2024-02-26T03:33:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:2B0C72E40974 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2010
Gender differences in anxiety among Pakistani survivors of suicide bomb blast Yasmin Nilofer Farooqi, Sidra Tariq and David D. Burns Full Length Research Paper This research investigated gender differences in anxiety among Pakistani survivors of suicide bomb blast. The sample was composed of 150 adult residents of Islamabad. 75 participants were live-witnesses of the Marriott hotel suicide bomb blast and 75 participants did not witness it Burns Anxiety Inventory (BAI, 1999) was individually administered to all the research participants after getting written permission from the author for its use in the current research project. The female survivors reported greater anxiety than male survivors of this bomb blast (t = -2.45, df = 148, *p lt; 0.05). All the participants who directly witnessed the traumatic event of suicide bomb blast reported greater anxiety than those who did not witness it (t = 7.90, df = 148, **p lt; 0.01). Furthermore, the female survivors of suicide bombing reported more physical symptoms of anxiety as compared to their male counterparts (t = -2.94, df = 148, **p lt; 0.01). However, no gender differences were found in anxious thoughts and feelings of the survivors; probably because in Pakistani society the women often manifest their emotional distress in somatic form rather than in thoughts and feelings. The findings of this research have implications for promoting our knowledge and understanding of gender related issues of the survivors of traumatic events; such as suicide bomb blasts so that gender-sensitive counseling and therapeutic interventions could be introduced for the management and treatment of such survivors of terrorist attacks. Key words: Survivors, suicide bomb blast, anxiety, live-witnesses, non-witnesses. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/2B0C72E40974 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000017 en Copyright © 2010 Yasmin Nilofer Farooqi, Sidra Tariq and David D. Burns
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:5AA0DF640976 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2010
Wars and the current crisis in the American economy Adil H. Mouhammed Full Length Research Paper The purpose of this paper is to explain clearly that the recent economic crisis in the U.S. economy is grounded in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq aimed at controlling world oil and the globe. These goals reflect the dominance of militarism, of oil corporations, and of the financiers represented by the Federal Reserve (Fed). These institutions represent the dominant triangle of the American higher-plane capitalism. On the one hand, the wars have been increasing government spending on militarism, which generates huge budget deficit and public debt and a higher rate of inflation and a lower exchange rate of the dollar. On the other hand, the two wars are increasing the prices of oil, which contribute significantly for increasing the cost of doing business. The Fed had to defend its position by increasing interest rates by reducing lending. For their own survival, businesses have to increase prices and cut cost. All these private and public actions cumulatively generate stagflation (high inflation and unemployment) and the Great Recession of December 2007. Key words: Militarism, oil corporations, financiers, budget deficit, inflation; unemployment, peace economy, Veblen, Melman. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/5AA0DF640976 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000033 en Copyright © 2010 Adil H. Mouhammed
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:4F78D89600 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2010
Elite corruption and the culture of primitive accumulation in 21st century Nigeria Chris C. Ojukwu and J. O. Shopeju Review Nigeria is often perceived as the lsquo;giant of Africarsquo; by most Africans, perhaps, because of its remarkable achievements in the continent in the past three decades. Today, the same country is looked upon by the rest of the world as a lsquo;crippledrsquo; giant, a veritable modern wasteland, a nation where corruption is extolled as a national culture, tradition; as a nation of business scams and fraudulent investment and contractual opportunities. The paper argues that the situation became worse during Olusegun Obasanjorsquo;s eight years administration 1999 to 2007 when his government tactically opened the floodgate of elite corruption and primitive accumulation, which subsequently brought the country to its knees. Key words: Elite, corruption, primitive accumulation, development, economy. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/4F78D89600 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000011 en Copyright © 2010 Chris C. Ojukwu and J. O. Shopeju
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:2C63188606 2010-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2010
Domestic rebellion in Africa: Between intelligence failures and the failure of governance I. S. Ogundiya Review Political rebellion has remained a major staple of Africarsquo;s political economy. The rebellion is multifaceted and multifarious. Consequently, several explanations are competing for attention in the literatures. This paper examines the upsurge of political rebellion in Africa in the recent time. It argues that the surge and spread of political rebellion in Africa is largely a function of the failure of governance and less the failure of security and/or intelligence. Key words: Africa, rebellion, intelligence, governance, democracy. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/2C63188606 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000006 en Copyright © 2010 I. S. Ogundiya
