or Hookworm and Trichuris (6.0%). The infection rate of multiple parasites of A. lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris was 3.4%. The difference in the mean pre treatment parasite load (369.8 epg) and post treatment parasite load (17 epg) was statistically signi-ficant (chi;2 =13.92, p lt; 0.05). The mean difference between children who were anaemic pre treatment (7.9 g/dL) and the improvement of the haemoglobin profile post treatment (10.5 g/dL) was not statistically significant (t=2.65, p gt; 0.05). Of the three anthelmintic drugs administered, namely, Albendazole, Mebendazole andPyrantel pamoate, children treated with Pyrantel pamoate had the lowest parasitic load post treatment and highest cure rate. Places of defecation such as pit latrines, bushes and water closets as well as mothersrsquo;/caregiversrsquo; occupation have been identified as potential risk factors contributing to the high infection rates of helminth parasites among preschool age children studied. Key words: Geohelminthiasis, preschool age, children, albendazole, mebendazole, Pyrantel pamoate, haemoglobin, risk factors, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/A2A30D3406 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000113 en Copyright © 2009 O. P. G. Nmorsi, C. Isaac, I. S. Aashikpelokhai and N. C. D. Ukwandu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:7F30B0D424 2009-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Biochemical observations in wistar rats fed with the histological dye extracted from Sorghum bicolor O. G. Avwioro, G. K. Owolagba, E. Anibor, J. K. Bankole, T. Oduola, O. G. Adeosunand C. P. Aloamaka Short Communication The biochemical effects of the histological dye extracted from Sorghum bicolor on Wistar rats were studied. The rats were fed with different doses of the aqueous extracts, 10, 100, 1000, 1600, 2900 and 5000 mg/kg for 24 h and then sacrificed through cervical dislocation. Thereafter, the sera were analyzed for random blood sugar, AST, ALT, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, urea and bilirubin, and compared with the control rats. The serum values of random blood sugar, AST, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate and urea increased progressively with increase in concentration of the extract administered to the rats. The value of chloride also increased but it was within the reference range. The bilirubin levels did not change remaining at lt;17 mmol/l, except in rats that died during the period of administration of the dye where the bilirubin level reached between the range of 17 - 21 mmol/l. However, serum ALT decreased with increase in concentration of the extract administered to the rats. Key words: Sorghum bicolor, ALT, AST, bilirubin, random blood sugar. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/7F30B0D424 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000044 en Copyright © 2009 O. G. Avwioro, G. K. Owolagba, E. Anibor, J. K. Bankole, T. Oduola, O. G. Adeosunand C. P. Aloamaka
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:923F3F2423 2009-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Dermatoses reports in Wenchuan districts of Sichuan province after 5.12 earthquake Sun Renshan, Zhu Tangyou, Li Chunxue, Chen Hong and Wu Jinjin Short Communication After 5.12 earthquakes, we attended one team for medical support at the dermatologic clinic in Wench-uan district of Sichuan province, the centre of the earthquake. The dermatoses were recorded and statistically analyzed. We try to assess different epidemiological and clinical features of the dermatoses in Wenchuan district of Sichuan province after 5.12 earthquakes. Clinical assessment of 947 patients with skin diseases who presented to a dermatology clinic in the peoplersquo;s Hospital of Wenchuan county, Sichuan province of China was done during one month period (July 21, 2008 - August 22, 2008). Of the cases, 73.9% were Qiang people. Papular urticaria was recorded in 23.7% of the cases. One case with condylomata and one case with gonorrhea uretheritis were found. No outbreak of the viral dermatoses such as German measles, or measles occurred. China is a multi-ethical country. The cases in our re-sults are according with the local residents population characters. We had not found the outbreaks of viral dermatoses, but the skin lesions associated with insects were very common and its incidences were higher than before at the same place and in the same period of one year. The skin diseases induced by insects were papular urticarias, mite dermatitis, phaedrus dermatitis, etc. Our observation results imply that insecticidal work should be highlighted after earthquakes. Key words: Dermatoses, Wenchuan districts, earthquake. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/923F3F2423 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000070 en Copyright © 2009 Sun Renshan, Zhu Tangyou, Li Chunxue, Chen Hong and Wu Jinjin
