2021-12-07T04:23:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:71972ED3752 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2009
Tillage and manure effect on soil physical and chemical properties and on carbon and nitrogen mineralization potentials H. Kheyrodin and H. Antoun Full Length Research Paper The objective of this work was to study the effects of tillage and liquid manure applications on some physical and chemical properties and also on the carbon and nitrogen mineralization potential from a meadow soil. Our results indicated that tillage and manure applications had no effect on the concentration of total N and organic C in the 0 - 15 cm layer of soil after 15 years of treatment. However soil P, Ca, Mg and Zn contents increased significantly with manure applications. Soil organic matter and total N significantly decreased in the 15 ndash; 30 cm depth. No significant change could be detected in soil structural stability in both layers. Moreover, tillage affected significantly soil soluble C and the C/N ratio. Application of 100 t ha-1 manure significantly increased soil soluble C. The results of this study suggest that tillage increased significantly the soil N mineralization rate. The potentially mineralizable nitrogen (N0) was higher in tilled than in no-tilled soil and was at its maximum in the 0 ndash; 15 cm layer of the soil. Furthermore, a significant positive interaction was observed between tillage and manure application on N mineralized after 1.4 wk (Ne). No significant change was detected in both C mineralization rate (Cm) and potentially mineralizable C (C0). The total amounts of mineralizable carbon (Cm) and nitrogen (Nm) significantly decreased in 15 ndash; 30 cm depth and were very closely correlated with the total amounts of C or N and mineralization rate constants (K). Key words: Carbon and nitrogen mineralization potentials, k constants, physical and chemical properties. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/71972ED3752 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000044 en Copyright © 2009 H. Kheyrodin and H. Antoun
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:84B73A73820 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2009
Nutritional status of preschool children aged 2 - 5 years in Aguata L.G.A of Anambra State, Nigeria Okoroigwe, Florence Chizoba, and Okeke, Elizabeth Chinwe Full Length Research Paper A lot of reports show that there exist problem of malnutrition among Nigerian children. This study has been designed to assess the nutritional status of preschool children aged 2 - 5 years in Aguata L.G.A of Anambra State, Nigeria. The study was carried out using anthropometric measurements (weights and heights) and 3 day weighed food intake methods. Two hundred and eight preschool children were randomly selected from two (2) towns in Aguata. A sub sample of 20 children was randomly selected for the 3 day weighed food intake study. The mean weights and heights of the children ranged from 11.6 plusmn; 2.19 to 19.3 plusmn; 1.84 kg and 85.7 plusmn; 7.61 to 111.6 plusmn; 3.99 cm, respectively. Using NCHS (1976), Standard of reference, 7.7, 7.7 and 2.4% of the children were wasted, stunted and underweight, respectively. The daily energy intake of the children ranged between 51.2 and 62.9% of their energy requirement daily. Their daily protein, iron, calcium, and B-complex vitamin intakes were generally poor while that of vitamin A was above requirement values. However, most of their foods were of plant source whose nutrients are poorly bioavailable. Therefore, application of improved food processing and storage techniques, dietary diversification and fortification with intensified nutrition education would reduce malnutrition in the area. Key words: Nutritional status, stunting, wasting, nutrient intake, preschool. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/84B73A73820 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000030 en Copyright © 2009 Okoroigwe, Florence Chizoba, and Okeke, Elizabeth Chinwe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:EFBB2E83886 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2009
Isolation and identification of new eleven constituents from medicinal plant Hamid Kheyrodin Full Length Research Paper In order to know the appropriate medicinal plants compound we estimate oils those are complex mixtures of numerous components. The valuation of an essential oil basing only on the percentage of the main physicochemical component constants. Analyses in Semnan province revealed the presence of sesquiterpene lactones, which a group of compounds previously known for their significant bioactivity. Semnan University laboratories have succeeded in isolating and identifying 11 new constituents from a class of compounds called the steroid glucosides. High concentrations of quercetin, quercetin 4I-glucoside, taxifolin, taxifolin 7-glucoside and phenylalanine were also isolated from the red bulbs of Allium cepa L. var. Tropea. This new discipline has grown out of the scientific endeavor to understand more about the ways in which animals may be treating themselves with the use of plants. Due to the constraints and difficulties of systematic research of this kind on wild animal populations, our knowledge is still limited. Our results suggest that organ for synthesis site of glucosides is leaves not roots of the whole plants. We have established that traditional medicinal plants from Iran contain some medicinal chemical compound by its root, leaves, flowers and shoot cultures. Key words: Qualitative analysis, medicinal compounds, oil plant, glucosides. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/EFBB2E83886 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000021 en Copyright © 2009 Hamid Kheyrodin
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:3207AE03921 2009-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2009
The effects of magnetic water on milk and blood components of lactating Saanen goats M. M. Sargolzehi, M. Rebase Rokn-Abadi and A. A. Naserian Full Length Research Paper Change in milk and blood components of lactating Saanen goats when consuming magnetic water were studied. Twelve goats in a completely randomized design with 3 treatments including 1.) Control, 2.) Consuming conditioned water with 1200 Gauss permanent magnet and 3.) Consuming conditioned water with 3600 Gauss permanent magnet, were used. Results indicated that conditioning of the water did not affect blood metabolites (glucose and urea), blood ions (Na, K, Mg and P) and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat and total solid) significantly. Key words: Saanen goats, magnetic water, blood metabolites, blood ions, milk composition. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/3207AE03921 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000041 en Copyright © 2009 M. M. Sargolzehi, M. Rebase Rokn-Abadi and A. A. Naserian
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:ACB4C923977 2010-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2010
Low birth weight, metabolic syndrome and their associations with the global crisis of 1930 - 1945, rapidly growing economy and coronary heart disease in Central Africa B. Longo-Mbenza, D. Vangu Ngoma and S. Mbungu Fuele Full Length Research Paper The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and metabolic syndrome (Mets) and their associations with 1930 - 1945 years of global crisis and cardiovascular risk factors in Central Africans. The study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted on Central African patients born between 1930 and 1977. Mets was diagnosed using WHO criteria. Of 407 patients, 262 (64. 6%) and 77 (18.9%) met the criteria of LBW and Mets, respectively. There was association between birth during 1930 global crisis and 1945 second war period; adulthood hypertension, low economic growth, high pulse pressure, type 2 diabetes, decline of renal function, hypercholesterolemia, left ventricular hypertrophy and LBW. There was a U-shaped relationship between current body mass index and Mets in all patients and men, but a linear relationship between current body mass index and Mets in women. Coronary heart disease (OR = 2.3 95%CI 1.1 - 4.8; P = 0.024), LBW (OR = 10 95%CI 3.9 - 25.5; P lt; 0.0001), elevated fibrinogen (OR = 3.5 95%CI 2 - 6.1; P lt; 0.0001) were the independent risk factors of Mets in all patients. LBW effect on Mets was lower in men (OR = 7.5 95%IC 2.6 - 22.1; P lt; 0.0001) than in women (OR = 18 95%CI 2.3 - 37; P = 0.005). In a separate multivariate analysis for only continuous variables, Mets in all patients was independently determined as follows: Y = -1.523 + 0.003 fibrinogen + 0.01 total cholesterol - 0.001 birth weight. LBW, coronary heart disease, malnutrition, elevated fibrinogen, total cholesterol and urea nitrogen may be considered as additional components of Mets in the African patients born between 1930 and 1945 and more in women than in men. Key words: Low birth weight, fibrinogen, cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic syndrome, Sub-Saharan Africa. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/ACB4C923977 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000024 en Copyright © 2010 B. Longo-Mbenza, D. Vangu Ngoma and S. Mbungu Fuele
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:7ED10FA4033 2010-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2010
Studies on some nutritional characteristics of the fruit and leaf of Saba florida (Benth) from Ibaji forest Omale James and Omajali B Full Length Research Paper Natural sources of nutrients for both humans and animals have become of immense biomedical significance. In this study, some nutrient composition of the fruit and leaf of Saba florida (Benth) from Ibaji forest were evaluated using HPLC. The results showed that the plant parts studied contained significant level of Vitamins A and E. Lipids of physiologic and nutritional importance such as lauric, myristic, oleic, linoleic and stearic acids were detected in some parts of the plant. Oleic acid was highest in the fruit pericarp (12.387%).The study also showed that the fruit pulp contain high amount (285.521%) of cholesterol than other parts investigated. The results suggest that S. florida (Benth) is rich in essential fatty acids, vitamins A and E. We therefore conclude that judicious consumption of the fruit and leaf of S. florida could play both physiologic and nutritional roles in human and animal body. Key words: Saba florida, lipids, vitamins, Ibaji. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/7ED10FA4033 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000038 en Copyright © 2010 Omale James and Omajali B
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:55120A14050 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2010
Evaluation of strawberry juice preserved with chemical preservatives at refrigeration temperature Muhammad Ayub, Javid Ullah, Ali Muhammad and Alam Zeb Full Length Research Paper This study was carried out to investigate the effect of chemical preservatives on strawberry juice. The samples were; pasteurized strawberry juice (T0), pasteurized strawberry juice with 20% sucrose (T1), pasteurized juice with 0.1% sodium benzoate (T0), pasteurized juice with 20% sucrose and 0.1% sodium benzoate (T3), pasteurized juice with 0.1% potassium sorbate (T4) pasteurized juice with 2% sucrose and 0.1% potassium sorbate (T5) pasteurized juice with 0.05% sodium benzoate and 0.05% potassium sorbate (T6) pasteurized juice with 20% sucrose, 0.05% sodium benzoate and 0.05% potassium sorbate (T7) pasteurized juice with 0.1% sodium benzoate and 0.1% potassium sorbate (T8) and pasteurized juice with 20% sucrose, 0.1% potassium sorbate and 0.1% sodium benzoate (T9). The samples were stored at 4 - 15deg;C for three months. T0and T1 were rejected soon due to spoilage. Minimum ascorbic acid content was reduced in T9 (9.8%), while maximum in T2 (26%). Acidity increased from 1.39 to 2.38% with maximum in T1 and T9. pH decreased from 3.29 to 2.22. Reducing sucrose increased from 15.7 to 17.8 and non-reducing sucrose decreased from 11.6 to 8.3. The total soluble solids (TSS) increased from 16.5 to 17.4deg; brix with maximum in T0 (60%) and minimum in T6 (5.6). Treatments T9, T7 T5 and T3 were found most acceptable in maintaining the sensory characteristics compared to others during storage. Minimum microbial load were observed in T9 and maximum in T0 and T1 (uncountable). Among all the treatments T9 were most effective in maintaining the sensory and nutritional quality during storage. Key words: Strawberry juice, pasteurization, benzoate, benzoate, citric acid, sucrose. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/55120A14050 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000015 en Copyright © 2010 Muhammad Ayub, Javid Ullah, Ali Muhammad and Alam Zeb
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:3FD027D4057 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2010
Ficus racemosa bark: Nutrient composition, physicochemical properties and its utilization as nutra tea Faiyaz Ahmed, Mysore Ramaswamy Asha, Asna Urooj and Kodangala Keshava Bhat Full Length Research Paper The present study reports, the nutrient composition, physicochemical properties and utilization potential of Ficus racemosa stem bark as an ingredient in tea, a popular non alcoholic beverage. The bark was found to be a good source of dietary fiber, minerals, sugars and phenolic compounds. On dry basis, the total dietary fiber content was 20.5% of which major portion was contributed by insoluble dietary fiber (13.6%). Potassium was the most abundant mineral (11975 ppm) followed by chloride (7475 ppm) and calcium (1729 ppm). The bark was also a good source of other minerals and trace elements such as phosphorus and iron, zinc, magnesium, respectively. Further, the bark powder was used as an ingredient in the preparation of tea and the bark incorporated tea (nutra tea) was found to contain significantly higher amounts of phenolic compounds compared to control tea (p le; 0.05). Sensory analysis of the nutra tea indicated no perceptible off-taste or off-aroma and the overall quality was similar to that of control and was acceptable in terms of all sensory attributes. The results suggest that the bark could be effectively used in the preparation of tea to derive its beneficial effects particularly attributable to those of phenolics. Key words: Ficus racemosa, Nutra tea, total phenolics, AAS, sensory analysis. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/3FD027D4057 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000016 en Copyright © 2010 Faiyaz Ahmed, Mysore Ramaswamy Asha, Asna Urooj and Kodangala Keshava Bhat
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:19FC44D4067 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2010
The influence of dietary intake on the serum lipid profile, body mass index and risk of cardiovascular diseases in adults on the Niger Delta region Silver Ighosotu and Nyerhovwo J. Tonukari Full Length Research Paper This study is designed to assess some of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in healthy adult subjects in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, in relation to their dietary intake habits. 131 male and female adults aged 20 - 40 years were assessed. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, serum lipid profile and electrolytes among two populations were estimated. Diet history recall questionnaire, food sample analysis and food composition tables were used to compute energy and nutrients intake. In Delta State subjects, the body mass index (BMI) was significantly different from those of Cross River State. There was a significantly higher intake in energy and protein and a lower fibre and ash intake by the participants from Delta State. Total serum cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerides (TG) and TC/HDL-C ratio, were also higher in Delta State participants. In conclusion, we inferred that 22, 15 and 35% of the participants from Delta State were at risk of CVD compared to 5, 6 and 10% from Cross River based on the respective BMI, blood pressure and TC/HDL-C ratio values. Key words: Body mass index, cardiovascular diseases, dietary intakes, serum lipids. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/19FC44D4067 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000042 en Copyright © 2010 Silver Ighosotu and Nyerhovwo J. Tonukari
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:91832C34076 2010-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2010
Effect of micronutrient supplementation on the nutritional and immune status of school-going children with iron deficiency anemia Narayanasamy Sangeetha and S. Premakumari Full Length Research Paper Iron deficiency anemia is a major public health problem in India widely prevalent among children. The present study was aimed to reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia and also to improve the immune status, school performance through dietary supplementation with micronutrient rich foods (wheat germ, rice flakes, gingelly seeds, microwave oven dehydrated carrot powder, jaggery).The present study was conducted on children in the age group of 7 - 9 years (N: 1675) from primary corporation school located in the urban areas of Chennai district. Out of 1675 children, 1151(68.7%) children had exclusive signs and symptoms of anemia. The blood hemoglobin levels revealed that 662 children were moderately anemic and the remaining 15 and 74 children showed severe and mild signs and symptoms of anemia respectively. Out of 662 children who were moderately anemic, 150 children were randomly selected for the supplementation study. They were further divided into three groups of 50 children each to receive the food based supplement (Micronutrient rich balls), synthetic supplement (Riconia tablet, a micronutrient fortified tablet) and the third group constituted the control group. The supplementation study was for a period of six months. The impact of supplementation was studied initially and at the end of 6 months in terms of anthropometric measurements, morbidity pattern, dietary assessment and biochemical analysis. The results revealed that, supplementation in the food form resulted in significant improvement in the parameters studied. The findings of this research leads to the conclusion beyond doubt that the food based approach will serve as an effective strategy to combat deficiencies and to promote health and well being of the children and ensure global security. Key words: Childhood malnutrition, blood hemoglobin, serum retinol, serum zinc, immune profile. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/91832C34076 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000011 en Copyright © 2010 Narayanasamy Sangeetha and S. Premakumari
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:C6B3B544234 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2010
Protective effects of mushroom and their ethyl extract on aging compared with L-carnitine Ahmed, M. Gaafar, Heba E. Yossef and Hala H. Ibrahim Full Length Research Paper The effects of 10% dried mushroom and 300 mg mushroom extract on the lipids profile, lipid peroxidation and liver functions of rats were evaluated and compared with L-carnitine. Food intake, body weight and histological examination of liver tissues were also evaluated. Supplementation diet of rats with 10% dried mushroom, 300 mg mushroom extract and 300 and 600 mg L-carnitine resulted in a significant decrease in total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, aspartate amino transferase (AST) enzyme, alanine amino transferase (ALT) enzyme, alkaline phosphatase (AP) enzyme, malonaldehyde (MAD) and body weight compared to control. However, glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH) and food intake were significantly increased in rats supplemented with 10% dried mushroom, 300 mg mushroom extract and 300 and 600 mg L-carnitine. Liver tissues of rats were improved by the supplementation with 10% dried mushroom and 300 mg L-carnitine. However, the supplementation with 300 mg mushroom extract and 600 mg L-carnitine were more effective in improving the liver tissues. These results suggest that mushroom and their extract can improve the antioxidant status during ageing and minimize the occurrence of age-associated disorders associated with involvement of free radicals. Key words: Dried mushroom, mushroom extract, L-carnitine, lipids profile, liver function, lipid peroxidation. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/C6B3B544234 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000035 en Copyright © 2010 Ahmed, M. Gaafar, Heba E. Yossef and Hala H. Ibrahim
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:513DF744239 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2010
Comparism of socio-economic and nutritional status between oil producing and non oil producing communities of Delta State A. O. Naiho, E. K. Nwangwa, S. Ogege and C. P. Aloamaka Short Communication A survey of socio-economic and nutritional status was carried out in oil producing community and a non-oil producing community in Delta State, Nigeria and results were compared. Well structured closed ended questionnaires were administered to eight hundred subjects (males and females) inclusive of both communities. Blood samples were obtained from 100 subjects (males and females) in each of the communities for Haemoglobin and serum protein analysis. Data was analysed using z-test statistic. Results showed significant reduction (p lt; 0.001) in income, (p lt; 0.001) and in academic level, in oil producing community compared to non-oil producing community. Also there was a significant reduction in haemoglobin and serum proteins in oil producing communities compared to non-oil producing community. Results suggest that crude oil exploration may have a negative impact on the socio-economic and nutritional status of host communities. Key words: Socio-economic, oil-producing, serum protein. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/513DF744239 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000007 en Copyright © 2010 A. O. Naiho, E. K. Nwangwa, S. Ogege and C. P. Aloamaka
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:83CC0BC4244 2010-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2010
The new glucose revolution: Is the authoritative guide to the glycemic index the right dietary solution for lifelong health? Haiyan Chen, M. Janet Shaw and J. Laurie Moyer-Mileur Full Length Research Paper The persistence of an epidemic of obesity, coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes suggests that new nutritional strategies are needed if the epidemic is to be overcome. A promising nutritional approach suggested by this thematic review is carbohydrate restriction. Under conditions of carbohydrate restriction, fuel sources shift from glucose and fatty acids to fatty acids and ketones, and that ad libitumndash;fed carbohydrate-restricted diets lead to appetite reduction, weight loss, and improvement in surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease. Recent researches focus on the debate among professionals regarding the use of the glycemic index (GI) for meal planning. However, evidence from individual trials about benefits and risks of these diets to achieve weight loss and modify cardiovascular risk factors is preliminary. In epidemic studies, there is limited evidence that a low GI diet is beneficial for a reduced risk of developing diabetes or prevalence of insulin resistance, weight loss or satiety, and other cancers. The GI can be used as an adjunct for the fine tuning of postprandial blood glucose responses, particularly in diabetic patients. Other food/meal-planning interventions have been shown to be more effective than the use of the GI. Key words: Glycemic index, glycemic load, macronutrients metabolism, obesity, diabete, coronary heart disease. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/83CC0BC4244 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000043 en Copyright © 2010 Haiyan Chen, M. Janet Shaw and J. Laurie Moyer-Mileur
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:4AF6F274258 2010-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2010