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:CEBFBF440984 2010-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2010
Pakistan in Regional and Global Politics Salma Malik Book Review Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/CEBFBF440984 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000024 en Copyright © 2010 Salma Malik
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:62C0A3440986 2010-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2010
East Asia summit: Interests and expectations G. Jayachandra Reddy Full Length Research Paper Ever since the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) formation, many attempts have been made to promote regionalism particularly in East Asia with an inclusion of Southeast Asia. As was propagated, the idea of lsquo;Look East Policyrsquo; was in the cards for a long time and Mohathir Mohammed was also blaming Japan for not looking at the East Asian countries. By the end of the Cold War, the geopolitical scenario has been changed not only in the Asian countries but over the globe. ASEAN has successfully admitted all the countries of Southeast as its members and further ASEAN+China, Japan and South Korea (ASEAN+3) was formed including China, Japan and South Korea. The long pending slogan of East Asian Community has eventually surfaced in the form of lsquo;East Asia Summitrsquo; in 2005. This time it was not just the combination of neither Southeast Asian nor East Asian countries but included Australia and New Zealand from South Pacific and India from South Asia. In view of the rare and uncommon composition of the countries, many critics have raised questions over the sustainability of the regional platform. With this backdrop, this paper attempts to analyze the compulsions, expectations and their own national interests of the member countries of the East Asia Summit. Key words: East Asia, regionalization, ASEAN+3, East Asia summit Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/62C0A3440986 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000008 en Copyright © 2010 G. Jayachandra Reddy
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:78ED7B140993 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Peace and security education: A critical factor for sustainable peace and national development Otive Igbuzor Review Peace and security of life and property has been recognized by scholars and citizens as the primary condition for progress and development of any society. Meanwhile, there is a clear linkage between poor governance on one hand and insecurity and violent conflict on the other. But there are many dimensions of peace including negative peace (absence of direct violence) and positive peace (absence of predisposing factors to violence) as well as philosophical, sociological and political dimensions. Similarly, security is conceptualized to combine elements of national security, economic development and basic human rights. In every society, there are certain critical factors for sustainable peace and they include justice, just and accountable governance, protection of human rights, equitable distribution of resources and peace and security education. Using Nigeria as a case study, the paper argued that the three key problems capable of compromising the peace and security of Nigeria are ethno-religious conflicts, Niger delta crisis and electoral violence. The paper concluded that peace and security education is a critical factor in producing sustainable peace in any society. Key words: Peace, security, conflict, development, human rights, sustainable Peace, peace and security education. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/78ED7B140993 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000026 en Copyright © 2011 Otive Igbuzor
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:1A5B57A40996 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Analysis of adoption of improved maize varieties among farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria Kudi, T. M, Bolaji, M. Akinola M.O and Nasarsquo;I D.H Full Length Research Paper The study focuses on the analysis of socio-economic factors that influence the adoption of improved maize varieties among farmers. The specific objectives are to identify the available new maize varieties in the study area, sources of information on new maize varieties, determine the extent to which the farmers are aware of the improved maize varieties, the influence of socio-economic characteristics of the farmers on adoption of improved maize varieties and to identify the problems confronting farmersrsquo; adoption of new maize varieties. Data was obtained from fifty (50) maize farmers through the use of structured questionnaires. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. It was found that more than half of the respondents (sixty percent) were aware of the improved maize varieties and have been using them, while fifty four percent of the respondents got their information from extension agents. All the respondents (100%) were aware of the improved maize varieties. The results of the regression analysis showed that household size, level of education, contact with extension agents, and access to credit and yield of the improved maize varieties were the factors that influence the adoption of improved maize varieties. The major constraints identified were high cost of fertilizer and cost of labour, lack of capital, lack of contact with extension agents and lack of market for produce. It is recommended that cost of fertilizer should be subsidized, efforts should be made to make credit accessible to farmers, and there should be increased number of extension agents who would help introduce new maize varieties to farmers and an effective input supply system that would sustain the expansion of maize output by farmers in the study area should be put in place. Key words: Improved maize varieties, regression analysis, socio-economic factors, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/1A5B57A40996 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000001 en Copyright © 2011 Kudi, T. M, Bolaji, M. Akinola M.O and Nasarsquo;I D.H