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:5A67393422 2009-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Predictive equations for estimation of stature from knee height, arm span, and sitting height in Indonesian Javanese elderly people Fatmah, Yusran Full Length Research Paper The purpose of this study was to develop the predictive equations for estimation of stature, using knee height, arm span and sitting height in Indonesian Javanese elderly people. Eight-hundred and twelve healthy elderly people (295 men and 517 women) participated in this cross sectional study. Standing height, weight, knee height, arm span and sitting height were measured. The Chumlea and Eleanor equations were validated in this study. The first equation showed that the mean difference of predicted height compared to actual height in men was 2.78 and 4.90 cm in women. The second equation revealed that the value of difference in men was 2.87 cm and in women was 13.26 cm. Arm span showed the highest correlation with standing height on men (r = 0.815) and women (r = 0.754). Aging was associated with decreased mean of height, weight, arm span and sitting height, but not on knee height in the two sexes. Arm span has the highest validity to predict stature on healthy Javanese elderly people. The correlation coefficient of arm span to actual height was larger on men than women. Stature of Indonesian Javanese elderly people can be estimated by the regression model from the three predictors developed in the study. Key words: Elderly, knee height, arm span, sitting height, Chumlea, Eleanor. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/5A67393422 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000179 en Copyright © 2009 Fatmah, Yusran
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:8875502421 2009-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Effective inhibition of agglutinability of human A and B type erythrocytes by sodium periodate-chloroacetic acid combined treatment Dipankar Ghosh, Susmita Santra, Sujit Dutta and Panchanan Pramanik Full Length Research Paper The study focused on effective inhibition of the agglutinability of human A and B type erythrocytes by sodium periodate-chloroacetic acid concerted action. Suppression of agglutinability was determined by using anti-A and anti-B antisera. Effective concentrations of sodium periodate were 6.8 and 2.7 mM, respectively for A and B type erythrocytes in presence of 4.5 mg.ml-1 chloroacetic acid in the reaction mixture. Some major bio-physiological consequences of human erythrocytes including agglutination index, spontaneous red blood cell lysis percentage, zetapotential, morphology, surface functional groups (-OH, gt; C = O, -COOH) and semi-quantitative oxygen uptake and phagocytic uptake were also analyzed after the chemical treatments. The future work is directed towards the universal human erythrocytes preparation from A and B type human erythrocytes. Key words: ABH antibodies, agglutination, concerted action, erythrocyte, medicine, transfusion. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/8875502421 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000083 en Copyright © 2009 Dipankar Ghosh, Susmita Santra, Sujit Dutta and Panchanan Pramanik
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:F5675EF420 2009-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Neuroimaging findings in breast cancer: A systematic qualitative review Francine Nunes Ferreira, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, and Tacirc;nia Correa de Toledo Ferraz Alves, Full Length Research Paper Patients with breast cancer treated with chemotherapy may develop neuropsychiatric symptoms, including fatigue and depression. The authors discuss the potential use of structural neuroimaging in the identification of these patients. Findings from neuroimaging studies improve our understanding of the wide-ranging neurobiological changes in breast cancer patients. We set out to determine whether neuroimaging studies had identified brain abnormalities in association to the presence of breast cancer. A qualitative systematic review of all structural neuroimaging studies in subjects with breast cancer was carried out. Studies were identified using general medical and specific databases as well as search engine such as PUBMED, EMBASE and COCHRANE based on current contents and other secondary sources. Systematic review of results from ten studies led to the observation that different brain areas might be vulnerable to the presence of breast cancer. The most striking observation was the extreme variability of the results observed in different studies. Some variability in the results was associated to different imaging analysis, presence of neuropsychiatric symptomatology (depression and post traumatic stress) and use of co adjuvant chemotherapy. Evidence from neuroimaging studies has suggested areas of the brain that may be damaged by the presence of breast cancer or direct effect of chemotherapy. The clinical implications of these neuroimaging findings need to be investigated further, as they challenge traditional therapeutic approaches. Key words: Breast cancer, neuroimage, depressive symptoms, chemotherapy, cognitive function. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/F5675EF420 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000161 en Copyright © 2009 Francine Nunes Ferreira, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, and Tacirc;nia Correa de Toledo Ferraz Alves,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:9C61182409 2009-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in a tertiary care hospital: Risk factors, overall mortality and antimicrobial resistance Rosineide Marques Ribas, Claudete Freitas and P. Paulo Gontijo Filho Full Length Research Paper A retrospective study on risk factors of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia was carried out on 99 blood culture isolated episodes of S. aureus in a Brazilian hospital during 2000 - 2002rdquo;. We found several factors associated with an increased risk of methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA) bacteremia including presence of two or more devices and use of antimicrobials. The patients with MRSA bacteremia were most likely to be in the surgical wards, but those with MSSA bacteremia were most likely to be in the internal medical ward. Overall mortality rate was 33.3%. Among 99 patients with episodes of S. aureus bacteremia, 25 died (25.3%) within 15 days of onset. Our research shows that MRSA bacteremia was more likely to be associated with extrinsic factors. Key words: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, nosocomial MRSA, risk factors, epidemiologic study. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/9C61182409 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000162 en Copyright © 2009 Rosineide Marques Ribas, Claudete Freitas and P. Paulo Gontijo Filho
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:09E4846404 2009-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Quality use of antidepressants: How pharmacists can play their part Dr. Tahir Mehmood Khan Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/09E4846404 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000195 en Copyright © 2009 Dr. Tahir Mehmood Khan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:2E977A7411 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Health workers’ knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards hepatitis B infection in Southern Nigeria S. O. Samuel, S. A. Aderibigbe, T. A. T. Salami and O. A. Babatunde Full Length Research Paper Globally, it is estimated that approximately 400 million individuals are chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus and more than a million people die annually from HBV-related causes. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital in Edo state, Nigeria, to determine health workers knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards hepatitis B infection using a structured questionnaire. Two hundred respondents from the different cadres of health workers in the hospital were recruited by stratified sampling into the study. More than three-quarters of the respondents (81%) had ever heard of hepatitis B infection prior to the study. Of those that were aware of hepatitis B infection, 92% mentioned blood and blood products as route of transmission of Hepatitis B, 68.5% mentioned needles and sharps while only 37% said that the disease can be transmitted through sexual intercourse. Incorrectly identified routes of transmission by the respondents include faeco-oral transmission (14.2%) and transmission through drinking contaminated water (9.3%). On ways of preventing Hepatitis B infection, correctly identified preventive measures include vaccination by a majority (77.2%) of the respondents. More than three quarters of the respondents (80.9%) said that Hepatitis B can be acquired as a nosocomial infection from the hospital while 69.8% said that Hepatitis B infection is widely transmitted like HIV/AIDS. A little more than three-quarters of the respondents (75.5%), were aware of the existence of Hepatitis B vaccine prior to the study. Only 70.2% have actually ever received Hepatitis B vaccine, out of which only 59.4% completed the vaccination schedule. Poor compliance of Health workers to hepatitis B vaccination is an issue that deserves serious attention. There is a need for health education campaigns for health workers so that they can understand the risks that they are exposed to based on the nature of their work. Key words: Health workers, hepatitis B, vaccination, knowledge, attitude, behaviour. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/2E977A7411 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000117 en Copyright © 2009 S. O. Samuel, S. A. Aderibigbe, T. A. T. Salami and O. A. Babatunde