Phytoconstituents, proximate and nutrient investigations of Saba florida (Benth.) from Ibaji forest Omale James, Adeyemi Alexander Rotimi and B. Omajali Jacob Bamaiyi Full Length Research Paper Quantitative determination of chemical and nutritional composition of the leaf, fruit pulp, pericarp and seed of Saba florida (Apocynaceae), an underexploited medicinal and food plant in Nigeria, was carried out using standard methods. The plant parts contain levels of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and other phytochemical. Proximate analysis (total protein, fats, carbohydrate, ash, and moisture contents) were carried out following methods of Association of official Analytical chemists. The order of increasing concentration of the proximate composition is protein mdash;gt; moisturemdash;gt;ashmdash;gt;crude fibremdash;gt;fats mdash;gt;carbohydrate in all plant parts. Elemental nutrients Ca, K, Na, Mg, Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cd were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results revealed higher concentration of macronutrients in all plant parts except K. In conclusion S. florida has high nutritional and medicinal value. Key words: Saba florida (Apocynaceae) proximate analysis, phytoconstituents, macro and micronutrients, Ibaji. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/4AF6F274258 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000033 en Copyright © 2010 Omale James, Adeyemi Alexander Rotimi and B. Omajali Jacob Bamaiyi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:BD90D4E4710 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Glycemic and insulinemic responses to pumpkin and unripe papaya in type 2 diabetic subjects Kaniz Fatema, Farzana Rahman, Nurunnahar Sumi, Khadizatul Kobura, Afsana Afroz and Liaquat Ali Full Length Research Paper Glycemic and Insulinemic responses to pumpkin and unripe papaya by estimating their glycemic index (GI) and insulinemic index (measured by c-peptide) from Bangladeshi origin were investigated in T2DM patients. Based on serving size in the Bangladeshi society, the GL of those two food items were also calculated. Ten T2DM subjects, under a cross-over design, consumed equi-carbohydrate amount (25g of total carbohydrate) of the vegetables and WB (white bread, as reference food), with a run in period of 7 days between the consecutive items. Serum levels of glucose were estimated at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min, respectively, and c-peptide levels were at 0 and 180 min only. GI and GL were calculated by standard formulas. Unripe papaya showed significant lower serum glucose response compared to that of bread and pumpkin. The GI of pumpkin and unripe papaya were 74 plusmn; 42 and 23 plusmn; 7, respectively. The substantially lowered glycemic response and GI values in pumpkin and unripe papaya were not paralleled by an increased insulin response. The GL of Pumpkin and unripe papaya were 6.4 and 1.5, respectively. As judged against the mean values of the international table, pumpkin of Bangladeshi origin is a high GI and unripe papaya is a very low GI food. However, from the dietary practices in Bangladeshi society, pumpkin and papaya may be used as a low and very low GL food, respectively. Key words: Diet, vegetable, unripe papaya, pumpkin, Type 2 diabetes mellitus,glycemic index, glycemic load. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/BD90D4E4710 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000018 en Copyright © 2011 Kaniz Fatema, Farzana Rahman, Nurunnahar Sumi, Khadizatul Kobura, Afsana Afroz and Liaquat Ali
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:97484E64723 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Effects of polypeptide-k supplemented soft bun on blood glucose level in healthy adults Lee Cheng Lok, M. D. Yong Yean Sirn, M. D. Zuraini Ahmad, Azhar Yaacoband Muhammad Nazrul Hakim, Full Length Research Paper The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Polypeptide-k (Ppk) supplemented soft roll on the blood glucose level of 18 healthy individuals as compared to control soft roll alone. Healthy individuals were fasted overnight and blood was taken at baseline (0 min) before consumption of control soft roll, and at 0, 30, 90, 150 and 210 min. Glucose level was then determined. This procedure was repeated with Ppk supplemented soft roll on the same individuals the next day. Ppk supplemented soft roll showed significant decrement (plt;0.05) in glucose level when compared to control soft roll at 90, 150 and 210 min. Blood glucose level with Ppk supplemented soft roll requires statistically significant lesser time, 110 min, to drop to baseline glucose level as compared to control soft roll, which requires 190 min. Blood glucose level with Ppk supplemented soft roll further dropped to -0.9 mmol/L after 210 min while for control soft roll, blood glucose level only dropped slightly to -0.2 mmol/L. In conclusion, Ppk supplemented soft roll caused enhanced reduction in blood glucose level as compared to control soft roll in healthy adults. Key words: Polypeptide-k, blood glucose, Momordica charantia. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/97484E64723 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000012 en Copyright © 2011 Lee Cheng Lok, M. D. Yong Yean Sirn, M. D. Zuraini Ahmad, Azhar Yaacoband Muhammad Nazrul Hakim,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:2547AB94741 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Dietitians in the Netherlands and dietary supplements: Practices, personal use and beliefs Arne Lucas Ten Hoeve Full Length Research Paper The use of dietary supplements is increasingly common in the United States and Europe. Dietitians are among the health care professionals regarded as experts on healthy diet and lifestyle and as such, their recommendations and beliefs regarding dietary supplements may have a significant influence on the use of dietary supplements by consumers. Recommending practices, personal use and beliefs were evaluated in this cross-sectional pilot study. 64% reported using dietary supplements, sometimes, often or very often, themselves for prevention of a health condition, 60% for treatment of a health condition and 44% for enhancing physical or mental performance. 71% indicated recommending supplements sometimes, often or very often for prevention, 82% for treatment of a health condition and 43% for enhancement of performance. Dietary supplements were considered at least moderately safe by 94% of the participating dietitians, while 75% of the dietitians considered dietary supplements at least moderately effective in preventing a health condition, 91% for treatment of a health condition and 59% for performance enhancement. Key words: Dietary supplements, dietitians, CAM therapy, mineral supplements. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/2547AB94741 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000009 en Copyright © 2011 Arne Lucas Ten Hoeve
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:D4BBF184752 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Liver function tests in type 2 Sudanese diabetic patients Ayman S. Idris, Koua Faisal Hammad Mekky, Badr Eldin Elsonni Abdalla and Khalid Altom Ali Full Length Research Paper This study was planned to evaluate the liver function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by measuring aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total protein and albumin. The study was carried out in Wad Medani, Abo Agla Diabetes Centre. 50 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (23 male and 27 female) were included in the study. Their ages ranged between 43 and 79 years. Thirty matched normal individuals were taken as control group. In the present study, mean values of ALT, AST and GGT were significantly higher in patients than in the control (Plt;0.001). Total protein and albumin concentrations in patients were lower compared to control group (Plt;0.01). The mean of serum glucose in patients revealed significant difference (Plt;0.000) in comparison to the control group. Although the differences were statistically significant, the means of ALT, AST, GGT, total protein and albumin were falling within the normal range. Overall 11 patients (22%) had at least one or more abnormal liver function test enzymes. Key words: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperinsulinemia, liver function, metabolism, metabolic disorders, Sudanese. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/D4BBF184752 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000023 en Copyright © 2011 Ayman S. Idris, Koua Faisal Hammad Mekky, Badr Eldin Elsonni Abdalla and Khalid Altom Ali
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:79D4B444767 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Nutrition recovery with Spirulina diet improves body growth and muscle protein of protein – restricted rats Fabriacute;cio A. Voltarelli, Michel B. Arauacute;jo, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Alesandro Garcia, Carolina Mendes Santos Silva, Roberto Carlos Vieira Junior, Flaacute;via Carolina Lemos Meloand Maria Alice R. de Mello Full Length Research Paper The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Spirulina maxima as the sole dietary source of protein on muscle protein and body growth of rats recovering from protein malnutrition. Young (30 days) male Wistar rats were randomly separated into 5 groups: (I) Casein 17% (C17; 30 to 150 days of age); (II) Spirulina 17% (S17; 30 to 150 days); (III) Casein 6% (C6; 30 to 150 days); (IV) Casein 6% (30 to 90 days) and Spirulina 17% (91 to 150 days) (C6/S17) and V- Casein 6% (30 to 90 days) and Casein 17% (91 to 150 days) (C6/C17). Muscle total protein and DNA contents as well as the protein synthesis and degradation rates were investigated to infer on muscle growth and on muscle protein, respectively. The protein malnourished group (C6) presented lower total protein and DNA contents in the soleus muscle if compared to other groups. The nutritional recovery, using both diets, re-established these parameters. Spirulina and casein diets reduced the protein degradation and increased the protein synthesis in the soleus muscle of the previously malnourished rats. Spirulina proved to be an adequate protein source for recovery of body weight and muscle protein of protein malnourished rats. Key words: Muscle protein, Spirulina, rats, protein malnutrition. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/79D4B444767 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000028 en Copyright © 2011 Fabriacute;cio A. Voltarelli, Michel B. Arauacute;jo, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Alesandro Garcia, Carolina Mendes Santos Silva, Roberto Carlos Vieira Junior, Flaacute;via Carolina Lemos Meloand Maria Alice R. de Mello
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:977AB684776 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Association of dietary patterns with metabolic syndrome components in low-income, free-living Brazilian adults Fabiana Castillo Marsola, Ana Elisa M. Rinaldi, Muriel Siqueira, Kaacute;tia Cristina Portero McLellan, Joseacute; Eduardo Corrente and Roberto Carlos Burini Full Length Research Paper This study investigated the association of dietary patterns with sociodemographic markers and components of metabolic syndrome in free-living adults. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was done with a sample of 237 individuals registered at one Family Health Strategy Unit. Biochemical, clinical, socioeconomic and dietary data were collected. Multiple and logistic linear regression were used and the significance level was set at 5%. Three dietary patterns were found and named western pattern, healthy pattern and traditional pattern upon recommendations found in the literature. People with the traditional dietary pattern were older, those with the western dietary pattern had higher education levels and those with the healthy pattern had the lowest income in minimum wages. The healthy pattern presented the lowest odds ratio for abdominal obesity (0.60; CI: 0.44-0.82; plt;0.05). High blood glucose was positively associated with the western pattern. The odds ratio for hypertriglyceridemia was highest for those in the highest quartile of processed food intake. The Western dietary pattern and high percentage of processed foods in the diet must be avoided if hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia are to be prevented or treated; in analogy, the healthy pattern must be promoted to reduce the risk of abdominal obesity. Key words: Nutrition, metabolic syndrome, diet pattern, low-income. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/977AB684776 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000004 en Copyright © 2011 Fabiana Castillo Marsola, Ana Elisa M. Rinaldi, Muriel Siqueira, Kaacute;tia Cristina Portero McLellan, Joseacute; Eduardo Corrente and Roberto Carlos Burini
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:09E3E104795 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Investigating an autonomous system in nursing Mohammad Reza Nami and Jila Saneipour Review The term E-nursing has been used to refer to the incorporation of ICT into nursing. Point-to-point connections using private networks are used by hospitals and clinics that deliver services directly or contract out specialty services to independent nursing service providers at ambulatory care sites. Radiology, mental health and even intensive care services are being provided under contract using Tele-nursing and telemedicine to deliver the services. An autonomous system manages complexity and improves the system complexity without interfering expert humans. The purpose of this paper is to present an autonomous virtual organization for e-nursing describing their characteristics, effects on quality factors, their building blocks architecture, and challenges. Key words: E-Nursing, collaborative networks, information and communication technology (ICT), virtual organization breeding environment (VBE), autonomic computing, self-managing systems. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/09E3E104795 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000020 en Copyright © 2011 Mohammad Reza Nami and Jila Saneipour
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:9250CC14803 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Evaluating the effects of freeze-dried supplements of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) on blood lipids in hypercholesterolemic adults Samuel A. Besong, Michael O. Ezekwe and Edith I. Ezekwe Full Length Research Paper This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the freeze-dried supplements of purslane in reducing blood lipids in hypercholesterolemic adults. Fresh purslane leaves were freeze-dried and the fatty acids content analyzed. Eleven hypercholesterolemic subjects (5 females and 6 males) volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects consumed step I diet during a 2-week acclimation period and switched to step I diet supplemented with freeze-dried purslane leaves (6 g/day) for 4 weeks. Subjects were instructed to incorporate the freeze-dried supplements into their meals at lunch (3 g) and dinner (3 g) during the 4 weeks experimental period. Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of the acclimation period and at 2-weeks interval during the experimental period for analysis of plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations. Data were subject to analysis of variance and means separation was conducted using the Duncan multiple range test (DMRT). Consumption of purslane for 4 weeks reduced (P lt; 0.05) plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol levels were increased (P lt; 0.05). Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were not affected by the consumption of purslane supplements. Results suggest that purslane supplements have the potential to alter blood lipid metabolism in hypercholesterolemic subjects and can lower the risk of heart disease. In addition, nutrient analysis confirmed that purslane is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, crude protein, vitamins and minerals. Key words: Purslane, hypercholesterolemic, subjects, risks factors, heart disease. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/9250CC14803 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000013 en Copyright © 2011 Samuel A. Besong, Michael O. Ezekwe and Edith I. Ezekwe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:5B39B6210391 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Statistical modeling and optimization of enzymatic milk fat splitting by soybean lecithin using response surface methodology J. H. Panwal, T. Viruthagiri and G. Baskar Full Length Research Paper Fat splitting using enzyme is important in reducing the fat content of human body. Hence in the present work, fat splitting of milk butter was attempted using soybean lecithin. A 3-level central composite design was used for optimization of process variables such as of initial butter, initial enzyme concentration, temperature and digestion time on percentage fat splitting using soybean lecithin. The influence of the variables on percentage fat splitting was represented by a second order polynomial model using results obtained in 31 experimental runs of central composite design. The various effects of the factors were studied by studentrsquo;s t-test and Fisherrsquo;s F-test for analysis of variance. The model fitted well with high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.904) justified an excellent correlation between variables and percentage fat splitting. The predicted optimum conditions for the maximum percentage fat splitting was initial milk butter, 6% (w/v), initial enzyme concentration, 4% (w/v), temperature, 40deg;C and digestion time 89.99 min for 7.38% (w/w) of experimental percentage of fat splitting. Key words: Lecithin, milk butter, fat splitting, optimization, central composite design. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/5B39B6210391 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000037 en Copyright © 2011 J. H. Panwal, T. Viruthagiri and G. Baskar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:A6422F510428 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Oxidative stress in the liver of exercised rats supplemented with creatine Michel B. Arauacute;jo, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Carla Ribeiro, Rodrigo Dalia, Fabriacute;cio A. Voltarelli, and Maria Alice de Mello Full Length Research Paper This study examined the effects of aerobic training and creatine supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress in the liver of rats. Ninety-day-old adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: 1) Trained Supplemented (TS), 2) Trained (T), 3) Control Supplemented (CS) and 4) Control (C). Trained rats ran on a treadmill for 40 min a day, 5 days a week, at a speed equivalent to their individual Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS) for 8 weeks. Supplemented rats received creatine monohydrate 5 days a week at a dose of 1.5 g/kg body weight by gavage for 8 weeks. Liver concentration of creatine was higher in group C than in the other groups. The amount of thiobarbituric acid (TBARs) was higher in the CS and C groups than in the trained groups, TS and T. Catalase activity (CAT) was higher in the CS and C groups than in the TS and T groups. There was no significant difference between groups in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). The results of this study suggest that physical activity decreases membrane lipid peroxidation in the liver of rats independently of creatine supplementation. In the present study, this adaptation was not associated with the components of the antioxidant system. Key words: Biomarker, enzyme, treadmill running, training. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/A6422F510428 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000031 en Copyright © 2011 Michel B. Arauacute;jo, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Carla Ribeiro, Rodrigo Dalia, Fabriacute;cio A. Voltarelli, and Maria Alice de Mello
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:9B2F8BE10455 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Growth in children with encephalopathy, a longitudinal study from the 6th to the 24th month Izilda das Eiras Tacirc;mega, Antonio de Azevedo Barros Filho and Elizete Aparecida Lomazi da Costa Pinto Full Length Research Paper There is lack of references on how to best estimate the goals to be achieved in the growth of children with encephalopathy. This study aims to describe anthropometric data in infants with encephalopathy when followed in a tertiary clinic. Children with disturbed neurological function (N = 132) had their anthropometric measures taken every six months, from the 6th to 24th day, and compared to the data from 125 healthy infants. Nutritional orientation, speech therapy for deglutition disorders and physiotherapy were provided during follow up. Infants, aged 6 to 24 months with encephalopathy and who were even under close support on nutritional orientation, presented significant impairment of their body growth parameters. When compared with healthy and preterm infants, they were significantly smaller than term patients with encephalopathy. However, it was seen that dysphagia was associated with poor growth parameters in those infants. Key words: Encephalopathy, growth, infant. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/9B2F8BE10455 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000019 en Copyright © 2011 Izilda das Eiras Tacirc;mega, Antonio de Azevedo Barros Filho and Elizete Aparecida Lomazi da Costa Pinto
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:A42465810467 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Studies on the chemical and antinutritional content of some Nigerian spices Friday O. Uhegbu, Emeka E. J. Iweala and Ijeoma Kanu Full Length Research Paper Quantitative determination of chemical and anti-nutrient content of six spices commonly consumed in the South East of Nigeria was carried out using standard methods. Results reveal that the chemical and anti-nutritional composition of these edible Nigerian spices, Gongronema latifolium, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica , Monodora myristica, Allium sativum and Tetrapleura tetrapetra are rich in protein, fat, fiber, and carbohydrate in the range of 1.17 to 11.90%, 1.06 to 14.66%, 0.33 to 38.60% and 13.18 to 76.16% respectively. The mineral and vitamin content is equally high: Ca2+ 122 to 279 mg/100 g, Na+ 19.34 to 60 mg/100 g, K+ 99.1 to 620 mg/100 g,P 96 to 723.8 mg/100 g, Mg2+ 0.065 ndash; 82 mg/100 g. Vitamin A content ranged between 7.09 to 21.29 u/100 g, while vitamin C and E between 2740 to 88600 u/100 g and 1.64 to 16.4 u/100 g respectively. Antinutrients present include alkaloids 1.22 to 9.40%, flavonoids 0.038 to 0.36%, saponins 0.14 to 1.70%, Steroid 3 times; 10-5 to 1.62%, HCN 5 times;10-4 -2.04%, Tannin 0.06 to 6.10%, anthocyanins 0.16 to 0.21%. In conclusion, this study has shown that these spices have high nutritional content and low anti-nutritional content. The possible nutritional implications of these findings are discussed. Key words: Herbs, relative humidity, cultural practice, curative, phytomedicine. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/A42465810467 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000039 en Copyright © 2011 Friday O. Uhegbu, Emeka E. J. Iweala and Ijeoma Kanu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:F30A6A55860 2011-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Effect of cinnamon and garlic on hyperlipidemics Balasasirekha, R. and Lakshmi, U. K. Full Length Research Paper Spices have been used to preserve food, enhance their flavour and as remedies for a long list of ailments and are effective in controlling serum lipids. The objectives were to analyze the nutritive value and active principles of cinnamon and garlic, prepare the respective spice capsules and to supplement the diets of hyperlipidemics with the spice capsules for a period of three months. A group of 45 mild to moderate hyperlipidemics were selected for the supplementation study was divided into three groups (15 each), two supplementation and one control group. To one group, cinnamon in the form of capsules and to the other garlic capsules was supplemented. Cinnamon and garlic after a series of processing steps were made to capsules of 500 mg each. Clinical examination and biochemical parameters were analysed before and after supplementation. The results revealed that the clinical symptoms experienced by the cinnamon supplemented group disappeared whereas only few symptoms disappeared in garlic supplemented groups. Cinnamon supplemented group of hyperlipidemics showed a maximum decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL cholesterol and an increase in the HDL cholesterol which were significant at 1% level. No change was observed in the control group. Key words: Spices, cinnamon, garlic, hyperlipidemics. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/F30A6A55860 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000010 en Copyright © 2011 Balasasirekha, R. and Lakshmi, U. K.