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:17E100A40998 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Natural vascular floristic composition of Banaras Hindu University, India: An overview Arvind Singh Full Length Research Paper The naturally occurring vascular flora of the main campus of Banaras Hindu University spreading over an area of 1,300 acres was analyzed. A total of 329 vascular plant species were reported in the campus of which only 5 were Pteridophytes and the remaining 324 species were Angiosperms. No natural occurrence of gymnosperms was reported from the University Campus. Angiosperms were represented by 76 families of which the Asteraceae, Poaceae and Fabaceae are the dominant families of the flora of Banaras Hindu University. Key words: Angiosperms, floristic composition, herbaceous species, pteridophytes, shrubs, tree species, undershrubs, vascular flora. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/17E100A40998 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000021 en Copyright © 2011 Arvind Singh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:16736FC41005 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Creating space for community-based conservation initiatives (CBCLs) in conventional academics Kanna Kumar S., Sweta Mishra and Kameswara Rao K. Review Government promoted protected areas (PAs), and large integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) such as joint forest management (JFM) are normally mentioned as the only means of conservation and locals are mentioned as the sourcewhere #39;biotic pressure#39; comes from in most of the curricula which could make the professional conservation biologists and policy makers biased and may consider locals as a threat to conservation. Education based on the western-centric approaches to conservation in India have left the forest department officials and the officials of line departments concerned with conservation, such as agriculture, live-stock and irrigation indifferent to peoplersquo;s initiatives. Besides, it made the policy makers inefficient to design holistic and appropriate inclusive policies related to conservation and development. This situation could be attributed to the hitherto existing gap in formal education due to lack of inclusion of community-based conservation initiatives (CBCIs) and humanities especially in the academic curriculum of conservation biology. Hence, it is hypothesized that the existing gap between scientific world and ground realities in India could be abridged if the issue of CBCIs and humanities finds their way into academic curriculum and research domains of conservation biology, natural resource management and environmental sciences. Key words: Community-based conservation (rfCBC), community-based conservation initiative (CBCI), Forest Survey of India (FSI), forest department (FD), Indian Forest Service (IFS), International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), Joint Forest Management (JFM), the Theme on Indigenous and Local Communities, Equity, and Protected Areas (TILCEPA), integrated conservation and development project (ICDP). Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/16736FC41005 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000004 en Copyright © 2011 Kanna Kumar S., Sweta Mishra and Kameswara Rao K.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:B61578E41008 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Female households and poverty: A case study of Faisalabad District Zahoor Hussain Javed and Ayesha Asif Full Length Research Paper This study shows the relationship between female-headed households, male household and poverty in the two Tehisils of District Faisalabad. Eighty response clients were interviewed. Compare means; regressions and the binary Logit regressions analysis are used to detect the relationship between female household, male household and the factors that affect the possibility towards poverty. Linear results indicate that education, secondary earners, number of children and occupations are the significant factors that affect monthly income of the family. Nevertheless, results indicate that income, consumption, family size and households headship status, play vital role to determine the level of poverty. There is negative relationship between head of households and poverty. Female householdrsquo;s heads have fewer assets, lower earning capacity than male-headed. Results suggest that the need for special interventions, skilled knowledge and specific infrastructures are required for the improvement women community. Key words: Female householdrsquo;s head, poverty, Faisalabad. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/B61578E41008 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000014 en Copyright © 2011 Zahoor Hussain Javed and Ayesha Asif