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:F0F2FC1413 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Prevalence of breast cancer in menopausal blind women K. Pushkala and P. D. Gupta Full Length Research Paper A correlation between prevalence of breast cancer with blindness has not been attempted in India and only scanty information is available at the world scenario as well. We have done a pilot study by epidemiological survey of blind menopausal (high risk age group) women (n = 204) from Chennai to find the prevalence of the disease. In the present study, menopausal visually challenged women have shown that the ratio at risk of developing breast cancer in this group is very much lower ( 1:100 ) compared to sighted women in the similar age group, The risk of developing breast cancer is 1:78 (Cumulative Risk 35 - 64 age), among sighted women in Chennai. Statistical analysis of the present data also provide enough evidence that blind women who are gt; 40 years of age had 13% greater risk of breast cancer compared with those in the study group lt; 40 years (RR = 1.125; 95% CI = 0.07 to 17.74).The susceptibility to develop the disease among partially blind women is almost twice than that of totally blind women (RR = 2.14; 95% CI = 0.14 to 33.68). Similarly menopausal stage of a woman has more risk of developing breast cancer than pre-menopausal stage (RR = 5.18; 95% CI = 0.33 to 80.75). Vision loss after menarche also indicates an increased risk (RR = 8.27; 95% CI = 0.54 to 127.6).The intervals for these risks give a very wide range of possible values for the corresponding risk ratio due to small sample size and the rarity of breast cancer among blind women. The topographical location of India close to the equator and life style pattern of the people could be the major reasons for the very low prevalence of breast cancer in Chennai. None of the other high or low risk factors were found to be influencing blind women to develop breast cancer. The relationship between visible light and breast cancer can be studied by taking blind menopausal women as a model. Key words: Blindness, breast cancer, epidemiology. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/F0F2FC1413 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000184 en Copyright © 2009 K. Pushkala and P. D. Gupta
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:D12C50E416 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) caused by Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa vs. other microorganisms at an adult clinical-surgical intensive care unit in a Brazilian University Hospital: Risk factors and outcomes Dayane Otero Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Cezaacute;rio, and Paulo P. Gontijo Filho Full Length Research Paper This study aims at investigating whether the development of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) episodes caused by Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosaor other microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus and other bacilli) were related to different risk factors. A 1-year retrospective case-control study was conducted in surgical-clinical Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Inclusion criteria were VAP cases (n = 66) caused by MDR P. aeruginosa (Group P, n = 31) compared with those caused by other microorganisms (Group C, n = 35). Altogether, the VAP incidence rate of 21.11 per 1, 000 ventilation days was high and compatible with ICUs in developing countries. Most of VAP cases (92.4%) were identified as late-onset pneumonia with 5 early-onset cases associated with Methicillin-SusceptibleStaphylococcus aureus (MSSA). In a logistic regression analysis, Group P was independently associated with four variables: presence of three or more invasive devices; use of three or more antibiotics; use of aminoglycosides; and absence of immunocompromise. Empirical antibiotic therapy was inadequate in 48.4% of the VAP cases caused by MDR P. aeruginosa with crude mortality rate (46.7%) higher than in those which patients received adequate antibiotics (18.7%). The findings to show that there were no outcome differences between the groups regarding critical care unit survival, but there were significant differences between pathogens groups regarding risk factors. Key words: Nosocomial infection, risk factors, epidemiologic study. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/D12C50E416 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000253 en Copyright © 2009 Dayane Otero Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Cezaacute;rio, and Paulo P. Gontijo Filho
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:B7C3B97418 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Evaluation of biofilm production by Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from nosocomial infections and skin of healthy volunteers Fereshteh Eftekhar and Zeinab Mirmohamadi Full Length Research Paper Staphylococcus epidermidis is a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. The major virulence factor is thought to be biofilm formation by the organism mediated by gene products of the icaADBC operon. In this research, biofilm phenotype and icaADBC gene carriage were studied in 50 S. epidermidis isolates from symptomatic patients (group A) and 50 skin isolates from healthy individuals (group B). Biofilm phenotype was shown by colony morphology on Congo red agar and the microtiter plate method was used for quantitative measurement of biofilm formation. Polymerase chain reaction was employed to detect the presence of icaADBC operon. The results showed no significant difference between the two groups of isolates for the potential to form biofilms by the two phenotypic assays or the amounts of biofilm produced by the two groups of isolates. On the other hand, ica gene carriage was more discriminatory and was observed in 30% of group A isolates compared to 8% of the skin isolates. We conclude that S. epidermidis isolates from patients with symptomatic infections are not necessarily more virulent from the skin contaminants and the capacity to form biofilms in vivo is influenced by environmental stimuli independent of theicaADBC gene products. Key words: Biofilm, Staphylococcus epidermidis, icaADBC, patients isolates, skin isolates. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/B7C3B97418 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000102 en Copyright © 2009 Fereshteh Eftekhar and Zeinab Mirmohamadi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:0634F3D389 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