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:D2213E65944 2011-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Nutritional and metabolic risk factors for insulin resistance in adults Joatilde;o Felipe Mota, Fernando Moreto, Wilson Luvizoto Medina, Elaine Cristina Leite Pereiraand Roberto Carlos Burini, Full Length Research Paper The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of insulin resistance (IR) with dietary, fitness, anthropometric and other components of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult participants. Cross-sectional study of 80 adult participants (58plusmn;8 years old) were clinically and ethically selected. They were all assessed for anthropometry, dietary habits, plasma biochemistry and indirect measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Participants were diagnosed for MS by IDF criterion and placed in 3 different groups using tertiles of HOMA-IR. Values were statistically correlated with the remaining variables. Predictors of IR were determined by multivariate regression analysis. HOMA-IR was significant (plt;0.001) and positively associated with MS prevalence (r=0.67), C-reactive protein (r=0.58), waist circumference (WC) (r=0.55), servings of fat consumption (r=0.52), body weight (r=0.43), body mass index (r=0.40), uric acid (r=0.40), inversely correlated associated with HDL-c (r=-0.56), VO2max (r=-0.28), ingested fibers (r=-0.47) and fruits (r=-0.39). The fiber intake discriminated tertiles of HOMA-IR (G1lt;G2lt;G3). The variables considered independent predictors of HOMA-IR were WC, fat intake, MS, low fiber intake, low muscle mass and high plasmatic concentrations of uric acid. The highest values of HOMA-IR (P75) were positively associated with consumption of refined grains, uric acid, triglycerides, low consumption of fruit and low HDL-c. Main determinants of IR are preventable factors. Key words: Insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, lipoproteins, eating habits, physical fitness. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/D2213E65944 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000029 en Copyright © 2011 Joatilde;o Felipe Mota, Fernando Moreto, Wilson Luvizoto Medina, Elaine Cristina Leite Pereiraand Roberto Carlos Burini,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:79DE5DD5968 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Comparative evaluation of antioxidant effects of watermelon and orange, and their effects on some serum lipid profile of Wister albino rats Erifeta O. Georgina, Omage Kingsley, Uhumwangho S. Esosa, Njoya K. Helen, Amegor O. Frank and Okonkwo C. Anthony Full Length Research Paper The comparative antioxidant effects of watermelon and orange, and their effects on serum (high density lipoproteins) HDL-cholesterol and (low density lipoproteins) LDL-cholesterol in normal rats given varying doses of the juices were investigated. 120 g/70 kg body weight was used as the standard dose, and the animals were given the normal dose, times; 1.5, and times; 2.0 of the normal dose, orally, for a period of six weeks. Our findings showed that watermelon juice caused a dose related decrease in SOD activity at weeks three and six, while orange juice caused a dose related increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. They both showed catalase activity lower than that for control, and at high doses, both showed increased activity of catalase. Both juice caused a dose related increase in HDL-cholesterol, with no significant difference (p gt; 0.05) between them. And, watermelon caused a dose related decrease in LDL-cholesterol, while orange caused a dose related increase in LDL-cholesterol. But, LDL concentration for orange treated test groups were shown to be higher than that for watermelon treated test groups. These show that both fruits are complimentary, as the shortcoming of one is made up for by the other. So, for full health benefit, it is better to consume both at the same time. Key words: Antioxidants, dose related, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, (high density lipoproteins) HDL-cholesterol, (low density lipoproteins) LDL-cholesterol, normal dose. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/79DE5DD5968 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000006 en Copyright © 2011 Erifeta O. Georgina, Omage Kingsley, Uhumwangho S. Esosa, Njoya K. Helen, Amegor O. Frank and Okonkwo C. Anthony
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:3FE9FA95986 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Evaluation of nutrient composition of African melon oilseed (Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin) for human nutrition Samuel A. Besong, Michael O. Ezekwe, Celestine N. Fosung and Zachary N. Senwo Full Length Research Paper Protein deficiency is prevalent among children and even adults in developing countries, especially in African countries and contributes to immune dysfunction, opportunistic infections and mortality. The goal of this project is to search for a cheaper and sustainable plant based source of protein that can be incorporated in the diet to prevent protein deficiency and other essential nutrients. African melon oil seeds (Cucumeropsis manniiNaudin) collected from Cameroon-West Africa were analyzed to determine their nutrient composition and whether they could serve as a sustainable source of protein, essential amino acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids for consumers in developing countries, especially in African countries. Nutrient data obtained shows that Cucumeropsis manniiNaudin has crude protein content of 31.4% and all essential amino acids. Total fat content in the seeds was 52.5% and the fatty acids that were in abundance were: linoleic (62.42%), oleic (15.90%), palmitic (10.27%), and stearic (10.26%). Mineral and vitamin analysis indicated that the seed contains important macro and micro minerals, and vitamins. Nutrient composition shows that Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin is a rich source of protein, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, minerals and vitamins making it a nutritive food for consumers in developing countries, especially in West Africa where it is widely cultivated. The high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and essential amino acids, demonstrate that Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin has potential health benefits. Our results suggest that African oilseed is a potential food source that can be incorporated in many African/Western diets, and/or used in poultry and animal feed. Key words: African melon oilseed, protein, amino acids, fatty acids, mineral, vitamin. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/3FE9FA95986 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000014 en Copyright © 2011 Samuel A. Besong, Michael O. Ezekwe, Celestine N. Fosung and Zachary N. Senwo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:3D5C23B6002 2011-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Production, in vitro protein digestibility, phytate content and acceptability of weaning foods prepared from pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) H. H. Laminu, S. Modu and A. I. Numan Full Length Research Paper Weaning food blends prepared from fermented pearl millet/roasted cowpea in 70:30 and 60:40 ratios were evaluated for their nutritional values. The pearl millets used were SOSAT C-88 (an improved variety) and a local variety (unimproved), while the cowpea used was the Borno red. Standard methods were used for the analysis. Processing of the grains resulted in lower levels of phytic acid and higher in vitro protein digestibility of the weaning food blends. The predominant microorganisms isolated during the production of quot;Kamuquot; were Streptococcus tactics, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Micrococcus lateus andLactobacillus plantarum. Sensory evaluation results showed that there were no significant differences (Pgt;0.05) in the weaning food blends. Even though the 70:30 ratio was used in most literatures, the 60:40 ratio used in this study was superior to the 70:30 ratio. Key words: Millet, in vitro protein digestability, phytate, sensory. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/3D5C23B6002 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000034 en Copyright © 2011 H. H. Laminu, S. Modu and A. I. Numan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:4682F446019 2011-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Visceral adiposity in Saudi females and its relationship to diet and serum adipocytokine levels Eman Mokbel Alissa and Hanan Ahmad AlKadi Full Length Research Paper To investigate the relationship between visceral fat, habitual dietary intake and circulating levels of three adipokines in Saudi females. A total of 127 apparently healthy female students were randomly recruited from Medicine College at KAU, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements were performed and a questionnaire was used to assess demographic variables, general health, medication use and dietary intake. Biochemical parameters were measured in fasting blood samples. Subjects were categorized into 2 subgroups according to presence or absence of visceral obesity, which was defined by a waist circumference (WC) value above 75th percentile. Significantly lower serum adiponectin (plt;0.01) in addition to significantly higher serum lipid parameters, glucose, insulin (plt;0.0001), leptin and dietary protein levels (plt;0.05) were found among subjects with WCge;79 cm than those with WClt;79 cm. Multiple regression analysis identified serum adiponectin (beta;= -0.71, P=0.013), leptin (beta;= 0.335, P=0.05) and daily intake level of adjusted protein (beta;= 2.817, P=0.011) as independent predictors for WC. Hypoadiponectemia, hyperleptinemia and high dietary protein level adjusted for total caloric intake are suggested to be associated with visceral fat among a group of Saudi females independent of body weight. Key words: Visceral obesity, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, dietary intake, Saudi female Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/4682F446019 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000046 en Copyright © 2011 Eman Mokbel Alissa and Hanan Ahmad AlKadi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:0AE13476033 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Oyster mushroom ameliorates liver function during ramadan fast reflected by reducing the serum level of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase of male volunteers Md. Bazlul Karim Choudhury, M. Masudul Hassan, Ferdousi Rahman Mowsumi, Nirod Chandra Sarker, Md. Shahdat Hossain and M. Shahabuddin Kabir Choudhury Full Length Research Paper During the holy Arabic month Ramadan, the quality of food and the patterns of eating and drinking are changed as well as stopped for at least 10 to 16 h on the basis of lunar calendar. The effects of exercise and fasting solely or combined on metabolic and hematologic responses are well established. The purpose of the present study was to find out the effects of Ramadan fasting on hepatic dysfunction marker enzymes such as Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) which are considered as common liver function tests (LFTs) of adult human and corresponding change with the supplementation of oyster mushroom at ifter. The feeding of semi cooked fresh oyster mushroom at the iftar table during Ramadan fasting decreased the serum levels of ALT (p lt; 0.001) and AST (lt; 0.05) of male subjects indicating oyster mushroom is able to ameliorates liver functions. Key words: Pleurotus ostreatus, ALT, AST, Ramadan, Iftar and Male. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/0AE13476033 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000032 en Copyright © 2011 Md. Bazlul Karim Choudhury, M. Masudul Hassan, Ferdousi Rahman Mowsumi, Nirod Chandra Sarker, Md. Shahdat Hossain and M. Shahabuddin Kabir Choudhury
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:46CFC446053 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Low phenylalanine pasta ATTIA YASEEN and ABD ELHAFEEZ SHOUK Full Length Research Paper Four formulas were prepared for production of low phenylalanine pasta suitable for phenylketonuria (PKU) patients. The formulas were based on partial replacement of wheat flour with different levels of corn starch. Pectin and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were added as a texture modifier. Chemical composition, amino acids, dough characteristics, color attributes, cooking quality, electron microscopic examination and sensory evaluation of pasta were investigated. The obtained results revealed that pasta samples had lower protein and phenylalanine content than control as a result of replacing wheat flour using corn starch. Phenylalanine and protein content of formula quot;Dquot; which contains 66 g corn starch, 30 g wheat flour, 2 g pectin and 2 g CMC reduced by 68 and 70%, respectively, compared with control. Viscoamylograph and falling number parameters were significantly affected. The cooking loss of pasta ranged from 10.60 to 22.50% and was significantly higher than that of the control, but adding hydrocolloids (pectin and CMC) diminished cooking loss. Sensory characteristics of pasta indicated that all formulas were acceptable. Formula quot;Dquot; which has the lowest phenylalanine content seems to be superior for PKU patients. Key words: Pasta, wheat flour, corn starch, pectin, carboxymethylcellulose, phenylketonuria, amino acids, microstructure, sensory evaluation. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/46CFC446053 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000025 en Copyright © 2011 ATTIA YASEEN and ABD ELHAFEEZ SHOUK
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:65025B46149 2011-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2011
Toxicologic evaluation of a plant food concentrate Palma Ann Marone, Mark Bauter, Hana Hofman-Huuml;ther, Roland J. Gahler and Simon Wood, Full Length Research Paper The present study evaluated the mutagenic and toxicologic potential of a proprietary greens product sold under the trade names: All Greensreg;, Enriching GreensOgrave;Greengevityreg;. This is a plant food concentrate of berry and enriched greens extract. An in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay, showed no toxic effects in any of the five tester strains used up to the highest dose group evaluated except for a weak mutation effect in tester strain TA 1537 at a concentration of 5,000 g/plate without metabolic activation. No biologically relevant increases in revertant colony numbers of any of the five tester strains were observed. In a 14-day feeding study of dietary levels of 0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0% in rats, there were no adverse clinical, body weight, food consumption or macroscopic changes associated with the administration of this product. Key words: All greens, toxicology, Ames, 14-day dietary study. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/65025B46149 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000045 en Copyright © 2011 Palma Ann Marone, Mark Bauter, Hana Hofman-Huuml;ther, Roland J. Gahler and Simon Wood,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:EC6B6174273 2012-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Food and nutrition education; elaboration of a guide for children of 6 to 12 years BECHIRI Loubna and AGLI Abdel Nacer Full Length Research Paper A qualitative description of the food situation for 2196 Algerian healthy school childrenaged 6 to 12 years (Constantine, Jijel, Touggourt) by a qualitative meta-analysis. Our aim is to compare the observed and recommended diet (2001) to correct some food errors (quantity, quality, behaviour) with recommendations for nutrition education as a guide for children to prevent communicable diseases related to diet; in Algeria this type of study is rare due to lack of work on this age and because of lack of access to previous studies. The results obtained are: the decline of daily caloric intake, an unbalanced distribution of macro and micronutrients, a high intake of starch products, an average consumption of vegetables, fruit and fish rich in antioxidants biomolecules, breakfast is neglected, the morning snack and snack time food are formed by foods of high energy density, the snacking food type lsquo;junk foodrsquo; practiced the whole time watching television and a decrease in the practice of regular physical activity. Key words: Algeria, nutrition education, children of 6 to 12 years, quantity, quality and behavioural food, guide. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/EC6B6174273 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000017 en Copyright © 2012 BECHIRI Loubna and AGLI Abdel Nacer
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:B0E241B4279 2012-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
α-Glucosidase inhibitory activities of some Oxovanadium(IV) complexes: Examples of low IC50 values Sristicheta Misra, Krishna Bihari Pandeya, Ashok K. Tiwari, Amtul Z. Ali, Thimmapatruni Saradamani, Sachin B. Agawane and Kuncha Madhusudana Full Length Research Paper alpha;-Glucosidase inhibition measurements have been made on oxovanadium(IV) complexes of eight Schiff base ligands. Three of the complexes show exceptionally low IC50 values: VO(sal-anl)2 = 2.105 M, VO(sal-mxyanl)2 = 1.26 M and VO(sal-ntranl)2 = 1.26 M. In-vivo experiments for antihyperglycemic activity carried out on one of these complexes, viz., VO(sal-mxyanl)2, reveal that the complex decreases blood glucose level by ~ 12% . Key words: alpha;-Glucosidase inhibition, oxovanadium (IV) complexes, Schiff bases, antihyperglycemic activity. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/B0E241B4279 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000022 en Copyright © 2012 Sristicheta Misra, Krishna Bihari Pandeya, Ashok K. Tiwari, Amtul Z. Ali, Thimmapatruni Saradamani, Sachin B. Agawane and Kuncha Madhusudana
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:C10DC244289 2012-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
The acute cytotoxicity and lethal concentration (LC50) of Agaricus sylvaticus through hemolytic activity on human erythrocyte Joice Vinhal Costa Orsine, Rafael Vinhal da Costa, Renata Carvalho da Silva, Maria de Faacute;tima Menezes Almeida Santos and Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi Novaes Full Length Research Paper There is limited information regarding acute toxicity and lethal concentration of edible and medicinal mushrooms. The objective of this paper is to estimate the cytotoxicity of the aqueous extract of Agaricus sylvaticus mushroom on human erythrocytes by determining the lethal average concentration (LC50). Six concentrations of the mushroom (17, 8.5, 4.25, 2.125, 1.0625 and 0.5312 mg/mL) were submitted for evaluation of hemolytic activityin vitro, using a suspension of blood. Through the Prism GraphPad Software, using the Tukey test for statistical analysis (p lt;0.05), a curve was constructed with values of A. sylvaticus mushroom concentrations versus the values determined by absorbance spectrophotometry at 540 nm. Results of hemolytic activity for the aqueous extract were fitted using nonlinear regression and the equation: Yi = axi / (b + Xi). We used values of y as hemolytic activity and x as log of A. sylvaticus mushroom concentration. The coefficient for determining the curve (R2) was 0.95 of the original data. The percentage of haemolysis increased in a concentration-dependent manner of A. sylvaticus extract used. The LC50 value obtained was 9.213 mg/mL. Results derived from this experiment suggest that this mushroom extract has very low toxicity proving to be safe for human use. Key words: Lethal concentration, Agaricus sylvaticus, hemolytic activity, sun mushroom. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/C10DC244289 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000040 en Copyright © 2012 Joice Vinhal Costa Orsine, Rafael Vinhal da Costa, Renata Carvalho da Silva, Maria de Faacute;tima Menezes Almeida Santos and Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi Novaes
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:4C239A84346 2012-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Dietary diversity, micronutrient intake and their variation among black women in informal settlements in South Africa: A cross-sectional study Hedwig Acham, Wilna H. Oldewage-Theron and Abdulkadir A. Egal Full Length Research Paper This study assessed dietary diversity, its relation to micronutrient intake and variability between age-groups among women 19ndash;69 years from informal settlements of Gauteng province, South Africa. The study was cross-sectional, involving 260 women. Dietary intake was obtained from 24-hour recall data, and Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) from Food Frequency Questionnaire, calculated based on 9 food groups and 80 foods. Intake of eleven micronutrients was assessed as Nutrient Adequacy Ratios (NAR) and Mean Adequacy Ratios (MAR), using Estimated Average Requirements and Adequate Intakes of these micronutrients, following Institute of Medicine recommendations. On average, 26 foods and 7 food groups were consumed. There was a strong significantly positive relationship (plt;0.001) between the NAR of respective micronutrients (as well as MAR) with the DDS, the relationship was negative with food variety and diversity within food groups; except for vitamin C. Age-group comparisons revealed the older age groups (36-years and older) being at-risk of low micronutrient intake; particularly in calcium, vitamins C and A. In conclusion, dietary diversity was above reference, there was a strong relationship between DDS and micronutrient intake, and there is a significant variation in intake between age-groups, with women 36-years and older being more at-risk of low micronutrient intake. Key words: Dietary diversity, informal settlements, micronutrients, nutrient adequacy, nutrition education. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/4C239A84346 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000008 en Copyright © 2012 Hedwig Acham, Wilna H. Oldewage-Theron and Abdulkadir A. Egal
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:16427654363 2012-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Antagonistic salubrious effects of Tahitian Noni in Momordica charantia-induced cytoarchitectural alterations in rat testes: Parallel light microscopic findings Yama O. E., Bassey R. B., Amah C. I., Oyebadejo S. A. and Oremosu A. A. Full Length Research Paper Drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affect the activity of another to either increased or decreased its outcome. It could also produce an entirely new effect. To determine if addition of Tahitian Noni dietary supplement can alleviate Momordica charantia-induced testicular alterations in Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty adult male 16 - 20 weeksrsquo; old Sprague-Dawley rats randomized into 6 groups (n=5) were used. Group I (DW8wk) the control: administered distilled water for 8 weeks. Group II (MC50 (8wk)): received 50 mg/100 g b.w. of M. charantia seed extracts for 8 weeks. Group III (MC50 (4wk)-N5 (4wk)): gavaged 50 mg/100 g b.w. of M. charantia seed extracts for 4 weeks thereafter 5 ml/kg of Noni for another 4 weeks. Group IV (MC50 (8wk)+N5 (8wk)): received 50 mg/100 g b.w. of M. charantia seed extracts and 5 ml/kg of Noni concurrently for 8 weeks. Group V (N5 (8wk)): received 5 ml/kg of Noni alone for 8 weeks. Group VI (N5 (4wk)-MC50 (4wk)): treated with 5 ml/kg of Noni for 4 weeks and 50 mg/100 g b.w. of M. charantiaseed extracts for another 4 weeks. The animals were sacrificed on day 57. The testes harvested cleared off surrounding connective tissues and processed for histology.Comparing the slides from treated rats to control, histology showed depletion of spermatogenic cells lines in the seminiferous tubular lumen in MC50 (8wk). This indicates a harmful effect of the extract. Those exposed to Noni, concurrently or otherwise (N5(8wk),MC50(4wk)-N5 (4wk) and MC50 (8wk) +N5 (8wk)) tended towards the normal reference. Light microscopic evidence supports the ameliorative effect of Tahitian Noni dietary supplement on the testicular toxicity induced by high dose M. charantia extract. Key words: Momordica charantia, Tahitian Noni sprague-dawley, histology, testes. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/16427654363 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000001 en Copyright © 2012 Yama O. E., Bassey R. B., Amah C. I., Oyebadejo S. A. and Oremosu A. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:874242A4390 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Need of education and awareness towards zinc supplementation: A review MEGHA DAS and RATNESH DAS Review Zinc is an essential trace element and thus zinc deficiency may severely affect human health. Zinc supplementation is commonly used to prevent and treat human diseases due to zinc deficiency. Many studies published proved zinc supplementation as a boon for preventing and treating diseases related with zinc deficiency whereas in some cases adverse affects of excess zinc supplementation have also been reported, which clearly points out to the need of health education and programmes before zinc supplementation. This review highlights the need of health education and awareness programmes for effective zinc supplementation. Key words: Zinc deficiency, zinc supplementation, health education, awareness. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/874242A4390 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000027 en Copyright © 2012 MEGHA DAS and RATNESH DAS