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:73271BB41009 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Exploring the reality in which members of the teaching profession are immersed in Argentina: A case study Augusto Geraci, Pedro Luis Luchini and Lucia Roloacute;n Full Length Research Paper The concept of teachersrsquo; precarious working conditions refers to the pressures and adjustments suffered, during the last decades, in public schools in Argentina. The Neo-liberal project influenced all aspects of public and social life, such as health, education and working rights; deteriorated the conditions under which those sectors function; and destabilized labor structurally. The pressure exercised by international organizations, such as the IMF and the World Bank, affected Educational Policies, which considered the educational crisis to be, basically, one of efficiency and effectiveness in the system, as well as in the quality of the services and their administrator: the State. As a result of these policies, structural changes imposed new operational rules and orders not only on the labor sphere, but also on the curriculum. Those changes also reinforced the techno-bureaucratization of the system, blurred the pedagogical sphere and accentuated the social breach. This case study attempts at a critical analysis of the impact those changes had on the working conditions of teachers, particularly concentrating on issues related to teachersrsquo; health and pathologies connected to their tasks performance. Following a qualitative approach, interviews to the main characters involved were conducted in order to analyze the impact this problem had on their working performance. How did the idea of investigating teachersrsquo; discomfort arise? It arose from my own experience. I noticed that in certain places, such as teachersrsquo; room and school corridors, there were several unfair and troubling issues. Teachersrsquo; room is usually a place where a lot of discomfort takes place, where even students are often despised. Those things made me feel sick, I suffered from dysphonia, I easily caught colds, I was distressed and disappointed. I often wondered, what is wrong with us? Why do we get to this point? In order to become a teacher, one needs to have a strong sense of vocation. Some people think teaching is simply a profession, but I think it needs to be based on our love for others. Key words: Teachersrsquo; job, educational policy, precarious working conditions, occupational health. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/73271BB41009 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000013 en Copyright © 2011 Augusto Geraci, Pedro Luis Luchini and Lucia Roloacute;n
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:C1C832841014 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Obama and Woods: “Master Tacticians”1 in a supposed post-racial world Nicholas D. Hartlep Short Communication This essay examines and critiques Obamarsquo;s racial and political identity, comparing and contrasting it to another matchless man of color, Tiger Woods in a supposed post-racial world. This short essay is a critique: it interrogates Obama and Woodsrsquo; motivations in regard to how they both (dis)similarly frame their racial identities. Specifically, this essay will charge both Obama and Woods as being ldquo;master tacticians.rdquo; Key words: Race, racial politics, racialization, discourse. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/C1C832841014 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000023 en Copyright © 2011 Nicholas D. Hartlep
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:72373DA41026 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Effects of “islamaphobia” on Muslim immigrants and their advocates Thomas W. Donovan Review The so-called ldquo;war on terrorismrdquo; that the United States has declared as a response to the 9/11 tragedy has affected Muslim-Americans, perhaps more than any other group. Many of these people are victims of what may be called ldquo;islamaphobiardquo; the fear or suspicion of Muslims or those who appear to be of middle-eastern origin. As a result, many Muslims avoid disclosing their heritage, isolate themselves from non-Muslims, and give up pursuing many of the opportunities that are available to immigrants of other cultures. In the resulting self-segregation and isolation, many are vulnerable to victimization and exposed to anti-western indoctrination. In the current climate of suspicion Muslims have less access to helping professionals including social workers, lawyers, and immigrants rights specialists. Advocates, in turn, find that their efforts to help are thwarted by their clientsrsquo; understandable apprehension and suspicion. This article offer some suggestions about how advocates might overcome these challenges and provide better services for those in need. Key words: Islamaphobia, Immigrant,I slam, Muslim, Immigration law, Legal and Xenophobia Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/72373DA41026 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000009 en Copyright © 2011 Thomas W. Donovan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:FD19F7A41030 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Development studies discourse: How gender-sensitive are sustainable livelihood frameworks? Frank S. Arku and Cynthia Arku Review Over the last two decades development studies professionals are drawing on Sustainable Livelihoods (SL) framework to understand the various livelihood strategies available to rural people. The unadventurous development top-down approaches identify only lsquo;onersquo; livelihood strategy in the form of lsquo;employmentrsquo; that supports them. This paper discusses the SL frameworks from the viewpoints of United Kingdom Department for International Developmentrsquo;s (DFID) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and maintains that despite the many advantages of SL as diagnostic framework in development studies discourse, the framework lacks specificity on what lsquo;activitiesrsquo; provide a means of living. Without a clear explanation of the activities, their livelihood analysis can be best characterized as gender-insensitive because there is a high risk of overlooking certain non-market activities, such as womenrsquo;s housework. This deficiency in the SL is epitomized from a feminist perspective, problematizing the increasing devaluation and undervaluation of womenrsquo;s reproductive, productive and community management work in the modern economy and the need to deconstruct structural barriers to gender equal relations. Key words: Gender, women, sustainable livelihoods, productive, reproductive, community responsibilities. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/FD19F7A41030 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000005 en Copyright © 2011 Frank S. Arku and Cynthia Arku
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:4E59AE141034 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Past and present status of the Mexican state Carlos E. Masseacute; Narvaacute;ez Review Actually, a desolating panorama is lived: State empowerment by the transnational power, lost sovereignty, violence and rise of the offer of criminality, extreme poverty and increasing inequality, absence of transparent and efficient markets and increasing of the informal economy, it is precisely in Latin American where there have been efforts to slow it down, out of the financial worldwide scheme, although with its limitations and obvious cautions; because this is a very unequal and extremely complex fight. Based on the underlying hypothesis outlined here, I believe that a gray fate comes to the total settlement of the Mexican National State so as to social rights enshrined in the Constitution of 17 and quasi-preserved the quasi-welfare state that came to be. No, there can be no recipe for dealing with any successful enterprise of this nature. The neoliberal historiography has tried to prove that the industrial revolution has not conduced, not even in its start-up period, to the working classes#39; deterioration of material conditions of existence. In these sense, the gap between the post-industrialized world and the underdeveloped one, as well as between the minority groups of well-off people and the big dispossessed masses from the underdeveloped countries becomes more and more expanded. This is reflected by the increase of poverty. Alongside big masses#39; exclusion of people of the benefit of the productive activity and of the benefit of a salary, than even when in general it was, and the little that now it is unworthy, would allow them surviving. Key words: State, welfare, democracy, economy, citizenship. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/4E59AE141034 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000025 en Copyright © 2011 Carlos E. Masseacute; Narvaacute;ez
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:CF80ACC41035 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Evaluation of a community intervention for women victims of domestic violence in the Gaza strip A. A. Thabet, A. Abu Tawahina, Eyad El Sarraj and Panos Vostanis Full Length Research Paper A range of therapeutic interventions and services for victims of domestic violence have been reported and evaluated in recent years, mostly in western countries. There is less knowledge on the impact of such programmes in developing countries, in particular those exposed to political conflict at the same time. The aim of this study was to establish the short-term impact of a community intervention of group counseling and vocational training for women victims of domestic violence in the Gaza Strip. The sample consisted of 99 women aged 16-42 years, who had been referred to three centers of the Women Empowerment Programme. Pre- and post-intervention (six months) assessments included completion of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, the Brief Symptom Checklist, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience scale. Following the intervention, participants significantly improved on most mental health symptoms, in particular those of emotional nature. Total domestic violence, minor psychological abuse, and incidents of sexual assaults also significantly decreased, although there was no change in resilience scores. These promising findings indicate the importance of developing integrated programmes targeting both domestic violence and associated mental health difficulties, which are tailored to different cultural needs. Key words: Domestic violence, interpersonal violence, empowerment, coping, Gaza strip, mental health, intervention. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/CF80ACC41035 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000012 en Copyright © 2011 A. A. Thabet, A. Abu Tawahina, Eyad El Sarraj and Panos Vostanis