An evaluation of the use of insecticide treated bed nets among children presenting with malaria at a Nigerian health facility O. A. Oyedeji, P.O. Elemile, A. A. Adepoju and G. A. Oyedeji Full Length Research Paper The use of insecticide treated nets has been advocated for the prevention of the vector borne transmitted disease (malaria) by the World Health Organization and UNICEF for more than a decade now through the roll back malaria (RBM) program. In spite of this, malaria continues to significantly impact negatively on the health of Nigerian children, thus signifying no reduction in the transmission of the disease. This makes it desirable to obtain answers to some pertinent questions on the transmission of malaria such as, is the insecticide treated net preventive strategy recommended by the RBM being used, or is it ineffective? We therefore conducted this study in order to determine what proportion of children infected with malaria are using treated nets and the reasons for non-use among the non-users, with a view to generating ideas that will improve the use of this tool. Consecutive children presenting with malaria at the out patient unit of the State Hospital Osogbo, South west Nigeria, between July 1st and September 30th 2006 were studied. A total of 300 children made up of 158 boys and 142 girls were studied. The age range was 3 months to 13 years and the mean age was 2.3 years plusmn; 0.1. Of the 300 children seen, 3 (1.0%) used insecticide treated nets, 14 (4.7%) used alternative barrier methods and the remaining 283 (94.3%) used none of the specified methods. The 4 alternatives used are untreated bed nets (8 subjects), insecticide sprays (4), mosquito repellant coils (1) and topical repellant creams (1). The reasons given by the remaining 283 children who failed to use any barrier methods were ignorance, unavailability, cost, considered unnecessary, cumbersome to use, refusal of child to sleep under the nets and allergy to the net in 240 (84.8%), 16 (5.7%), 11 (3.9%), 10 (3.5%), 1 (0.4%), 19 (0.4%) cases, respectively. Three (1.1%) parents gave no reasons. Maternal education was associated with greater use of insecticide treated bed nets chi;2= 9.77, P = 0.04, df = 4 (Williams criterion likely ratio applied). It is concluded that there is a need to enlighten the public concerning the use of insecticide treated nets. The treated nets also have to be made available and affordable in order to ensure that the nets get to households. Maternal education also improves the rate of use of this intervention. Key words: Home based malaria, prevention, children, strategies. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/0634F3D389 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000016 en Copyright © 2009 O. A. Oyedeji, P.O. Elemile, A. A. Adepoju and G. A. Oyedeji
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:960C7BE387 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Lactoferrin levels in human breast milk among lactating mothers with sick and healthy babies in Kaduna State, Nigeria Ella, E. E., Ahmad, A. A., Umoh, V. J., Ogala, W. N. and Balogun T. B. Full Length Research Paper Breastfeeding of babies has received worldwide recommendation and acceptance due to its high level of bioactive constituents. Lactoferrin, an iron binding glycoprotein is one of the major bioactive components of breast milk. Lactoferrin has many proposed biological functions which include antibacterial/anti-inflammatory activities, participation in local secretory immune systems in synergism with some immunoglobulins and other protective proteins among other functions. The levels of this protein (lactoferin) in human breast milk (colostrums, transitional and mature milk) were evaluated using mothers with healthy as well as sick babies. The aim was to ascertain if the level of lactoferrin in the human breast milk has any correlation with the health status of the baby with reference to the development of neonatal sepsis. From the result gotten, the mean lactoferrin levels in the breast milk of mothers with healthy babies were colostrum (9.55plusmn;10.61 mg/ml), transitional milk (9.18plusmn;10.02 mg/ml) and mature milk (9.19plusmn;8.81 mg/ml). However, lower values were obtained that were statistically significant at Plt;0.05 for the lactoferrin levels in the breast milk of mothers with sick babies. The overall result showed that colostrum had the highest lactoferrin value as compared