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:23CCD0A4402 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Antioxidant activity of some wild edible plants of Meghalaya state of India: A comparison using two solvent extraction systems Tapan Seal Full Length Research Paper The objective of the present study was to find out the antioxidant potential of some wild edible plants, traditionally used by the local people of Meghalaya state in India and also to investigate the effect of solvent extraction system (aq. methanol and acetone) on the total phenolic, flavonoids and flavonols content, reducing power and antioxidant activity of the plants. The total phenol content varied from 3.31plusmn;0.10 to 27.67plusmn;0.16 mg/g in the aqueous methanol extract and 2.61plusmn;0.13 to 6.85plusmn;0.13 mg/g in the acetone extract of the plants. Flavonoids content were between 8.11plusmn;0.071 and 52.14plusmn;0.004 mg/g in aqueous methanol extract and varied from 1.22plusmn; 0.01 to 52.17plusmn; 0.01 mg/g in the acetone extract. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. The highest radical scavenging was observed in the aq. methanol extract of Gentiana pedicellata with IC50 = 0.23plusmn;0.0007 mg dry material. The greater amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and flavonol content leads to more potent radical scavenging effect as shown by the aq. methanol extract of G. pedicellata. Flavonol content was observed highest in the aq. methanol extract of G. pedicellata (23.12 plusmn;0.006 mg/g) and least in the acetone extract of Gynocardia odorata (0.09plusmn;0.008 mg/g). The reducing power of the extracts of the plants were also evaluated as mg AAE (ascorbic acid equivalent)/g dry material and highest reducing power (16.11 plusmn; 0.03) observed in the aq. methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea, which contain maximum amount of phenolic compounds (27.67plusmn;0.16 mg/g GAE). The results indicate that the type of extragent significantly influenced the antioxidant activity of these wild edible plants and could be utilized as potential source of natural antioxidant in the food or in pharmaceutical industry. Key words: Wild edible plants, Meghalaya, phenolic, antioxidant activity, two different solvent extraction system. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/23CCD0A4402 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000003 en Copyright © 2012 Tapan Seal
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:DCEC5C24424 2012-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Proximate composition and breeding description of an unidentified Cichlid of Epe Lagoon, Lagos, Southwest, Nigeria commonly called ‘Wesafu’ H. Fashina-Bombata and I. Megbowon Full Length Research Paper A common cichlid of the Epe Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria is an important food fish and viable candidate for culture in meeting the millennium goal and vision 2020 in the subregion. The intense fisheries of this ecotype also pose a conservation issue. The comparative protein contents of the cichlid fishes were 21.80, 18.34, 19.13, 18.71 and 18.08% for Wesafu,Sarotherodon galileaus, Sarotherodon melanotheron, Tilapia guineensis and Tilapia mariae, respectively. The highest percentage of protein was obtained for Wesafu. The results of the lipid determination showed that Wesafu had 0.9% lipid which is higher than others with T. guineensis having the least (0.4%) value for lipid. The result showed that all the fish studied belong to low oil category and therefore can be classified as lean fish. The major component of fish muscle is moisture. There was a progressive increase in the number of ripe eggs (absolute fecundity) from larger fish to smaller one. However, the relative fecundity followed a reverse order. Female Wesafu produce only a few hundreds to less than 2,000 eggs per spawn but inter-spawning period varied from 25 to 30 days in the present study. It was observed that this parameter (spawning frequency) was not affected by the weight of the broodstock. Although Wesafu could be seen as a commercially important fish species based on its credentials of deeper body, high economic value, in terms of price, white flesh and good taste, its aquaculture potential may be affected by its low fecundity. On the courtship behavior, Wesafu exhibits a characteristic golden yellow radiation during breeding period. During courtship, the fish display a characteristics kissing lifestyle. This appears different from that of Oreochromis niloticus which displays a poking courtship behavior with the female swimming in front while the male pokes the side. The result of this finding showed that of all the brooders in all hapas, only females that had eggs/hatchlings in their mouthparts. This comes to show that Wesafu probably belong to the genus, Oreochromis. Although this study has identified Wesafu as a probable member of the genus, Oreochromis, there is the need to identify the fish at a molecular level to see if it belongs to any of the known species ofOreochromis, or perhaps a simple strain. Key words: Ecotype cichlid, Wesafu, Tilapiine spp., breeding behavior, proximate composition. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/DCEC5C24424 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000036 en Copyright © 2012 H. Fashina-Bombata and I. Megbowon
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:8CD3C094595 2012-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of three mushroom species, Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Volvariella esculenta (Massee) Singer and Pleurocybella porrigens (Pers.) Singer Israel O. Okoro Full Length Research Paper The antioxidant properties of three mushroom samples, namely, Lentinus squarrosulus, Volvariella esculenta and Pleurocybella porrigens were investigated. The antioxidant activities, 2, 2- diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, reducing powers, amount of total phenolic compounds and flavonoid concentration of the extracts were determined. The mushroom samples showed differences in values for all the five parameters. L. squarrosulus had the highest antioxidant activity of 40.54plusmn;1.50, flavonoid concentration (61.93plusmn;2.93), total phenolic content (392.68plusmn;33.77) and reducing power activity (281.15plusmn;8.13), while P. porrigens had the least values for these parameters. There were statistically significant correlations between reducing power and amount of total phenolic compounds in all three mushroom extracts. The highest DPPH scavenging ability was shown by P. porringes (63.37plusmn;2.89) and the least value of this parameter was shown by V. esculenta (48.88plusmn;1.35). The mushroom samples showed significant difference (plt;0.05) in all the parameters, except for total phenolic compounds concentration (pgt;0.05). All the three mushroom samples exhibited effective antioxidant properties which contribute to their medicinal and health values. Key words: Lentinus squarrosulus, Volvariella esculenta, Pleurocybella porrigens,mushroom, antioxidant, phenolic content. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/8CD3C094595 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000002 en Copyright © 2012 Israel O. Okoro
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:BD082D84623 2012-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Nutritional status, bacterial vaginosis and cervical colonization in women living in an urban slum in India Rajkumar Hemalatha, Baru Anantha Ramalaxmi, Gummuluri Krishna Swetha, Dasari Madusudhan Rao, Sesha Charyulu, and Dinesh Kumar Full Length Research Paper The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and cervical colonization, and association of bacterial vaginosis with serum nutrients were determined in women living in slum areas of Hyderabad, India. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed based on Nugentsrsquo; score. Cervical infections with human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus type 2, Neisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were determined by PCR. Of the 260 women who participated in the study, 31% (81) had bacterial vaginosis and 48.8% (127) had intermediate flora based on Nugentsrsquo; score. Only 184 vaginal samples were processed for candidiasis, of which 66 showed Candida albicans, accounting for a prevalence of 36.0%. PCR analysis of cervical swabs obtained from 50 women with acute cervicitis showed the following trend of prevalence of various organisms: 30% U. urealyticum, 10% M. hominis, 2% herpes simplex virus and Human papilloma virus, while C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhea were not detected in any. In the 50 women without cervicitis, 6 (12%) had human papilloma virus, while other organisms were not detected. All the women with cervical colonization (U. urealyticum, M. hominis and herpes simplex virus type 2) and 6 of 7 women with human papilloma virus had bacterial vaginosis or intermediate flora. Thirty percent of the women were undernourished (body mass index lt;18.5), while all the women in the study were anemic (hemoglobin lt;12 g/dl). More than 50% of the women in the study had low serum iron, while more than 90% had low serum zinc levels. But vitamin A deficiency was prevalent in 3% of the study subjects. Low concentrations of serum iron, zinc and vitamin A were significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis. Key words: Bacterial vaginosis, cervicitis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, vitamin A, iron, zinc. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/BD082D84623 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM12.005 en Copyright © 2012 Rajkumar Hemalatha, Baru Anantha Ramalaxmi, Gummuluri Krishna Swetha, Dasari Madusudhan Rao, Sesha Charyulu, and Dinesh Kumar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:E8B94924653 2012-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Toxicological evaluation of oregano oil Palma Ann Marone, Mark Bauter, Hana Hofman-Huether, Roland J. Gahler and Simon Wood, Full Length Research Paper The present study evaluated the mutagenic and toxicological potential of a proprietary organic oregano/olive oil mix sold under the trade name Oregananotrade;. The test article was investigated for its potential to induce gene mutations according to the plate incorporation and preincubation test by Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, 100, 1535 and 1537 and tester strain Escherichia coli WP2uvrA at concentrations of 3.16, 10.0, 31.6, 100, 316, 1000, 2500 and 5000 mu;g/plate with and without metabolic activation. Although toxic effects were noted in all tester strains, no biologically relevant increases in revertant colony numbers of any of the five tester strains were observed. Therefore, Oregananotrade; did not cause gene mutations by base pair changes or frame shifts in the genome of the strains used and were considered to be non-mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation assay. In a 14-day feeding study of dietary levels of 0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0% in Sprague-Dawley rats, there were no adverse clinical, body weight, food consumption or macroscopic changes associated with the administration of Oregananotrade;. Body weight gain and food consumption was statistically reduced over the 14 days in both male and female animals; however, body weight and food efficiency was unaffected. There were no macroscopic findings attributable to test article administration. Therefore, the no-observed adverse- effect level (NOAEL) was 5.0% in the diet, the highest dose tested and OregananoTM is considered safe and suitable for consumption. Key words: Toxicology, oregano, genotoxicity. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/E8B94924653 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM12.010 en Copyright © 2012 Palma Ann Marone, Mark Bauter, Hana Hofman-Huether, Roland J. Gahler and Simon Wood,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:50EDABA4665 2012-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase: The balance between energy production and genetic material repair in cyanogenic toxicity response Ogundele O. M. and Caxton-Martins E. A., Full Length Research Paper The adult neurons are entirely dependent on aerobic metabolism involving the glycolytic pathway. The primary transport mechanism of glucose have been found to be dependent of exchange with glutamate, while the glutamate thus released is converted into glutamine by the surrounding astrocytes. In the metabolism of the glucose taken up by the neurons, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase converts the glucose-6-phosphate into ribose sugar precursor for generation of genetic materials. In this study, we explain the basic of the rational for the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) into ribose sugar as against the G-6-P proceeding into pyruvate formation for ATP generation. In toxicity studies where oxidative stress was induced by cyanide, we observed a decline in G6PDH levels. In analysis of these findings, it was observed that the G6PDH levels were secondary indicator of oxidative stress. The primary cause in the enzyme shift is for more G6P to proceed into energy production to compensate for the energy block created by cyanide while at the same time reducing the amount of G6P converted into ribose sugar for DNA repair. Key words: Glucose, glutamate, DNA repair, G6PDH. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/50EDABA4665 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM12.012 en Copyright © 2012 Ogundele O. M. and Caxton-Martins E. A.,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:039486B4697 2012-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Determinants of nutritional behaviour of secondary school students in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria Maria Michael Ikorok, Rebecca James Eka, Lucas O. Ogunjimi and Nestor B. Udoh Full Length Research Paper The researchersrsquo; purpose in the study was to assess the determinants of nutritional behaviour of secondary schools students in Akwa Ibom State, using a descriptive survey design. Five research questions and three null hypotheses were verified in the study. The determinants of nutritional behaviour (DNB)rdquo; questionnaire was used to collect data from a multi-stage simple random sample of 450 drawn from the 1320 Senior Secondary II students in the State. Percentage analysis of data revealed a high positive score of 69.2% on knowledge of nutritional values, and a high positive score of 61.5% on the nutritional behaviour of students. Findings from Chi-square analysis revealed that knowledge of nutrition, family income and gender had significant influence of the nutritional behaviour of secondary school students in the state. Based on the findings, it was recommended that planned and consistent nutrition education should be undertaken to sustain and improve the level of knowledge and nutritional behaviour of students. Also, government should formulate policies that will improve on the social and economic status of people, while intensifying the poverty reduction programmes at the various levels. Key words: Students nutritional determinants, knowledge, behaviour, values. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/039486B4697 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM11.041 en Copyright © 2012 Maria Michael Ikorok, Rebecca James Eka, Lucas O. Ogunjimi and Nestor B. Udoh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:0F28ADF4712 2012-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Study on changes of nutritional and organoleptic quality of flavored candy prepared from aonla (Emblica officinalis G.) during storage Priyanka Nayak, Dileep Kumar Tandon and Devendra Kumar Bhatt Full Length Research Paper Aonla is an important crop indigenous to Indian subcontinent which is used in alternative medicine, health foods and herbal products. It has got great potential in processed forms but little information is available regarding the dehydration and storage quality of aonla. The aonla fruits of each cultivar (Krishna, NA-7, NA-10 and Chakkaiya) were washed and blanched in boiling water containing 2% alum for 8 to 10 min. The segments were separated after cooling the fruits in tap water. The segments were stepped for 24 h in successively increasing concentration of sugar syrup (50 to 700B); added flavors of ginger and cardamom in syrup having 700B for three days. The excess syrup drained out and the segments were dried in cabinet drier. The segments were packed and stored under ambient conditions. The nine months storage study revealed that the moisture content in the candy was found to decrease with storage. It decreases from an initial value of about 16% to a final value of about 14% at the end of storage. All the treatments reduced vitamin C content candy. The tannin content of the various aonla candies was statistically significant with respect to aonla varieties. Total soluble solids, acidity, total reducing and browning was found to increase with storage period, while the non reducing sugar was decreased with storage period. On the basis of organoleptic evaluation and biochemical characters concluded that the candy prepared from cv. Krishna and flavored with cardamom powder found to be the best aonla candy. Key words: Aonla, dehydration, drying, blanching, candy. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/0F28ADF4712 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM11.070 en Copyright © 2012 Priyanka Nayak, Dileep Kumar Tandon and Devendra Kumar Bhatt
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:4A2AECB4734 2012-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Problems encountered by breastfeeding mothers in their practice of exclusive breast feeding in tertiary hospitals in Enugu State, South-east Nigeria Okolie Uchenna Full Length Research Paper This study determined the knowledge of mothers about exclusive breast feeding (EBF), identified the difficulties associated with psycho-socio-cultural values and investigated other problems the mothers encountered. Using a convenience sampling technique, 240 women were selected from the study population (800). Researcherrsquo;s developed questionnaire was used to collect data which were analyzed using descriptive statistics. 50% of the mothers knew that feeding with only breast milk without the addition of water or food for six months was what EBF entailed, 33% mothers believed that giving baby water once in a while also meant EBF, while 8% women expressed no knowledge of EBF. 88% women reported interference from mothers-in-law to give water as a major socio-cultural problem they faced, while 63% agreed that they had never eaten nutritional foods like snail, pork, etc due to cultural myths and superstitions. Psychological problems encountered ranged from worry and stress of feeding at all times even at night (92%), having to breastfeed even in public places (82%), fear that the baby might not be getting enough nutrients (71%), to trauma of expressing breast milk (67%), fear of safety of expressed breast milk (68%) and a feeling that the baby will ldquo;dry uprdquo; if not given water or other fluids (50%). Other factors identified were: work place not conducive (91.6%), lack of adequate education at ante natal clinics (63%). A thorough health education campaign aimed at educating lactating mothers on the need to practice EBF should address the identified factors. Key words: Infant nutrition, breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, problems encountered. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/4A2AECB4734 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM11.057 en Copyright © 2012 Okolie Uchenna
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:89F07294754 2012-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Protective effect of the combination of exercise and curcumin supplementation on cardiac system in rats exposed to lead Valiollah Dabidi Roshan, Mina Rahimi, Vahid Shirinbayan, Soleiman Mahjoub, and Mahdi Hosseinzadeh Full Length Research Paper Effects of exercise training and curcumin supplementation, alone or combined on cardioprotective markers in left ventricle were investigated in rats during chronic exposure to lead acetate. Forty (40) male rats were randomly assigned to; sham (Sh), training + lead (TL), curcumin + lead (CL), training + curcumin + lead (TCL), and lead (L) groups. Heat shock protein (HSP72) and enzyme activities were determined in rat hearts after receiving 20 mg/kg of lead acetate in the TL, TCL, CL and L groups and 30 mg/kg turmeric in the TCL and CL groups for 8 weeks, 3 times a week. In addition, the rats in the TL and TCL groups performed treadmill running at a speed of 15 to 22 m/min for 25 to 64 min, 5 times a week for 8 weeks. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that administration of lead can evoke a significant increase in HSP72 and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the left ventricle homogenates and a significant decrease in serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC). However, endurance training and\or curcumin supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in HSP72 and MDA levels and significant increase in the level of serum TAC (serum Total Antioxidant Capacity). These results can suggest that concomitant exercise and curcumin supplementation may have a more cardioprotective effect observed by amelioration of lead-induced cardiotoxicity. Key words: Turmeric, endurance training, lead acetate, stress proteins, antioxidant. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/89F07294754 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM12.009 en Copyright © 2012 Valiollah Dabidi Roshan, Mina Rahimi, Vahid Shirinbayan, Soleiman Mahjoub, and Mahdi Hosseinzadeh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:A89FD064768 2012-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