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:64E271841040 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Framing the Bahamian developmental state: An alternative policy package to neoliberal failure Nikolaos Karagiannis and Zagros Madjd-Sadjadi Review This paper examines the possibility of a proactive role for the Bahamian state in support of the countryrsquo;s national development: A case of a small open economy with a colonial past in a globalised economy. The first part provides a critical evaluation of the Bahamian economic development and trade during the last four decades. The discussion in this section relies mainly on the performance of the merchandise (visible) trade of the economies of the Caribbean and the Bahamas. Consequently, the policy focus in the subsequent sections is on the significant expansion of local commodity production in The Bahamas. The second section seeks to chart a Bahamian Developmental State framework while discussing the mutual benefits between tourism and agro-industrial development on the grounds of local production growth, endogenous competency and overall competitiveness. The final part identifies key strategic requirements and offers alternative policy considerations based on the developmental state line of argument. Key words: Strategic intervention, industrial targeting, endogenous competency, competitiveness, the Bahamas. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/64E271841040 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000016 en Copyright © 2011 Nikolaos Karagiannis and Zagros Madjd-Sadjadi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:7779C7B41043 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Common factors related to chronic occupational distress among special education teaching staff in Montenegro Pranji N. and Grbovi M., Full Length Research Paper The aim of this study was to determine common occupational or specific work-place organizational and individual key factors, which are most troublesome stressors for occupations in the field of special education (teachers, nurses, special education teachers). The study included 224 participants who were employed as special education teaching staff at each five Montenegro public institutions for persons who have a variety of disabilities. The response rate was 75% (n = 162). Data were collected using the Occupational Stress Questionnaire, short version, developed in Finish Occupational Institute. Seventy two special education teaching staffs (44%) in Montenegro have reported that they had experienced chronic job distress. The common perceived environmental factors which may significantly correlate to distress among special education staff between three occupations were: low level of control over the work (p=0.001), lack of support from superior (p=0.018), lack of support from colleagues (p=0.001), work have phases that are very difficult (p=0.001), work is mentally strenuous (p=0.001) and work is physically strenuous (p=0.001). Results were interpreted and implications for special education teachers were suggested. Key words: Special education teaching staff, job distress, workplace stressors. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/7779C7B41043 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000003 en Copyright © 2011 Pranji N. and Grbovi M.,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:938AD3741046 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Natural vascular floristic composition of Banaras Hindu University, India: An overview Arvind Singh Full Length Research Paper The naturally occurring vascular flora of the main campus of Banaras Hindu University spreading over an area of 1,300 acres was analyzed. A total of 329 vascular plant species were reported in the campus of which only 5 were Pteridophytes and the remaining 324 species were Angiosperms. No natural occurrence of gymnosperms was reported from the University Campus. Angiosperms were represented by 76 families of which the Asteraceae, Poaceae and Fabaceae are the dominant families of the flora of Banaras Hindu University. Key words: Angiosperms, floristic composition, herbaceous species, pteridophytes, shrubs, tree species, undershrubs, vascular flora. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/938AD3741046 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000022 en Copyright © 2011 Arvind Singh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:0100A3741047 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Early Portuguese imperialism: Using the Jesuits in the Mutapa Empire of Zimbabwe A. Nicolaides Full Length Research Paper The Mutapa Empire (Mwene Mutapa) or in Portuguese, lsquo;Monomotaparsquo;, also known as lsquo;Great Zimbabwersquo;, was a mediaeval kingdom (1250 to 1629) which was located between the Zambeziand Limpopo Rivers of Southern Africa in an area which currently includes the modern states ofZimbabwe and Mozambique. In the sixteenth century, it was considered a strategic trade area to control by the Portuguese who sought to subdue it by introducing Christianity. Father Dom Goncalo da Silveira, a Missionary was dispatched from Goa in India for this purpose, but he was murdered in 1561 as his presence posed a serious threat to a number of contending parties in the Mutapa Empire. This resulted in a Portuguese expedition to conquer the lands militarily in1570. The objective of this article is to show the extent to which the Portuguese crown used Jesuit Priests to promote imperialism in Southern Africa and how one Jesuit in particular was used in this regard. Key words: Portuguese colonialism, Mutapa Empire, Zimbabwe, Jesuits. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/0100A3741047 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000007 en Copyright © 2011 A. Nicolaides