to transitional and mature milk even as the mean values in the mothers with sick babies were still significantly lower than those obtained from mothers with healthy babies. Age variations were also shown to play significant roles in the level of lactoferrin in breast milk. For the mothers with healthy babies at age 20 and below, the mean value for colostrum, transitional and mature milk were 9.00plusmn;8.36, 14.00plusmn;13.00 and 8.00plusmn; 9.00 mg/ml, respectively. The result for the mothers between 31ndash;40 years showed 5.00plusmn;1.00 mg/ml for colostrum, 12.00plusmn;11.00 mg/ml for transitional milk and 8.00plusmn;9.00 mg/ml for mature milk. Mothers with sick babies had lower values when compared to the corresponding ages of the mothers with healthy babies. The study thus showed that lower levels of lactoferrin in motherrsquo;s breast milk could induce the development of neonatal sepsis and age variation was shown to be capable of affecting the level of lactoferrin in the breast milk. Key words: Breast feeding, mothers, sick babies, healthy babies, lactoferin, colostrums, transitional, mature milk. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/960C7BE387 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000146 en Copyright © 2009 Ella, E. E., Ahmad, A. A., Umoh, V. J., Ogala, W. N. and Balogun T. B.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:C4AF79B384 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Biosynthesis, physiology and main diagnostic and therapeutic potentials of cardiac natriuretic peptides Melpomeni Ntalapascha, Zoi Daniil and Epaminondas Zakynthinos Review Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) is a family of peptide hormones, circulating in blood, originating from three prohormones: The atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) prohormone synthesizes four active peptides (ANPs: Long-Acting Natriuretic Peptide, Vessel Dilator, Kaliuretic Peptide and ANP). B type natriuretic (BNP) and C type natriuretic (CNP) prohormones are cleaved in only one active peptide hormone each (BNP and CNP, respectively). ANPs and BNP bind to Natriuretic Peptide Receptor A (NPR-A) and CNP to NPR-B, which are transmembrane, guanylcyclase enzymes, in order to exert their biological effects. All NPs bind to a third receptor, NPR-C, which acts to clear them from the circulation. Activation of NPR-A mediates inhibition of renin-aldosterone system and natriuresis, as well as vasorelaxant, antifibrotic, anti-hypertrophic and anti-inflammatory and independent lipolytic effects. NPR-B activation is responsible for long bone growth. The properties of NPs to regulate plasma volume, through NPR-A activation, have been used for management of decompensated heart failure (HF) and acute renal failure. Human recombinant BNP (nesiritide) is commercially available for therapy of acute HF. Nesiritide improves hemodynamic profile and the clinical status of the patient. However, it may worsen renal function indicating a worse prognosis. Finally, plasma measurement of BNP has emerged as a useful, cost-effective biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of HF. However, other cardiovascular diseases as ischemia, arrhythmias and cardiac hypertrophy, as well as disorders of no cardiac origin, as sepsis and septic shock may cause elevated BNP levels. Key words: Atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, C-type natriuretic peptide, natriuretic peptide receptors, nesiritide, anaritide, cardiovascular diseases, cancer. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/C4AF79B384 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000047 en Copyright © 2009 Melpomeni Ntalapascha, Zoi Daniil and Epaminondas Zakynthinos
oai:academicjournals.org:IJMMS:2049732383 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJMMS IJMMS:2009
Testicular embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma: A case report Agabus N. Manasseh, Godwins O. Echejoh, Olugbenga A. Silas, Matthew N. Tanko, Shola K. Jegede and Barnabas M. Mandong Case Report Rhabdomyosarcoma is one of the most frequent soft tissue sarcomas in children. It is found mostly in children, primarily infants, toddlers, and pre-school pupils. However, pure testicular rhabdomyosarcoma is a very rare tumor and few cases have been reported in literature. The tumor usually presents as a painless testicular enlargement with early dissemination via the blood stream and lymphatics. The origin of this tumor is presumed to be from overgrowth of a sarcomatous area of the teratoma. Here, we present a case of testicular rhabdomyosarcoma in a 15-year-old student with a fatal outcome during chemotherapy. This is actually the first case of pure testicular rhabdomyosarcoma diagnosed in this centre after over 10 years. Key words: Rhabdomyosarcoma, testicular, orchidectomy, chemotherapy. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJMMS/article-abstract/2049732383 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJMMS.9000233 en Copyright © 2009 Agabus N. Manasseh, Godwins O. Echejoh, Olugbenga A. Silas, Matthew N. Tanko, Shola K. Jegede and Barnabas M. Mandong
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