The effect of sun and shade drying on chemical composition of Vitex doniana, Ipomoea aquatica and Cohcorus and their soups Oguche Gladys H. E. Full Length Research Paper This study investigated the effect of sun and shade drying on chemical composition of African black plum ldquo;Uchakorordquo; (Vitex doniana) Bush okro leaf ldquo;Ewedurdquo; (Corchorus) and wild lettuce ldquo;yaririnrdquo; (Ipomoea aquatica) vegetables and their soap meals. These vegetables were bought in bulk from Ibaji Local market in Kogi State, Nigeria. The foods were washed with clean water, plucked from the stalk, sun and shade dried to mimic the traditional food processing techniques. The fresh vegetables served as the controls. A portion of each processed vegetable was pulverized, sieved, packaged in name labeled polythene bags and kept in cool dry place until used for various chemical analysis. The other portions as well as the fresh vegetables were used to prepare various traditional indigenous soup meals using similar consistency traditional recipes for each soup. The chemical composition of both the vegetables and their soups were determined using standard assay methods on dry matter basis. Means, standard deviation and least significant difference (LSD) were adopted to separate and compare means from data generated. The protein, ash, fat and fibre values for both the sun and the shade dried vegetables were higher than those of fresh samples (Plt;0.05). The fresh vegetables had higher calcium, iron and zinc than the sun and the shade dried vegetables. On the other hand, sun and shade drying decreased beta carotene and ascorbate as against those of the fresh samples. The protein, ash, fat and carbohydrate values for soups prepared with dried vegetables were much higher than those of their controls. The soups prepared with dried vegetables had lower iron, calcium, zinc and iodine than those prepared with fresh vegetables (Plt;0.05). The higher, iodine, zinc, beta carotene and ascorbate values for shade dried samples regardless of the types of vegetables indicated that shade drying had an edge over sun drying as traditional food processing technique to preserve nutrients in these vegetables. Key words: Dry methods, vegetables, nutrient, preservation. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/A89FD064768 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM11.018 en Copyright © 2012 Oguche Gladys H. E.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:B1FB2604777 2012-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Chemical composition of an ecotype tilapia of Epe lagoon commonly called ‘“Wesafu”’ Fashina-Bombata, H. A. and Oduntan, T. H. Full Length Research Paper The chemical composition of wild and domesticated ldquo;Wesafurdquo;, an ecotype cichlid found abundantly in Epe Lagoon fisheries in Lagos, south-western coast of Nigeria and a private fish farm in Badagry, Lagos, was investigated for proximate, mineral, fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The proximate compositions of the two specimens were found to be similar except for crude protein contents of 16.80 and 19.51% for the wild and farmed specimens, respectively. Seventeen different amino acids, twelve fatty acids and ten minerals were obtained in the tissues of the fish. The amino acids compositions of both the wild and farmed specimen were essentially similar and no wide variation in the amino acids compositions. Palmitic and oleic acids were the main saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids respectively. The principal oil in the polyunsaturated group was linoleic acid. Ten minerals were determined, including iron; 30.73 and 18.39, cobalt; 0.47 and 0.32, manganese; 13.64 and 2.75, zinc; 35.35 and 33.17 in mg/kg, respectively for the wild and farm raised specimens. This ecotype cichlid of Epe Lagoon, Nigeria ldquo;Wesafurdquo; is thus a nutrient dense food fish being rich in quality protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids and having an array of essential minerals. It is recommended for culture and introduction to the bodies of water across the country to further guarantee food fish security, especially in the poor coastal communities of the country. Key words: Ecotype cichlid, ldquo;Wesafurdquo;, chemical composition, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/B1FB2604777 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM12.007 en Copyright © 2012 Fashina-Bombata, H. A. and Oduntan, T. H.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:EF93EF94789 2012-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Enzymatic and haematological changes in rats fed owoh: A Nigerian condiment from fermented cotton seeds David O. M. and Falegan C. R. Full Length Research Paper The proximate, energy, microbial load of two different owoh samples were determined using standard methods. The enzymatic, haematological and nutritional changes in rats fed owoh samples were also determined. The bacterial loads in the two owoh samples ranged between 4.5 times; 106 and 7.5 times; 107 cfu/g in Bacillus fermented owoh (BFO) and, 5.7 times; 106 and 6.6 times; 107 cfu/g in naturally fermented owoh (NFO), respectively. The microbial load in the samples reached the peak value at 72 h of fermentation. Rats fed on diet supplemented with BFO and NFO had average consumption of 10.42 and 8.05 g/rat/day, respectively, while the control (soy meal supplemented) groups recorded 8.49 g/rat/day. At the end of the feeding experiment, the test diets had lower body weight gain compared to the control; though the difference was not significant (p lt; 0.05). Compared with the control, the rats in the dietary groups had lower organ weight. NFO group had the least amount of packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell (RBC) count with the values of 34%, 9.78 g/dl and 6.92 times; 106/mm3, respectively. The alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) ratio were 0.05 and 0.91 for both NFO and BFO, respectively. Test groups had increased amount of AST compared with the control. The values recorded for BFO and NFO were not significantly different from the control. Key words: Owoh, condiment, cotton seeds, transaminases, phosphatases, haematological parameters, proximate analyses. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/EF93EF94789 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM11.062 en Copyright © 2012 David O. M. and Falegan C. R.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:A2621F64800 2012-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Isolation and proximate determination of protein using defatted sesame seed oil cake Ranganayaki, S., Vidhya, R. and Jaganmohan, R. Full Length Research Paper Sesame seed was used to extract oil and the cake, which has high amount of protein, was wasted after the extraction. Hence, the present study was done to isolate protein from defatted sesame seed oil cake and the nutrition content was determined. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) was used to isolate the protein; among the three BSS (British Standard Sieve) of the sesame seed flour cake, 52 BSS shows high protein content of 45.9% while 72 and 32 BSS contains 30.3 and 33.4% of protein, respectively. Low fat content of 4.4% was observed in 52 BSS which showed higher fiber content of 3.8%. The moisture content of 52 BSS was found to be 6.8% and others of 7.0 and 7.2%, respectively. Key words: Protein isolation, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS PAGE), British standard sieve. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/A2621F64800 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM12.006 en Copyright © 2012 Ranganayaki, S., Vidhya, R. and Jaganmohan, R.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:EE20D124812 2012-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
A positive role for selenium in mitigating complications associated with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in rats Kholoud S. Ramadan, Jehad M. Yousef, Amal H. Hamza, and Safinaz E. Abdel Basset, Full Length Research Paper This study was designed to investigate the potential role of selenium on metabolic syndrome induced by fructose in rats. Thirty male Wister Albino rats weighing 185 to 225 g were used. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, 10 rats each. The first group received water only and set as a control (GI). The second group received 20% fructose in drinking water daily (GII). Third group (GIII) received fructose 20% and 0. 25 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/kg body weight per day selenium in drinking water. After 5 weeks of supplementation, rats were sacrificed; blood samples were obtained for different biochemical analysis including serum level of glucose; lipids profile were measured including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and triglyceride (TG). Liver function tests, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), albumin and total protein were carried out. Also, kidney function tests (creatinine, urea and uric acid) were estimated in serum. The present study revealed that selenium treatment mitigate the complications associated with metabolic syndrome. It is recommended that selenium may be an important part of an individual medical nutritional and lifestyle intervention. Key words: Fructose, metabolic syndrome, selenium, glucose, lipids profile, liver functions, kidney functions. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/EE20D124812 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM12.016 en Copyright © 2012 Kholoud S. Ramadan, Jehad M. Yousef, Amal H. Hamza, and Safinaz E. Abdel Basset,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:1F82C1D4819 2012-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2012
Mineral nutrients of ‘pazhaya sadham’: A traditional fermented food of Tamil Nadu, India P. Praveen Kumar, V. Hazeena Begum and S. Kumaravel Short Communication Traditionally, in Tamil Nadu, the fermented rice is a desirable staple food. It is prepared by overnight soaking of cooked parboiled rice in water. The main complementary role of fermentation is the bioenhancing or bioavailability of essential nutrients especially minerals through the enzymatic reduction of Phytate. In the present study, essential trace elements such as Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Sodium, Potassium and Selnium were determined by using Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. The minerals such as Calcium (9.23 mg/100 g) and Sodium (17.18 mg/100 g) are rich in the sample Source 2. The determination of the presence of selenium (0.2 to 0.3 mg/100 g) in this fermented rice can be explained as a preventive mechanism to cancer as natural source of mineral availability Key words: Traditional food, phytic acid, cancer. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/1F82C1D4819 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM11.068 en Copyright © 2012 P. Praveen Kumar, V. Hazeena Begum and S. Kumaravel
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:AB73E3F4834 2013-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
Fatty acid, amino acid, mineral and antioxidant contents of acha (Digitaria exilis) grown on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria Robert H. Glew, Emmanuel P. Laabes, Jack M. Presley, John Schulze, Ronnee Andrews, Yuan-Chen Wang, Yu-Chen Chang and Lu-Te Chuang Full Length Research Paper Digitaria exilis (Kippist) Stapf (also known as acha, hungry rice) has been cultivated for millennia in the dry savannahs of West Africa, but much remains to be learned about its nutritional properties. Acha was collected in four villages in Northern Nigeria and analyzed for fatty acids, minerals, amino acids and antioxidant content. Fatty acids accounted for 1.91% of the dry weight, with 47.4% linoleic acid and 30.5% oleic acid. The content of the essential minerals, copper, magnesium, molybdenum, zinc and calcium averaged 4.88, 1060, 0.23, 23.0 and 172 mu;g/g, respectively. The protein content was 6.53% and the essential amino acid pattern, except for lysine, compared favorably to a World Health Organization (WHO) reference protein. The total polyphenolic content of methanolic extracts of acha matched that of common cereals (for example, maize, rice, wheat) and the extracts contained substantial amounts of free-radical scavenging substances. Thus, acha is a source of many nutrients critical to human health. Key words: Acha, fatty acids, minerals, amino acids, polyphenols. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/AB73E3F4834 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM13.0137 en Copyright © 2013 Robert H. Glew, Emmanuel P. Laabes, Jack M. Presley, John Schulze, Ronnee Andrews, Yuan-Chen Wang, Yu-Chen Chang and Lu-Te Chuang
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:DEF5CE34840 2013-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
Effect of soya bean (Glycine max) on coagulation profile of New Zealand white rabbits Olayanju A. O., Ezimah A. C., Adesina O. O., Ajeigbe K. O., Ogunatyo B. O. and Ighodalo A. J. Full Length Research Paper The effect of differently cooked soya bean (Glycine max.) on some blood coagulation parameters was studied using forty (40) New Zealand white rabbits. The animals were grouped into four (A-D) groups of ten (10) rabbits each and fed 100% growers mash and water adlibitum for three (3) weeks. Group A (control) animals were maintained on the standard pelletized feed while group B, C and D Rabbits had 25% of their feed substituted with lsquo;fermented and boiledrsquo;, lsquo;roasted and boiledrsquo; and lsquo;roastedrsquo; soya bean respectively for two weeks. The percentage of diet substituted with soya was increased to 50% and 75% each for a period of two weeks, after which the rabbits were returned to 100% growers mash for three weeks to observe recovery form effects. Blood was collected from the marginal ear vein at the end of each stage of the research to determine prothrombin time, activated partial thrombin time, serum calcium concentration and platelet counts. The result show that soya bean prolonged prothrombin time and activated partial thrombin time but decreased serum calcium and blood platelet concentration. Soya bean intake prolonged blood coagulation. These effects were dependent on the method of processing and percentage composition of soya bean in the feed. Soya bean is rich in protein but contain numerous antinutritional factors which are not completely eliminated in traditional methods of cooking. Keywords: Soya bean, prothrombin, cooking, platelets, coagulation. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/DEF5CE34840 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM11.020 en Copyright © 2013 Olayanju A. O., Ezimah A. C., Adesina O. O., Ajeigbe K. O., Ogunatyo B. O. and Ighodalo A. J.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:CC34A1D4849 2013-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
Various sources of animal protein intake and their association with muscle mass index and insulin resistance in overweight postmenopausal women Mathieu L. Maltais, Steacute;phanie Leblanc, Claudie Archambault-Therrien, Berthine Jean, Florian Bobeuf and Isabelle J. Dionne Full Length Research Paper Many epidemiological studies have observed a positive relationship between animal protein intake (API) and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, animal proteins are important in the aging population. Forty sedentary and healthy postmenopausal women were recruited in this study. Body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry method, DXA), 3-d dietary record (API) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA) were assessed. Partial correlations were used to examine the relationship between total API (g/day) on muscle mass index (MMI) and HOMA. MMI (r=0.408; plt;0.01) was associated to total API. Our results indicate that promoting an increase in animal proteins is important to maintain muscle mass in postmenopausal women. Key words: Postmenopausal women, animal proteins, processed meats, insulin resistance, muscle mass. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/CC34A1D4849 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM12.019 en Copyright © 2013 Mathieu L. Maltais, Steacute;phanie Leblanc, Claudie Archambault-Therrien, Berthine Jean, Florian Bobeuf and Isabelle J. Dionne
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:B23952D4858 2013-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
In vivo biochemical assessment of aqueous extracts of Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf) N. O. A. Imaga and D. O. Bamigbetan Full Length Research Paper This research was carried out on the aqueous extracts of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) to evaluate its phytochemical, proximate and antioxidant composition and its effects in vivo on diabetes and obesity biomarkers, antioxidant and hematological profiles.The phytochemical screening of the bitter leaf extract showed a high concentration of flavonoids as the most abundant phytochemical present. Daily administration of extract to rats led to a slight decrease in the lipid profile of the test rats relative to control and no significant difference in the liver function, kidney function, glucose level and hematological profile of test rats relative to control. Antioxidant assay showed high levels of total antioxidant activity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity that was concentration dependent. In vivo antioxidant enzyme assay showed an appreciable increase in the level of the antioxidants, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and malondialdehyde (MDA) of the test rats as compared to control. This suggests improved functionality of the antioxidant system of the test rats probably due to the effect of the phytochemical antioxidants in the extract. It is concluded that aqueous extract of V. amygdalina can be consumed as food or as an herbal medicine without plausible toxicity to body organs and tissues. Key words: Bitter leaf, medicinal plants, lipid profile, hematology, antioxidants. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/B23952D4858 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM12.001 en Copyright © 2013 N. O. A. Imaga and D. O. Bamigbetan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:E463D2F4867 2013-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
Polyphenol-rich beverages promote a sustainable and renewable generation of energy and prevent neurotoxicity Gauthier Meacute;lanie and Chabot Sophie Full Length Research Paper Polyphenol-rich beverages, formulations 1 and formulation 2 composed of herbal and berry extracts were developed. Their impact on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) responses was investigated in vitro and compared to that of well-known commercial drinks (Red Bull, Coca-Cola, Antioxia, Tetley green tea). Results show that mitochondrial activity, intracellular and extracellular ATP responses are impacted upon the exposure to polyphenol-rich beverages to promote a sustainable and renewable energy supply in human oral CAL27 mucosal cells. While herbal extracts are important for the renewable energetic activity, berry extracts play a role in regulating energy conservation. Prior exposure of polyphenol-rich beverages to CAL27 cells prevented subsequent neurotoxicity of SH-SY5Y dopaminergic cells undergoing oxidative stress. Formulation 1 was best at modulating ATP and neuroprotective responses. On the other hand, Red Bull caused energy depletion, and did not prevent neurotoxicity. In summary, polyphenol-rich drinks are potential energy drinks that promote a sustainable and renewable generation of energy. In particular, Formulation 1 may be a healthy caffeine-free alternative to energy drinks with side effects, such as energy crashing and neurotoxicity. Key words: Anthocyanins, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), conservation, dopamine, energy crashing, energy drink, mitochondria, neuroprotection, polyphenols, red bull. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/E463D2F4867 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2013.0140 en Copyright © 2013 Gauthier Meacute;lanie and Chabot Sophie
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:147160A4934 2013-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
Exclusive breastfeeding: Mothers’ awareness and healthcare providers’ practices during antenatal visits in Mvomero, Tanzania Hadijah Ally Mbwana, Cath Conlon and Pamela von Hurst Full Length Research Paper In Tanzania, about 42% of children below five years are stunted due to chronic malnutrition. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) may be an effective strategy to protect infants from malnutrition. Therefore, it is important to disseminate accurate information on breastfeeding recommendations to pregnant women attending antenatal visits. The aim of the study was to assess the awareness of exclusive breastfeeding among first time pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and breastfeeding counselling practices of healthcare providers, for alignment with the World Health Organizations (WHO) recommendations. A cross sectional study of eighty first time pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Mzumbe Health Centre and Tangeni dispensary, and six nurses providing care in these facilities was undertaken. Questionnaires were used to evaluate womenrsquo;s breastfeeding knowledge and future intentions to breastfeed and nursesrsquo; breastfeeding knowledge and counselling practices. Results indicated that womenrsquo;s knowledge in exclusive breastfeeding was generally poor; there were no differences in breastfeeding knowledge between the two facilities. About 94% of women had never received breastfeeding counselling at the antenatal clinics, 61% received breastfeeding information from their mothers, 37.5% said glucose water should be given immediately after delivery, only 23.8% planned to introduce solids at six months, the majority indicating that they would start solids at a younger age. Common reasons for introducing solids were; baby will be old enough (55%), baby will be hungry (32.5%), advised by the nurse (7.5%). Only one nurse had received training on breastfeeding, nursesrsquo; knowledge of WHO breastfeeding recommendations was poor; however nurses had satisfactory knowledge of how to solve breastfeeding problems. Only three nurses said they educate mothers about exclusive breastfeeding. In conclusion, findings highlight a need to focus on delivering information and education to women and nurses. Key words: Breastfeeding, pregnant women, healthcare providers, knowledge, practices. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/147160A4934 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM12.020 en Copyright © 2013 Hadijah Ally Mbwana, Cath Conlon and Pamela von Hurst
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:6FF5FEB4965 2013-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
A preliminary study on the estimation of nutrients and anti-nutrients in Oedaleus abruptus (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) Arijit Ganguly, Ranita Chakravorty, Mousumi Das, Moumita Gupta, Dipak K. Mandal, Parimalendu Haldar, Julieta Ramos-Elorduy and Jose Manuel Pino Moreno Full Length Research Paper Natural protein is being overexploited gradually because of a huge population boom.Grasshoppers may be a good food resource to overcome this problem. The present studyevaluated the nutritional quality and anti-nutritional factors that is, the proximate composition, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids and amino acid contents of Oedaleus abruptus. Results revealed that this species contains about 60% crude protein and nearly 587 kcal/100 g of energy. A total of six minerals were detected, where calcium and magnesium had the highest content. Among the fatty acids, palmitic acid, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid was present in quite good amount and a very high amount of linoleic and linolenic acid was also detected. Eighteen amino acids have been reported, among whichthe values of threonine, proline and tyrosine were more than 10%. Results of vitamins were also encouraging as a good amount of retinol, ascorbic acid and niacin were detected. The anti-nutritional factors showed a very low value. The results indicated the insects to be a good source of food that could be considered as an alternative to fish and meat and/or a supplement for both human and livestock consumption. Key words: Nutrients, anti-nutrients, alternative food, Oedaleus abruptus. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/6FF5FEB4965 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM12.022 en Copyright © 2013 Arijit Ganguly, Ranita Chakravorty, Mousumi Das, Moumita Gupta, Dipak K. Mandal, Parimalendu Haldar, Julieta Ramos-Elorduy and Jose Manuel Pino Moreno
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:8711D694982 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
Evaluation of vegetable consumption in South Eastern Nigeria Ndie Elkenah Chubike, J. C. Okaka and Eric C. Okoli Full Length Research Paper Vegetable consumption in the South East of Nigeria was evaluated with the objective of identifying the effects of cost and availability of vegetables in the areas and adequacy of consumption. A market survey was done in 9 markets spread across the zones including Anambra, Enugu and Ebonyi States. Questionnaires were used to assess 24 h vegetable consumption. The quantity of vegetable consumed was estimated indirectly from the market cost. The results show that the highest vegetable diet consumed in area is mixed vegetable soup (170.6 g/meal), followed by mixed okra/rdquo;ugurdquo; soup (154 g/meal). The results showed that cost and availability do not affect vegetable consumption, and that the quantity of vegetable consumed in the area is lower than 400 g/day as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). It was recommended that nurses and health educators who work with homemakers (mothers) should sensitize them on the need for increase in vegetable consumption. Key words: Vegetable, consumption, cost, availability. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/8711D694982 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2013.0142 en Copyright © 2013 Ndie Elkenah Chubike, J. C. Okaka and Eric C. Okoli
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:62C4CFA5002 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
Protective effect of vitamin C supplementation on oxonate-induced hyperuricemia and renal injury in rats Osama Adnan Kensara Full Length Research Paper Recent studies have suggested a potential direct role of mild hyperuricemia in development of chronic kidney disease independent of urate crystal formation. The present study was designed to investigate the possible anti-hyperuricemic and renoprotective effect of vitamin C, as a natural antioxidant with uricosuric property on a rat model with chronic mild hyperuricemia-induced nephropathy. A model of mild hyperuricemia was induced in male Wistar rats with an uricase inhibitor, oxonic acid (OA) (750 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks by gastric gavage). Rats were divided into four groups: (1) control; (2) OA only; (3) OA + vitamin C (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks by gastric gavage); and (4) vitamin C only. At the end of the study, rats were sacrificed under diethyl ether general anesthesia and serum levels of uric acid, creatinine and blood nitrogen urea (BUN) as well as glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were measured as indices of oxidative stress and anti-oxidative status in kidney tissues. Also, histopathological examination of isolated kidney tissues was performed. The administration of OA resulted in 2.4 fold increase in serum uric acid levels, and was associated with development of kidney damage characterized by a significant increase in serum levels of creatinine and BUN, and significant decreases in renal GSH levels and activities of SOD, GPx and GST.By contrast, simultaneous administration of vitamin C significantly ameliorated all these biochemical changes induced by OA. The histopathological findings supported these biochemical observations, whereby vitamin C supplementation remarkably reduced OA-induced tubulointerstitial damage and cellular infiltration in rat kidneys. These results indicate that vitamin C therapy significantly attenuated the biochemical indices, histopathological findings and oxidative stress parameters of OA-induced hyperuricemia and nephrotoxicity in rats. This may provide insight into the possible potential renoprotective effect of vitamin C supplementation against hyperuricemia nephropathy. Key words: Vitamin C, oxonic acid, hyperuricemia, nephrotoxicity, oxidative stress. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/62C4CFA5002 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2013.0144 en Copyright © 2013 Osama Adnan Kensara
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:4BAEE0B5011 2013-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
Physiological and anthropometric correlates of metabolic risk factors among selected non obese adults in Zaria, Northern Nigeria Olorunshola, K. V., Ayo, J. O., Dikki, C. E. and Sharaye, K.O. Full Length Research Paper Recent publications on clinical definitions have transformed the metabolic syndrome from a physiological curiosity to a major focus of research, clinical and public health interests on non obese adults. The purpose of this study therefore, was to determine the relationship between anthropometrics and cardiometabolic variables that reflect the existence of metabolic syndrome among non obese adults. One hundred and seventy four (174) adults, with mean age of 47.13 plusmn; 8.10 (male) and 44.96 plusmn; 9.58 (female) were recruited for this cross sectional study. Descriptive statistics, partial correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between anthropometric measurements and cardiometabolic variables after controlling for age. Anthropometric indices, lipid profile, fasting glucose and blood pressure were among the variables assessed using standard procedures. The best correlation among the anthropometrics (p le; 0.05) was presented between waist circumference and waist-height ratio (male r = 0.925, female r = 0.916) and body fat (%) and fat mass (male r = 0.956, female r = 0.944). Fat mass, waist-height ratio and waist circumference in male and waist-height ratio in female were found to have the largest correlation relative to at least 3 risk factors. Combination of three components of cardiometabolic risk factors were significantly more in male than female. Regression analysis also showed that waist-height ratio appears optimal for predicting components of cardiometabolic risk factors among non obese adults. Among all obesity measures studied, waist-height ratio, waist circumference and fat mass explained comparatively larger amount of variance of cardiometabolic risk factors among non-obese adults. Non obese male were significantly more likely to have two or more risk factors than female participants. However, the greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome was associated with increasing waist-height ratio, which could be used as simple and non-invasive method for detecting dyslipidemia among non obese adults, and use of this method was suggested in clinical and epidemiological fields. Key words: Metabolic syndrome, non obese adults, anthropometric indices. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/4BAEE0B5011 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM12.0135 en Copyright © 2013 Olorunshola, K. V., Ayo, J. O., Dikki, C. E. and Sharaye, K.O.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:6436FF15024 2013-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
The effects of copper supplement on zinc status, enzymes of zinc activities and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed on zinc over-dose diet Samir Derouiche, Abbas Kawther, Djermoune Manel, Ben Amara Soumya and Zine Kechrid Full Length Research Paper The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of copper supplementation on over-dose zinc in experimental diabetes. Male alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats of 12 weeks of age were divided into three groups. The first group received a diet containing 54 mg zinc/kg (control group), the second group received a diet containing 231 mg zinc/kg (Zn group), and the third group received a diet containing 231 mg zinc/kg supplemented with copper (30 mg/kg diet) (Zn+Cu group). Body weight gain of all rats was recorded regularly over a period of three weeks. On day 21, after overnight fasting, animals were sacrificed and blood glucose, zinc concentration, and amylase, aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities and parameter antioxidants were determined on tissues and serum samples. Body weight gain of copper supplementation diabetic animals at the end of three weeks of dietary manipulation was significantly lower with a percentage of 41.09% than that of zinc over dose diabetic animals. The administration of copper significantly altered blood glucose with a percentage of 22.98%, serum and tissues zinc concentration (P lt; 0.01) and all enzymes zinc dependants in animals. Copper added significantly increased glutathione (GSH) concentration (P lt; 0.05) and glutathione peroxydase (GPx) activity (P lt; 0.01) in rats. In contrast, liver malondialdehyde (MDA) and testis glutathione S transferase (GST) activity levels were lower with a percentage of 13.52 and 29.78%, respectively. There is no statistically change in liver GST activity in (Zn+Cu) group. It was concluded that supplementation of copper diet have significantly reduced the zinc status, disrupt the activity of zinc-dependent enzymes and altered in the chemical and oxidative parameters in diabetes. Key words: Diabetic rats, alloxan, zinc status, copper, antioxydants. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/6436FF15024 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2013.0150 en Copyright © 2013 Samir Derouiche, Abbas Kawther, Djermoune Manel, Ben Amara Soumya and Zine Kechrid
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:E4AA2F95047 2013-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
Antioxidative properties and inhibition of some pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation by aqueous extract of two species of eggplants Solanum macrocarpon and Solanum melongena Esther E. Nwanna, Emmanuel O. Ibukun and Ganiyu Oboh Full Length Research Paper This study sought to determine the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of some egg plant species Solanum macrocarpon (yellow) and Solanum melongena (purple) on sodium nitroprusside and Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation in ratrsquo;s pancreas. The totalphenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C content of the aqueous extracts were determined, as well as the antioxidant properties [ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP), Fe2+chelating ability and 2,2-Azinobis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTSmiddot;),1,1-diphenyl-2picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OHmiddot;) radicals scavenging ability] inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation were also determined in vitro. The results revealed that there was no significant (P gt; 0.05) difference in the total phenol, total flavonoid, vitamin C and FRAP of both eggplant, whileS. melongena had higher Fe2+ chelating ability and ABTSmiddot; scavenging ability. The aqueous extracts from S. macrocarpon and S. melongena inhibited SNP and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in ratrsquo;s pancreas in a dose dependent manner. The antioxidant properties of the aqueous extracts from S. macrocarpon and S. melongena eggplant species and their strong inhibition of SNP and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation suggest that they could be a good antioxidants source in the management of degenerative diseases. Key words: Solanum species, antioxidant properties, lipid peroxidation, degenerative diseases. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/E4AA2F95047 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2013.0150 en Copyright © 2013 Esther E. Nwanna, Emmanuel O. Ibukun and Ganiyu Oboh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:E09ECB14080 2013-09-19T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
Modulation of xenobiotic metabolism in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) fed rats K. Nirmala, T. Prasanna Krishna and K. Polasa Full Length Research Paper An association between diet and cancer has been documented only in recent decades. Biotransformation enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of xenobiotics that may be bioactivated or bioinactivated. An in vivo experiment was conducted to study the effect of ginger feeding on drug metabolizing enzymes using NIN/male wistar rats. NIN/male wistar rats that were fed with ginger(G) incorporated diet [Control, 0.1, 0.5 and 5%G] for a month and half the animals from all the groups were given 5 mg Benzo(a)pyrene intraperitoneally and after 24 h all the animals were sacrificed and different organs were collected. The drug metabolizing enzymes namely glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and quinone reductase (QR) were estimated in cytosol whereas aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and uridine diphosphoglucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) were analyzed in microsomes. The enzyme levels were significantly higher in all the carcinogen treated animals compared to their respective controls. Stimulation of GST activity was seen in liver (p lt; 0.001) of all the carcinogen and ginger treated groups compared to control. However, significant activity was observed in lungs (p lt; 0.05), in kidney (p lt; 0.01) and in intestine (p lt; 0.001) at 1 and 5% level of ginger feeding compared to control. Significant stimulation of QR activity was observed in liver (p lt; 0.05) of 1 and 5% ginger fed groups. In lung and kidney increase in the activity was seen in 5% level of ginger feeding. However, there was no significant activity in the levels of UDPGT and AHH. The results of this study demonstrate that ginger intake can stimulate the xenobiotic detoxification. Therefore regular consumption of ginger through diet can confer protective effect against the toxic effect of xenobiotics. Key words: Ginger, drug metabolizing enzymes, benzo(a)pyrene, detoxification. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/E09ECB14080 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000026 en Copyright © 2013 K. Nirmala, T. Prasanna Krishna and K. Polasa
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:B32E30D4247 2013-09-20T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
Biological properties of Stevia sweetener and egg replacers’ products on serum biochemical markers of diabetic rats Hend H. A. Junbi and Afaf H. B. Amer Full Length Research Paper The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effect of formulated diet containing wheat gluten and Stevia as egg and sweetener replacers in chemically induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were fed on either basal diet (BD) or formulated diet (FD) containing wheat gluten and Stevia for 30 days. Fasting plasma were subjected to analysis of glucose level biochemical markers as lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests. The results obtained showed that the FD for diabetics has a good score. Compared with the BD, the high-protein diet resulted in lower serum concentrations of triacylglycerol (p lt; 0.05), glucose (p lt; 0.001) and higher serum concentrations of urea (p lt; 0.001). No significant differences were detected in total or HDL cholesterol or in creatinine. There was a slight decrease in urea and AST values in FD for diabetics group compared with BD. Formulated diet containing gluten protein with Stevia reversed the effects of diabetes on reducing glucose,LDL-c, triacylglycerol levels and can be considered as a valuable candidate in the reversal of the diabetic complications. Key words: Stevia, wheat gluten, diabetes, rats. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/B32E30D4247 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM.9000005 en Copyright © 2013 Hend H. A. Junbi and Afaf H. B. Amer
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:6CE6C6E5063 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
Efficacy of leaf concentrate as micronutrient fortifier in the supplementary nutrition of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Beena Mathur, Pallavi Joshi and Aachu Agarwal Full Length Research Paper In developing countries like India, micronutrient deficiency especially of iron is most prevalent among children. Besides culminating into anemia, the consequences of iron deficiency are grave and affect the health and quality of life of the people and the nation as a whole. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of using leaf concentrate (LC), a novel food prepared from the extract of Lucerne grass for supplementation as micronutrient fortifier in the hot meals of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Anganwadi Centres and to assess the impact on hemoglobin levels and morbidity profile of the children, aged 3 to 6 years attending ICDS Anganwadi Centres of Jaipur City. A total of sixty four children of either sex, aged 3 to 6 years were selected from the two Anganwadi Centres (AWC) of Jaipur City. Two AWC were selected randomly from the seven AWC running in a slum area of Jaipur, known as Jawahar Nagar slum. One Anganwadi Centre served as control group and another as experimental group. At each center, 32 children were enrolled. The supplementary feed provided to the two AWC was the same, the only difference was that 3% LC was incorporated in the supplementary nutrition of the experimental centre. Supplementation with LC was continued for a period of 24 months. At baseline blood hemoglobin (Hb), weight, height and morbidity profile were assessed. The hemoglobin levels and the morbidity profile of the children were assessed in every six months, while the weights (kg) and heights (cm) were recorded every third month. The results showed a significant increase in the Hb levels of the experimental group while it decreased in the control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (plt;0.01). Morbidity profile of the experimental group improved while it remained unchanged in the control group. The anthropometric measurements did not show a significant difference in the two groups. Key words: Micronutrient, leaf concentrate, integrated child development services (ICDS), morbidity profile. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/6CE6C6E5063 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM10.002 en Copyright © 2013 Beena Mathur, Pallavi Joshi and Aachu Agarwal
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:977AC605079 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
Assessment of the impact of malnutrition on children at Dilla referral hospital and unity pediatric clinic, Ethiopia Fekadu Alemu Full Length Research Paper Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) arises as a consequence of a sudden period of food shortage and is associated with loss of a personrsquo;s body fat and wasting of their skeleton. Many nutrition are gained from foods, there are basic nutrient essential for the development of human body. Failing in human nutrition causes malnutrition. Malnutrition has great impact on childrenrsquo;s physical and mental growth. Malnutrition is the major cause of mortality in infants. The impact has also long term and short term effects as well as the death of individiuals due to malnutition which decreased from 2001 to 2004 at Dilla referral Hospital and also slightly at Unity Pediatric Clinic. To decrease the rate of malnutrition we must create awareness among the population to change their attitude of feeding type by giving house to house manuals on descriptions about balanced diet. Key words: Children, Dilla referral hospital, Ethiopia, kwashiorkor, malnutrition, nutrition. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/977AC605079 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2013.0152 en Copyright © 2013 Fekadu Alemu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:59C44285094 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
Relationship between vitamin D and disease activity in some rheumatic diseases Mohamed Hashem Ibrahim, Mohamad Sayyed Bakheet, Khaled A Abdel-Sater andMaher Abdel shakoor Full Length Research Paper Most people are aware that vitamin D deficiency in young children can lead to rickets, a condition where the bones become weak and soft. Many of the benefits of vitamin D relate to its role in the modulation of immune system. So, vitamin D may play role in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. There are two groups: patients group and control group. The control group included 20 healthy volunteers. Patients group included 100 rheumatic patients, 30 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 20 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 30 with osteoartheritis (OA), 10 with Behcetrsquo;s disease, 10 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Venous blood samples were taken for determination of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum 1. 25(OH) 2 D3 levels and serum C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The disease activity in different target groups was assessed using Disease Activity Score including 28 joint counts (DAS28) in RA patients, SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) in SLE patients, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Criteria (WOMAC) in OA patients, The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria in Behcetrsquo;s patients and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) in A.S. patients. The mean value of vitamin D serum levels were significantly lower in each of RA, SLE, Behcetrsquo;s disease and AS patients (mean plusmn; SD) (13.47 plusmn; 8.17, 19.32 plusmn;10.67, 17.64 plusmn;8.79 and 17.81 plusmn;8.11 respectively) in comparison to control group (26.61 plusmn; 6.44, p-value le;0.05). While, There is no significance difference between the OA (22.95 plusmn;9.3) and control groups, as p-value of 0.178. As regard the comparison of vitamin D serum level between the active RA, SLE, OA, Behcetrsquo;s disease and AS patients and the inactive groups, the difference was found to be statistically insignificant (p-value gt;0.05). In the patients group DAS28 in RA patients, SLEDAI in SLE patients, WOMAC in OA patients, ACR criteria in Behcetrsquo;s patients and BASDAI in AS were significantly higher in active groups as compared with inactive groups. In the present study no association was observed between vitamin D levels and disease activity scales DAS28, SLEDAI, WOMAC, and ACR. While there is a significant negative correlation between vitamin D levels and BASDAI. Vitamin D deficiency occurs at a higher rate in patients with RA, SLE, Behcetrsquo;s disease and A.S. While, no association was observed between vitamin D levels and disease activity scales in the RA, SLE, OA, and Behcetrsquo;s disease patients. Key words: Vitamin D, immune system, rheumatic autoimmune diseases, activity and severity. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/59C44285094 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2013.0153 en Copyright © 2013 Mohamed Hashem Ibrahim, Mohamad Sayyed Bakheet, Khaled A Abdel-Sater andMaher Abdel shakoor
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:057F7A05103 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
Study of some chemical, physical, sensory and bacteriology characteristics of canned chicken meat imported to Sulaymaniyah markets, Iraq Hemin Nuradden Mohammed Full Length Research Paper This study was conducted to assess the quality of imported four brands of canned chicken meat that were (A, B, C and D ) by using different quality standard inspection tests; these are, determination the chemical compositions of moisture, protein, fat, ash, energy and as well as studying the changes in the organoleptic characters represented by measuring peroxide value, free fatty acids, thiobarbituric acid and total volatile nitrogen were carried out. The microbiological investigations involved examination of total bacteriological count, coliform bacteria, proteolytic, lipolytic and sporoforming bacteria (anaerobic) also were tested. In addition, sensory attributes were measured. There are significant differences (p le; 0.05) among trademarks in chemical analyses that indicated that A trademark of canned chicken meat had the highest percentage of moisture (67.05%) compared to the lowest percentages of D trademark (59.31%) and high protein contents were in B (32.10%) trademarks, while lower contents were in A 20.72% trademark. B trademarks contained low percentage of lipid (2.69%), while D trademark contained a high percentage of lipids (12.53%). C trademark appeared to have higher contents of ash (3.40%), while lower contents were in A (2.66%) trademark, and the total volatile nitrogen values for the all trademarks were non-significant. There were no significant differences (p le; 0.05) among all trademarks in contents of free fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid (TBA), but there are significant differences (p le; 0.05) among all trademarks in contents of peroxide values. Peroxide values (PV) for A, B, C and D trademarks were 0.95, 0.45, 0.65 and 0.80 meq oxygen/kg fat, respectively. Also, PV was through the allowance limits for all trademarks. There are not significant differences (p le; 0.05) in microbial tests among all trademarks that indicated there were no aerobic bacteria in any of these trademarks. Significant differences in the sensory properties among the four trademarks observed, while there are non-significant differences in the overall acceptability of the four trademarks. Key words: Canned chicken meat, quality analysis, sensory evaluation. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/057F7A05103 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2013.0151 en Copyright © 2013 Hemin Nuradden Mohammed
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:D575F4641869 2013-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
Resting and activity-related energy expenditure:Do formerly overweight women differ from their ever-lean counterparts? David John Hume, Jacolene Kroff and Estelle Victoria Lambert Full Length Research Paper Weight loss relapse is common in reduced-overweight and reduced-obese persons. It is unclear whether adaptations in resting metabolism and activity-related thermogenesis may result in energy-sparing, thereby contributing to weight regain. We compared resting and daily activity-related energy expenditure in formerly overweight women (maintaining weight losses of ge; 5%) to normal-weight, weight-stable women matched for body mass index (BMI) and age. Reduced-overweight (RO) and normal-weight (NW) women (N = 44) completed questionnaires for weight history, eating and physical activity behaviors. Measures included: BMI, body composition (bioelectrical impedance), resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation, and daily activity-related energy expenditure (accelerometry). Groups were comparable for habitual energy intake, resting energy expenditure, resting fat and carbohydrate oxidation and daily activity-related thermogenesis. The RO group significantly over-estimated daily moderate intensity activity-related energy expenditure (270 min/wk) whereas the NW group did not (113 min/wk) (P = 0.02). Energy expenditure (resting and activity-related) was comparable in RO and NW women. With the exception of over-reporting moderate intensity physical activity, our findings suggest that formerly overweight women do not exhibit energy-sparing adaptations increasing the likelihood of weight regain. Key words: Weight loss, weight regain, energy expenditure, fat oxidation, self-report, physical activity. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/D575F4641869 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2013.0157 en Copyright © 2013 David John Hume, Jacolene Kroff and Estelle Victoria Lambert
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:1FB129D41870 2013-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2013
In vivo evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activity of the leaves of Azima tetracantha Linn V. Hazeena Begum, M. Dhanalakshmi and P. Muthukumaran Full Length Research Paper The aqueous crude extract of the leaves of Azima tetracantha was studied for its phytochemical constituents and antidiarrhoeal activity using castor oil-induced diarrhoea and castor oil-induced enteropooling in rats. The phytochemical studies of the aqueous extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The extract showed significant (p lt; 0.001) protection against castor oil-induced diarrhoea and castor oil-induced enteropooling at (100 mg/kg). The presence of some of the phytochemicals in the root extract may be responsible for the observed effects, and also the basis for its use in traditional medicine as antidiarrhoeal drug. Key words: Azima tetracantha, enteropooling, anti-diarrhoeal. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/1FB129D41870 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2013.0152 en Copyright © 2013 V. Hazeena Begum, M. Dhanalakshmi and P. Muthukumaran
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:44DA97642235 2014-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2014
Effects of exclusive breastfeeding on babies’ health in Ife Central Local Government of Osun State Ogunrinade S. A. Review The wealth of a nation depends largely on the extent of the health of its citizens and the children are the future generation who are expected to grow up into healthy productive adults, able to make full contribution towards the economic and social development of their countries. A child malnourished cannot grow up to meet this task. Therefore the challenges of the effects of exclusive breastfeeding on the health of babies in Ife Central Local Government of Osun State was examined through 50 nursing mothers that were randomly selected in Ife Central Local Community from four different hospitals both from postnatal and infant welfare clinic records. The paper also highlights the concept of breastfeeding, breast milk and the importance of breastfeeding as well. The result shows that the effect of it on the health of babyrsquo;s growth cannot be overemphasized in its reduction of malnutrition in early childhood as well as the need to pay an appropriate attention to the health of the children right from the infant age. Suggestions were propounded on how to reduce mortality. Key words: Exclusive breastfeeding, importance of breastfeeding, structure of the breast, breast-milk and breast-milk constituents. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/44DA97642235 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2013.0156 en Copyright © 2014 Ogunrinade S. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:F321BD842236 2014-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2014
Dietary pattern, lifestyle, nutrition status and prevalence of hypertension among traders in Sokoto Central market, Sokoto, Nigeria Awosan, K. J., Ibrahim, M. T. O., Essien, E., Yusuf, A. A. and Okolo, A.C. Full Length Research Paper Poor diet (high consumption of sugar, salt, saturated fat, etc) and unhealthy lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity) have been identified as major risk factors of cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). NCDs are the leading causes of death globally, killing more people each year than all other causes combined. This study was conducted to assess the dietary pattern, lifestyle, nutrition status and prevalence of hypertension among traders in Sokoto, Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among 390 traders selected by multistage sampling technique from November to December, 2012. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were done for the participants, together with questionnaire administration. High prevalence of unhealthy eating habits was recorded among the participants; 50.7% eat their largest meal at dinner, 49.9% eat snacks everyday, 66.7% eat fatty foods, 27.1% and 33.0% drink fruit juice and carbonated drinks, respectively thrice weekly or more, 56.0 and 58.8% eat fruits and vegetables, respectively less than thrice in a week or not at all. Also, 50.7% live a sedentary lifestyle, 5.2% currently smoke cigarette and 10.8% had consumed alcohol within the past 30 days. Similarly, the prevalence of overweight (28.9%), obesity (28.1%) and hypertension (29.1%) was high among the participants. This study demonstrated high prevalence of unhealthy eating habits and lifestyle; together with high prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension among traders in Sokoto. Health education and other interventions to promote healthy eating habits and lifestyle, especially among high risk groups are suggested. Key words: Dietary pattern, lifestyle, nutrition status, hypertension, prevalence. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/F321BD842236 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2013.0158 en Copyright © 2014 Awosan, K. J., Ibrahim, M. T. O., Essien, E., Yusuf, A. A. and Okolo, A.C.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:63565E946311 2014-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2014
Influence of foliar applications of chelator and micronutrients on antioxidants in green chilli Denre Manas, Bandopadhyay P. K., Chakravarty A., Pal S. and Bhattacharya A. Full Length Research Paper The aim of the present work was to study the influence of foliar applications of chelator [Humic acid: HA1(0%) and HA2(0.05%)] and micronutrients [Zinc: Zn1(0%); Zn2(0.05%) and Boron: B1(0%); B2(0.02%)] on the antioxidant compounds in green mature chilli fruits cv. Bullet (Capsicum annum L.), a pot experiment in factorial randomized block design with three replications was conducted in the net house of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal and India. In this experiment, some non enzymatic antioxidants, enzymatic antioxidants and total antioxidant activity were analyzed. It was also suggested that the ascorbic acid content significantly positively influenced the application of Zn2, HA2Zn2 and HA2B2. The free phenol content exerted significantly positive induction by application of B2. The total phenol content significantly increased the application of HA2Zn2 and HA2B2. The applications of HA2, Zn2 and HA2B2 could produce significantly increasing effects in concentration of carotene content. While, the highest values of capsaicin content was obtained by application of HA1B2. The highest activity of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase were exhibited by the application of HA2B2, HA1Zn2 and HA1B2, respectively. The highest total antioxidant activity was observed by application of HA2B2. The carotene and peroxidase activity had a significant positive association with ascorbic acid, total phenol and carotene had a significant positive correlation with superoxide dismutase, and free phenol and capsaicin had a significant positive association with total antioxidant activity. Based on principal component analysis and average values, foliar application of HA2B2 followed by HA2 and B2 had good performers with respect to all variables, which may bring about the proper value addition in green chilli by enhancing the antioxidant constituents and antioxidant activities. Key words: Capsicum annum L., chelator, micronutrients, antioxidants, enzymes, molybdate reducing antioxidant potential. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/63565E946311 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2014.0160 en Copyright © 2014 Denre Manas, Bandopadhyay P. K., Chakravarty A., Pal S. and Bhattacharya A.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:8CFCDBA46313 2014-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2014
Probiotic oligosaccharides improve the recovery of intestinal mucosa and biochemicals parameters in malnourished rats Benakriche Ben Mehel, Bekada Ahmed Mohamed Ali, Idris Khodja Fatila Zohra and Kheroua Omar Full Length Research Paper The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of probiotic oligo saccharides (POS) on the recovery of the bowel atrophy induced by protein malnutrition (PM) in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (200 to 250 g) were fed with a conventional diet for 10 days of adaptation. After this period, the rats are divided into 3 groups. A control group was fed with a conventional diet (n = 10), and a group of 20 rats was subjected to PM for 15 days. After period of PM, 10 rats were refed with enriched POS diet for 10 days (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Streptococcus thermophilus and fructo-oligosaccharides (0.5 mg/g body weight/day). Our experimental protocol was developed to evaluate some nutritional biochemical parameters such as total proteins, globulin and albumin and morphometric parameters of the intestine. Probiotic oligo saccharides group showed similar gain of body, liver and bowel weight than controls. Malnourished rats showed significant weight loss during 15 days of the experiment (123.88 plusmn; 3.9 to 116.87 plusmn; 3.7 g) compared to control group rats (123.67 plusmn; 5.6 to 179.4 plusmn; 9.5 g). We noted a significant recovery of body weight (123.52 plusmn; 5.23 to 181.08 plusmn; 9.9 g) in rats refed with POS compared to malnourished rats (123.67 plusmn; 3.9 to 116.4 plusmn; 3.75 g). Biochemical parameters have a significant decrease in the concentration of total protein, albumin and globulin in malnourished rats compared with control to group rats. These biochemical values increased in rats refed with POS. At the jejunum, both the villus height (372 plusmn; 39 vs. 288 plusmn; 32 m; p = 0.03) and crypt depth (145 plusmn; 29 vs. 138 plusmn; 29 m; p = 0.03) were greater in POS group than malnourished group. The crypt depth at the cecum (219 plusmn; 56 vs. 215 plusmn; 27 m; p = 0.05), the wall width at both the cecum (409 plusmn; 13 vs. 382 plusmn; 31 m; p = 0.03) and sigmoid (377 plusmn; 32 vs. 389 plusmn; 39 m; p = 0.03) were higher in animals fed with POS than control group. These data suggest that PM causes alterations on rat colon and small intestinal morphometric, especially in tissues which present a high level of cell turnover such as the mucosa tunic and consequently their structures such as the enterocytes, goblet cells and crypts. Probiotics oligosaccharides enhanced the recovery of gut atrophy induced by protein malnutrition. Probiotic oligo saccharides can be useful as oral adjuvant during the recovery of protein malnutrition. Key words: Protein malnutrition, probiotic oligo saccharides, nutritional biochemical parameter, intestinal histomorphometric. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/8CFCDBA46313 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2013.0159 en Copyright © 2014 Benakriche Ben Mehel, Bekada Ahmed Mohamed Ali, Idris Khodja Fatila Zohra and Kheroua Omar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:7E6B6FC46522 2014-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2014
Serum lipid peroxide and antioxidant vitamins (E, C) in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome Ahmad S. Elshemy, Ismail Lotfy Mohamad and Mohamad Sayyed Bakheet Full Length Research Paper Respiratory distress syndrome occurs mostly in premature infants with high risk of oxidative stress, free radicals and other reactive species which are constantly generated in vivo and cause oxidative damage to DNA and lipid. Antioxidants delay or inhibit cellular damage mainly through their free radical scavenging property, some of it including vitamins C and E. The study was done on sixty preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), in addition to twenty apparently healthy full term neonates as normal controls to determine the serum levels of the oxidant lipid peroxide and the antioxidant vitamins E and C. The mean levels of serum lipid peroxide which is the end product of lipid peroxidation were found to be higher with variable degrees of significant differences. The raised serum levels of lipid peroxide in neonates with RDS may be due to activated macrophages releasing highly reactive radicals that may cause local disruption of essential structures, and we found that the mean plusmn; standard deviation (SD) levels of serum vitamin C and E were lower with variable degrees of significant differences. Key words: Respiratory distress syndrome, vitamin C and E, lipid peroxide free radicals, macrophages. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/7E6B6FC46522 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2014.0169 en Copyright © 2014 Ahmad S. Elshemy, Ismail Lotfy Mohamad and Mohamad Sayyed Bakheet
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:3A0290246524 2014-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2014
Dietary habits of pregnant women in Ogun-East Senatorial Zone, Ogun State, Nigeria: A comparative study Oluwafolahan O. Sholeye, Catherine A. Badejo and Olubukunola A. Jeminusi Full Length Research Paper Poor maternal nutrition in pregnancy leads to increased morbidity and negative pregnancy outcomes including low birth weight and peri-natal mortality. Pregnancy places extra demands on the body systems of pregnant women, necessitating optimal intake of essential nutrients. Rural and urban disparities in nutritional status have been documented in literature. A cross-sectional comparative assessment of the dietary intake of 720 pregnant women accessing antenatal care at selected rural and urban primary health centers, in Ogun State, was carried out using multi-stage sampling technique. Data was collected using semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaires and 24 h dietary recall forms. Data was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 15.00 and total intake assessment software. Relevant inferential statistics were calculated. The mean intake of most nutrients was significantly higher (p lt; 0.05) among the rural women than their urban counterparts, except for Vitamin A, Zinc and Iron. There was no significant difference (p gt; 0.05) in the types of vegetables consumed by rural and urban respondents. The types of snacks consumed were significantly different (p = 0.032), but there was no difference (p = 0.652) in frequency of snack consumption between both groups. The rural women had higher nutrient consumption compared to their urban counterparts. Continuous nutrition education will go a long way in ensuring adequate nutrient intake among pregnant women. Key words: Diet, intake, pregnant, Ogun. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/3A0290246524 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2014.0170 en Copyright © 2014 Oluwafolahan O. Sholeye, Catherine A. Badejo and Olubukunola A. Jeminusi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:5F226EE48713 2014-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2014
Comparision between the effects of dietary suplements of sun dried or sulfur fumigated apricots on the telomerase activity and oxidatıve stress parameters in azoxymethane administered rats Aysun Bay Karabulut, Dinccedil;er Ouml;zgouml;r, Simay Guuml;rocak, Nese Karadag, Onder Otlu and Cemil Colak Full Length Research Paper This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of organic and sulfur treated apricot on the azoxymethane-induced carcinogenesis by antioxidant markers and telomerase activity. Spraque Dawley rats (n = 35) were fed with two kinds of dried apricots (sun-dried or sulfur fumigated), with or without azoxhymethane (AOM). Rats were sacrificed after seven weeks for measurement of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide levels and telomerase activity. The results demonstrated that, oxidative stress and telomerase activity were increased in AOM induced group; decreased in apricot fed group (p lt; 0.001). With respect to the antioxidant activity; sulfur fumigated apricot group could be more effective than the sun-dried apricot (p lt; 0.005). On the contrary, telomerase activity was found to be higher in AOM induced sulfur fumigated apricot group compared to that of the group with AOM and organic apricot. These results demonstrate that sulfur fumigated apricot or sun dried apricot + azoxhymethane groups had higher antioxidant activity compared to azoxhymethane group. Sun-dried apricot decreaseD the telomerase activity more than sulphur fumigated apricot in azoxyhmethane administirated rats. Apricot treatment also decreased oxidative damage. Taken together, reduction in both telomerase activity and oxidative stress might indicate the benefical effects of apricot suplements against the damages caused by azoxhymethane in rats. Key words: Apricot, azoxhymethane, glutathione, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, telomerase. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/5F226EE48713 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2014.0165 en Copyright © 2014 Aysun Bay Karabulut, Dinccedil;er Ouml;zgouml;r, Simay Guuml;rocak, Nese Karadag, Onder Otlu and Cemil Colak
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:E76CA2748715 2014-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2014
Nutritive composition of omega-3 fatty acids-rich Ricinodendron heudelotii and its potential for nutrition Michael O. Ezekwe, Samuel A. Besong and Ramon Johnson Full Length Research Paper Njangsa (Ricinodendron heudelotii), a tropical tree that grows in the forest of West and Central Africa, produces fruits that are manually shelled to collect oil seeds and dried. A compositional analysis of njangsa revealed a unique nutrient presence of long chain omega-3 fatty acids not usually associated with plant materials. The seed had 31.4% crude protein and 44.7% lipid. Of this lipid, about 73% was composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), almost entirely of eicosapentaenoic acid, with about 18% oleic acid. Preliminary studies were conducted to determine if njangsa seed meal would alter the lipid and other metabolite levels in the pig and/or improve pork quality traits. Twelve crossbred gilts and barrows were fed corn-soybean diets containing 14% crude protein. Treatment group was supplemented with 2% njangsa oil seed meal. Growth and carcass traits showed similar carcass characteristics (P gt; 0.05). Backfat measurement was reduced (P lt; 0.05), while kidney weight was elevated (P lt; 0.01) in treated animals. Pork sensory evaluations were not different between the experimental groups. Oil rich supply of long chain PUFA from sources other than seafood may provide a more sustainable source. Key words: Ricinodendron heudelotii, fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, swine, carcass composition. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/E76CA2748715 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2014.0167 en Copyright © 2014 Michael O. Ezekwe, Samuel A. Besong and Ramon Johnson
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:33A800149460 2015-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2015
Prevalence of food aversions, cravings and pica during pregnancy and their association with nutritional status of pregnant women in Dale Woreda, Sidama zone, SNNPRS, Ethiopia Yoseph Halala Handiso Full Length Research Paper Food aversions, cravings and pica during pregnancy are commonly known all over the world. They are documented starting from long period of time, and their prevalence varies from 50 to 90% of pregnant women. Although pica behavior is practiced globally, it is more prevalent within African countries. To know prevalence of these practices and their association with nutritional status of pregnant women, community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 605 pregnant women in Dale Woreda, Sidama zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples#39; Region (SNNPRS), Ethiopia. Two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select a representative sample. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 17.0. The logistic regression and multiple linear regressions were carried out. From the total study participants, 67.9% of pregnant women were avoiding at least one food during their pregnancy period. Since food aversions, cravings and pica practicing are closely linked to meal pattern of pregnant woman, understanding these behaviors is important in addressing the issue of maternal nutrition in a pregnant woman. Unhealthy cravings for non-food items should be discouraged as there is no known nutritional benefit of such habit and can lead to intestinal problems like abdominal pain, constipation and infection. This study showed that the study participants had poor nutritional status. Food aversion, craving and pica practicing should be investigated during antenatal follow-up, and advice should be offered. Key words: Food aversion, food craving, pica practicing and pregnant women. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/33A800149460 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2014.0162 en Copyright © 2015 Yoseph Halala Handiso
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:3AD69A549461 2015-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2015
Urban-rural differentials in child undernutrition in Ethiopia Sebsibe Tadesse and Yinges Alemu Full Length Research Paper Empirical evidence on the impacts of household poverty and other socio-demographic factors regarding child undernutrition is essential in targeting resources appropriately to raise the health of the poor and most vulnerable groups. There is a paucity of such evidence in Ethiopia. The present study identified urban-rural differences in the magnitude and determinants of under-five child undernutrition in Ethiopia. Complete anthropometric data for 9,472 under-five children were obtained from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey dataset. Undernutrition is measured by using underweight as the key outcome variable. The 2006 World Health Organization growth standards are used to calculate underweight. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to see the strength of association. The magnitude of underweight was observed to be 32.7% [95%CI = (31.7, 33.6)] among rural children and 15.8% [95%CI = (15.1, 16.5)] among urban. Multivariate analyses showed that living in urban of Tigray and Somali regions, poor household wealth status and lack of toilet facility were the urban determinants of child underweight in Ethiopia, whereas living in rural of Gambela and Harari regions, child age of 2 and over, motherrsquo;s age at first birth being 18 and under, poor and medium household wealth status and child did not take drugs for intestinal parasites in the last six months were factors independently associated with child underweight in the rural of Ethiopia. In conclusion, the study highlighted that special attention needs to be given to policies aimed at reducing underweight based on the magnitude and nature of factors, such as poverty, early marriage, child age, anti-helmentic drugs, toilet facilities and regional characteristics. Key words: Children, Ethiopia, undernutrition. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/3AD69A549461 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2014.0171 en Copyright © 2015 Sebsibe Tadesse and Yinges Alemu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:174110550234 2015-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2015
Triglyceride lowering by chromium picolinate in type 2 diabetic people Elizabeth Joseph, Robert DiSilvestro and Esperanza J. Carcache de Blanco Short Communication In some studies in diabetic people, chromium picolinate supplementation has lowered readings for both plasma triglycerides and blood sugar. In the present study, relatively low dose supplementation (200 g chromium) did not lower blood sugar readings, but did lower triglyceride values in people with the following characteristics: type 2 diabetes, moderately elevated blood sugar, and not using insulin therapy. These results support the supposition that chromium picolinate can affect triglyceride concentrations independently of effects on carbohydrate metabolism. Key words: Chromium, diabetes, triglycerides. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/174110550234 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2012.018 en Copyright © 2015 Elizabeth Joseph, Robert DiSilvestro and Esperanza J. Carcache de Blanco
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:47ADA0650235 2015-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2015
Malnutrition in Albania, related problems and flour fortification as a solution Pellumb Piperosup;, Gazmend Bejtjasup;, Klodian Rjepajsup;, Ehadu Mersini, Mario Pipero and Alban Ylli Short Communication Micronutrient deficiencies are caused mainly by an inadequate intake of vitamins and minerals, as a consequence of an unbalanced diet composed mostly of carbohydrates in the conditions of poverty, the inability to take a variety of nutrients, the lack of knowledge on the most appropriate feeding practices and the relatively high incidence of infectious diseases. From a public health perspective, the importance of these deficiencies depends on the magnitude of their impact on health, especially among pregnant women, infants and children, given the consequences in the development of the fetus, in the growth of the child, the resistance to infections and the work performance later during the adult life. According the Albanian Demographic Health Survey (ADHS) 2008 to 2009, conducted jointly by the Albanian Institute of Public Health (IPH) and the National Institute of Statistics (INSTAT), the nutrition status of the Albanian population indicates amongst many other characteristic, that anemia prevalence is highest among children living in mountainous areas, coastal areas and rural areas, respectively. In addition, 19% of women have anemia with the highest prevalence in breastfeeding women and those living in rural areas. Therefore this study aims at evaluating the cost-effective analysis of interventions targeting malnutrition in Albania and how to improve them especially through flour fortification. Key words: Malnutrition, micronutrients, vitamins, minerals, deficiency, fortification, Albania. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/47ADA0650235 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2014.0172 en Copyright © 2015 Pellumb Piperosup;, Gazmend Bejtjasup;, Klodian Rjepajsup;, Ehadu Mersini, Mario Pipero and Alban Ylli
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:F8DE40E51356 2015-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2015
Counting carbohydrates as an educational tool to reduce fat consumption in obese children exposed to videogames: A pilot study Adriana Y. Lopez Gutierrez and Rebecca Monroy Torres, Full Length Research Paper This study aimed to use carbohydrate counting as an educational tool to improve the diet habits and reduce fat mass in obese children exposed to videogames. It involved analytical and comparative pilot study in 10 children, 5 to 10 years of age with obesity and who were exposed to video games for more than five hours a day. It formed two study groups (five in each). One used carbohydrates count tool plus a diet plan and food orientation and the other group, although similar but was without the counting carbohydrates tool. To both groups, anthropometric (fat mass), biochemical, dietetics and clinical indicators were measured. The reduction of body fat in the 10 children was 4%, with a reduction in the consumption of simple sugars. In making the comparison, at the end of the intervention there was decreased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and food and an increase in the consumption of vegetables. No significant correlation was found between carbohydrate consumption and exposure to video games and also there was no difference (p lt; 0.05). The carbohydrate count tool improved the consumption of vegetables and decreased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and food, but was not clearly so for the fat mass reduction. These early findings showed a first approximation to apply this experience in a large sample. Key words: Sugar-sweetened beverages, body fat, obesity, video games, children. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/F8DE40E51356 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2014.0176 en Copyright © 2015 Adriana Y. Lopez Gutierrez and Rebecca Monroy Torres,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:EBA243851357 2015-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2015
Maternal anthropometry in rural and urban areas of Ogun-East senatorial district, Nigeria: A comparative study Jeminusi, O. A., Sholeye, O. O. and Abosede O. A. Full Length Research Paper Maternal nutrition is a well documented determinant of pregnancy outcome. Maternal anthropometry has been shown to be a predictor of the occurrence or otherwise of low birth weight, foetal macrosomia, increased maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality. Rural-urban differences in nutritional status have been documented in literature. A cross-sectional comparative study of the anthropometric indices of 720 pregnant women accessing antenatal care at selected rural and urban primary health centres in Ogun State, Nigeria was carried out, using semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaires, adult weighing scales, a stadiometre and measuring tapes. The mean height, weight, and body mass index of rural participants were higher than those of urban participants, although the difference was not significant (p gt; 0.05) for these parameters. The mean mid-upper arm circumference value for urban participants was significantly higher (p = 0.014) than that of the rural participants. Community-level nutritional interventions, including adequate feeding of the girl child, will help to improve maternal nutrition in developing countries. Key words: Maternal, anthropometry, pregnant, rural, urban. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/EBA243851357 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2014.0174 en Copyright © 2015 Jeminusi, O. A., Sholeye, O. O. and Abosede O. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:1594F0152385 2015-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2015
Comparative study on the antibacterial and chemical constituents of Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet) and Zea mays (maize) Hellen Mueni Ndiku and Mutuku Chrispus Ngule Full Length Research Paper The use of indigenous foods dates back to the colonization of Africa. The shift from the use of indigenous foods to the use of nutritiously inferior non-indigenous cereals is a common trend in many developing countries. The adoption of global food systems has led to simplification of East African cultural practices adversely affecting peoplesrsquo; health. The current study compared the antibacterial activity and phytochemical composition of Pennisetum glaucum (indigenous) and Zea mays (non-indigenous), which established that 75% out of 100% of all the phytochemicals tested were found to be present in the pearl millet grain as compared to maize, which was found to contain only 37.7% of the different types of compounds tested. Pearl millet inhibited the growth of Serratia marcescens (14.00 plusmn; 0.882), Salmonella typhi (14.67 plusmn; 0.577), Proteus vulgaris (25.33 plusmn; 0.577) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (11.67 plusmn; 0.577). The tests further established that Zea mays (maize) inhibited the growth of only Proteus vulgaris. The positive control inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms used, while dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) (negative control) did not inhibit any growth of the microorganisms used in the study. The analysis of variance showed that there was significant difference in the zones of inhibition among the microorganisms. These findings may justify the value of nutritional and therapeutic traditional foods in developing economies. This paper recommends use of indigenous cereals for food. Further research needs to be done to isolate and analyze active compounds and their structural composition and determine their pharmacological significance. Key words: Pearl millet, maize, phytochemical, antibacterial, indigenous foods Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/1594F0152385 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2014.0173 en Copyright © 2015 Hellen Mueni Ndiku and Mutuku Chrispus Ngule
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:92D78A952387 2015-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2015
Moderate exercise training has anorexogenic effect associated with improved oxidative stress in obese women Nesreen Nabil and Mohsen El Sayyad Full Length Research Paper Endocrine derangement and oxidative stress are two distinguishing features of obesity that have limited the success rate of various management strategies, especially physical activities. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of moderate-intensity regular exercise training on oxidative stress, appetite and weight loss in obese women compared with normal-weight women. Sixteen normal-weight (body mass index (BMI) lt; 25 kg/m2) and fifteen obese women (BMI gt; 30 kg/m2) exercised on the bicycle ergometer at moderate intensity for 30 min, 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the first day of training and 72 h after the completion of the training program which were then used for the measurement of F2-Isoprostanes, glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), leptin, adiponectin and nesfatin-1. Eight (8) weeks of training resulted in lower BMI, insulin, GSSG (P lt; 0.05), leptin (P lt; 0.01), and F2-Isoprostanes (P lt; 0.001) and higher nesfatin-1 levels (P lt; 0.01) relative to the levels at the pre-test stage in obese women. Also leptin levels after exercise were positively correlated with F2-Isoprostanes and BMI. Eight weeks of moderate-intensity regular exercise program did not only induce weight loss and improve oxidative stress, but also modified insulin, leptin and nesfatin-1 concentrations, particularly in obese women. Key words: Endocrine derangement, oxidative stress, obesity, exercise, weight loss, leptin, nesfatin-1. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/92D78A952387 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2015.0180 en Copyright © 2015 Nesreen Nabil and Mohsen El Sayyad
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:F5F964155030 2015-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2015
Utilization synergistic effect of plant food consumption in meeting vegetable consumption in South-East (SE) Nigeria Ndie Elkenah Chubike Full Length Research Paper Survey research design was used in the study of 900 adults from 9 senatorial zones of South Eastern Nigeria that aimed at using the correlation coefficient matrix to evaluate the synergic effect of various plant food diet of South Eastern Nigeria to meet the vegetable consumption requirement of the people. Twenty four hour food recall was conducted using questionnaire while the quantity of vegetable consumed by the individuals were estimated. The correlation coefficient matrix of the diet with vegetables were calculated, the result show that garri, pounded yam and cassava fufu co-relate high with vegetables like bitter leave, ugu and ora (0.82 to 0.86), while food items like yam and rice co-relate poorly with these vegetables (0.24 to 0.12), though yam and rice co-relate high with other vegetables like green amalant and nchuonwu (0.72 to 0.63). Vegetable is incorporated in many plant food items of South Eastern Nigeria diet, yet there is still more room for improvement. It was then recommended that proper planning of meals considering synergistic effect from this incorporation will help in meeting the vegetable needs of the people. The correlation matrix can be of great help to meal planner. Key words: Synergic effect, diet, vegetable consumption, plant food. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/F5F964155030 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2015.0181 en Copyright © 2015 Ndie Elkenah Chubike
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:D1928C755263 2015-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2015
Gender differences in factors associated with overweight and obesity among civil servants in Lagos, Nigeria Sanusi Rasaki Ajani, Holdbrooke Jennifer Abba Susan and Ariyo Oluwaseun Full Length Research Paper Overweight and obesity constitute global public health problems with consequences on health and productivity of workers. This study was designed to describe the gender variation in the factors associated with overweight, obesity and hypertension among civil servants in Lagos, Nigeria. This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in 280 civil servants recruited from seven local government areas in Lagos state using random sampling technique. A pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured using standard procedure. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test at p = 0.05. Age was 44.8 plusmn; 8.5 years, 68.2% were males and 80.4% were married. About 64% had tertiary education; higher in males (70.7%) than females (49.4%). The crude prevalence of overweight and obesity was 70.7%. Overweight was significantly higher in males (61.7%) than females (52.3%) while obesity was significantly higher in females (47.7%) than males (38.3%). Abdominal obesity was more common in males (31.6%) than females (23.1%). Body mass index was higher in females (28.05 plusmn; 4.9) compared to males (27.83 plusmn; 5.8); WC was higher in females (94.6 plusmn; 10.0) than males (93.08 plusmn; 12.6). Obesity was predominant among civil servants aged 51 to 60 years in both gender groups. Systolic blood pressure (BP) was higher in females (124.08 plusmn; 19.8) than males (122.4 plusmn; 22.8) whereas diastolic BP was higher in males (84.3 plusmn; 13.1) than females (83.7 plusmn; 12.1). The prevalence of hypertension was 42.9%; higher in females (44.6%) than males (42.1%). Among female civil servants, overweight and obesity were significantly associated with age, education while among males they were significantly associated with grade level. Overweight, obesity and hypertension are high among civil servants; prevalence and associated factors differ by gender. Gender-sensitive public health intervention is hereby recommended to influence health behavior of civil servants. Key words: Overweight, obesity, civil servants. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/D1928C755263 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2015.0187 en Copyright © 2015 Sanusi Rasaki Ajani, Holdbrooke Jennifer Abba Susan and Ariyo Oluwaseun
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:017A37057254 2016-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2016
Marked differences of fat taste sensitivity between obese and lean subjects Gado Dramane, Samuel Gnanka and Virgile Ahyi Full Length Research Paper Obesity is a risk factor for several diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular complications. It is established that there is a difference of taste perception between lean and obese subjects. We used alternative forced-choice method to evaluate linoleic acid (LA) sensitivity in 58 West African subjects. LA sensitivity is inversely correlated with the body mass index and the waist circumference, and obesity biomarkers are higher as body mass index (BMI) increase. Our work suggests differences of fat taste sensitivity between BMI categories. Moreover, waist circumference was positively correlated with reduced fat taste sensitivity. Keys words: Obesity, body mass index (BMI), fatty acid sensitivity. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/017A37057254 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2015.0182 en Copyright © 2016 Gado Dramane, Samuel Gnanka and Virgile Ahyi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:689609E57884 2016-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2016
Enhancement of flavor and analyte balance of freeze-dried coconut water Puran Bridgemohan and Ronell S. H. Bridgemohan Full Length Research Paper There is a high incidence of gastro-intestinal and viral diseases after natural disasters, particularly in rural areas in third world countries. Oral rehydration salts (ORS) are used, but there is need for a better tasting substitute which has improved quality, accessibility and storage. Fresh coconut is the preferred choice, but is limited by availability, and rapid nutritional deterioration. Reconstituted powdered products have not retained the natural flavor. The production of a freeze dried ORS was developed using fresh coconut water at different maturity stages. The assessment was done in its pure form and enhanced with natural fruit flavors (mango and passion fruit). Coconut water were frozen (-30deg;C/ 48 h) and vacuum freeze dried (VFD) to produce rehydrated crystals. This was analyzed for its analyte contents, glucose and Brix. The atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for the mineral analysis. The results indicated that the analytes balance increased with maturity of the coconut fruits, with no differences between the fruit juices. In some mixtures, the electrolyte content was higher in the fruit juices than the coconut water. The study showed improved quality and acceptability through its taste enhancement and extended shelf-life compared to similar ORS. Key words: Analyte electrolyte, freeze-dry, oral re-hydration, flavored coconut water. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/689609E57884 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2015.0192 en Copyright © 2016 Puran Bridgemohan and Ronell S. H. Bridgemohan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:530B79E58334 2016-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2016
Treatment outcome of severe acute malnutrition and determinants of survival in Northern Ethiopia: A prospective cohort study Desalegn Massa, Kifle Woldemichael, Birtukan Tsehayneh, and Amanuel Tesfay , Full Length Research Paper Ethiopia has long history of food insecurity and nutritional problems affecting large proportion of the population caused by successive droughts. Despite of different interventions to tackle the problem there is no explicit data showing treatment outcome of the children generally in Ethiopia and specifically in the study area. Institutional based general prospective cohort study was employed. The respondents were 332 children of 6-59 months age admitted to Outpatient therapeutic program (OTP) providing health facilities and their mothers /caregivers from January-April, 2012. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Kaplan Meir (KM) curve, log rank test and proportional hazards Cox model were performed. The bivariate and adjusted hazard rate and its 95%Confidence interval were estimated. Out of 332 children, 255 children (76.8%) have recovered. Fifty-eight children (17.5%) defaulted from the program. Factors significantly associated with good recovery were children whose mothers travel below 2 hours to the health facility ,male children ,children with baseline WFH of gt;60% and children from mothers whose age at first marriage is gt;18 years. Efforts to trace defaulters from OTP should be emphasized and strengthened. To overcome the high length of stay and low weight gain among patients in the OTP, stakeholders need to consider and give emphasis to the identified determinants of the treatment outcomes to achieve fully effective and sustainable program. Key words: Treatment outcomes, severe acute malnutrition, children, prospective cohort. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/530B79E58334 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2015.0193 en Copyright © 2016 Desalegn Massa, Kifle Woldemichael, Birtukan Tsehayneh, and Amanuel Tesfay ,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:2E14C4659996 2016-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2016
Anti-hyperglycemic effect of cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifollium) corm in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats Oluyemisi Folake FOLASIRE, Olayinka Ayotunde ORIDUPA, Adedotun Joshua OWOLABI and Oladejo Thomas ADEPOJU Full Length Research Paper Diabetes mellitus constitutes a global public health concern and dietary approach is key to the control and prevention of lethal complications. This study investigated the hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects of Xanthosoma sagittifolium-incorporated diets in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Seventy normoglycemic male Wistar strain albino rats (120 to 200 g) were divided into two groups of thirty-five each. Group 1 was randomly distributed into seven subgroups and each subgroup assigned to 100% rat pellets, X. sagittifolium-incorporated rat pellet (25, 50 and 75%), 100% X. sagittifolium , 100% X. sagittifolium + Glibenclamide (oral hypoglycaemic agent for treatment of diabetes) or 100% rat pellets + Glibenclamide. Diabetes was induced in Group 2 rats fasted for 12 h by intraperitoneal injection of Alloxan (100thinsp;mg/kg body weight). Initial fasting blood glucose levels (BGL) were recorded, and alloxan-treated rats with BGL gt;200thinsp;mg/dl 48 h post-induction were considered diabetic and divided into seven subgroups. Dietary treatment was carried out, and blood glucose level (BGL) monitored for 14 days. Data obtained were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukeyrsquo;s post-hoc test at plt; 0.05. X. sagittifolium caused a significant reduction in the BGL of alloxan-induced diabetic rats (plt;0.05) but no hypoglycemic effect in normoglycemic rats. Rats fed 25% (BGL:165.2plusmn;16.9 mg/dl), 50% (BGL: 189.2plusmn;15.9 mg/dl) and 75% (BGL:152.0plusmn;23.0 mg/dl) X. sagittifolium showed better control of BGL by 24 h post-prandial compared with rats administered glibenclamide (BGL: 195.0plusmn;18.6 mg/dl) and 100% X. sagittifolium (BGL: 221.0plusmn;17.0 mg/dl). Rats fed 75% (BGL: 118.4plusmn;11.0 mg/dl) or 100% (BGL: 97.0plusmn;17.1 mg/dl) X. sagittifolium had better controlled BGL compared with rats fed pellets and pellets + glibenclamide (BGL: 154.2plusmn;19.8 mg/dl) on day 7. X. sagittifolium corm has an antihyperglycemic effect, and its consumption should be encouraged among diabetic patients as a good replacement for other high-calorie diets. Key words: Antihyperglycemic effect, Xanthosoma sagittifolium, diabetes mellitus, albino rat. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/2E14C4659996 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2016.0200 en Copyright © 2016 Oluyemisi Folake FOLASIRE, Olayinka Ayotunde ORIDUPA, Adedotun Joshua OWOLABI and Oladejo Thomas ADEPOJU
oai:academicjournals.org:IJNAM:5BF68B262402 2017-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJNAM IJNAM:2017
Predictors of nutritional status among adolescent school girls in Southwest Ethiopia Tezera Moshago Berheto, Feleke Hailemichael Astawesegn and Bedilu Girma Weji Full Length Research Paper Total nutrient needs of adolescents are higher than any other time in the Lifecycle making susceptible to malnutrition. Any nutritional deficiency experienced during this critical period of life can have long lasting effect on the future health of the individual and also her offspring. Hence this study was to assess nutritional status and predictors of malnutrition among adolescent school girls, in south west Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted using a multistage sampling technique and eight hundred and twenty school going adolescent girls were selected from southwest zones of Ethiopia, Southern Nation Nationality People Region (SNNPR). Twelve schools were randomly selected and allocation of study participant was made proportional to number of student in the classes. The selected subjects were classified into three groups based on the grades such as primary (grades 5 and 6), junior (grades 7 and 8) and high school (grades 9 and 10) according to educational system of Ethiopia. Using sampling frame schools roster, girls between the age of 10 and 19 were selected. Interviewer administered pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. An UNICEF Seca Electronic weight Scale and portable plastic height measuring instrument was used for obtaining anthropometric data immediately after face-to-face interview. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. An anthropometric measure was converted to the indices of nutritional status, Z-scores of height for age and BMI for age using WHO AnthroPlus version 1.0.3 software. All statistical significances were declared at p-value less than 0.05. The mean (plusmn;SD) of height-for-age z scores (HAZ) and body mass index for age z-score (BAZ) of the participants were -0.62 (plusmn;0.88), and -0.41(plusmn;0.99) respectively. Residence, regularity of breakfast, no episode of illness in the preceding one month to interview, fuels used for cooking in the household, hand-washing habit after toilet use, time spent on sedentary activities, consumption of sweet food items, consumption of cereal, mothersrsquo; occupation were significant predictors (plt;0.05). From the study it was obvious that over nutrition and obesity is not the major problem of female adolescent student .It is therefore relevant to focus on enhancement of the eating practices of adolescents. Strengthened Health education focusing on regular consumption of breakfast, washing hand after toilet use and preparing separate kitchen for cooking should be there. Though sweet foods and drinks consumption may be discouraged; in this community it is necessary to maintain healthy eating practices to achieve desired nutritional status of the adolescents by increasing their sweet food consumption. Key words: School going adolescent girls, nutritional status. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJNAM/article-abstract/5BF68B262402 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2016.0209 en Copyright © 2017 Tezera Moshago Berheto, Feleke Hailemichael Astawesegn and Bedilu Girma Weji
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