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:181AEB741051 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Perceived teacher and parental acceptance-rejection, and the academic achievement, adjustment, and behavior of children: Literature review Sumbleen Ali Full Length Research Paper Parental acceptance-rejection theory (PARTheory) is a socialization theory which attempts to predict and explain major causes, consequences and other correlates of parental acceptance-rejection globally. Academic achievement and psychological adjustment have long been of concern to educators, parents and policymakers. Researchers have explored variables which interact between parental acceptance-rejection and childrenrsquo;s academic performance. A burgeoning literature suggests that the quality of the relationship which children have with their parents and teachers has significant developmental consequences. Research in this area has indicated that security in the teacher-child relationship influences childrenrsquo;s development in the same way that parent-child attachment does. Children may look to their teachers for the same kind of security and emotional response as they do to their parent. This article is a review of 17 publications appearing since 1994. Our primary purpose is to present a comprehensive and cross-cultural picture of the relationship between childrenrsquo;s perception of their teachersrsquo; and parentsrsquo; (or primary caregiversrsquo;) acceptance-rejection, childrenrsquo;s level of academic achievement and psychological adjustment. This article was written in recognition of the fact that majority of the research on the consequences of perceived teacher acceptance-rejection has been done in the United States of America and other predominantly English countries and therefore, little is known about this phenomena outside these countries. Findings of the present study have important implications for the researchers, policy makers, educational psychologists, and counselors in taking appropriate measures for improving studentsrsquo; school-conduct, psychological adjustment, and academic achievement in more significant ways. Key words: Teacher acceptance, parental acceptance, psychological adjustment, academic achievement. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/181AEB741051 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000027 en Copyright © 2011 Sumbleen Ali
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:160D5D641056 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Philosophical principles in the Shona traditional court system Ephraim Taurai Gwaravanda Full Length Research Paper The paper examines the philosophical principles employed in the Shona traditional court system. Premised on the theoretical framework of philosophical sagacity and basing on ethnographic study of actual traditional Shona court sessions in selected Zimbabwean rural areas, the paper traces the logical, epistemic and ethical basic principles used in the Shona court system. Logical principles such as the principle of non-contradiction and clarity of expression, help to ensure consistency of statements and soundness of arguments. Epistemic responsibility is guaranteed by knowledge related principles such as verification, falsification and openness of dialogue. Ethical principles provide a firm grounding for the exercise of ubuntu which encompasses principles such as truth telling, self control, conflict resolution and peace building, among others. The paper argues that these principles form the rational justifications from the time a crime or offence is committed, a report is made, to the time of the court, trial and forgiveness. The philosophical principles, it is further argued, are jointly necessary and sufficient in settling cases in the Shona traditional court system since they work together to ensure social harmony and peace within the communities. Finally the paper acknowledges possible problems in the application of philosophical principles in Shona traditional court system thereby demonstrating the limits of the system. Key words: Shona, court system, ubuntu, logical principles, epistemic principles, ethical principles. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/160D5D641056 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000028 en Copyright © 2011 Ephraim Taurai Gwaravanda
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:4DF239341058 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Holistic frontiers in peace and health research Izzeldin Abuelaish and Nancy C. Doubleday Full Length Research Paper Drawing from broad social-cultural-ecological theoretical frameworks, an adaptive model of peace and health research is seen as increasing individual and collective self-efficacy. By locating a path to individual and collective responsibility, situated at the junction of social justice, peace and health, research has the potential to enhance adaptive capacity across scales of human organization, and to set the stage for anticipatory and pro-active strategies for social innovation within a hybrid field of inquiry and of practice. This work presents a conceptual model of the emerging field of ldquo;peace and healthrdquo; research and invites exploration and dialogue. Key words: Peace and health, self-efficacy, adaptation, youth, transformation. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/4DF239341058 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000018 en Copyright © 2011 Izzeldin Abuelaish and Nancy C. Doubleday
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:28D896841062 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Integrating women and gender issues in peace development Fapohunda Tinuke M. Full Length Research Paper The last couple of decades have witnessed great changes in the nature of conflict globally. Consequently, the scope of peacekeeping and development operations have widened considerably. The mandates now cover a vast variety of responsibilities, such as promoting human security, supporting power-sharing arrangements and elections, strengthening the rule of law, monitoring respect of human rights and promoting economic and social development. It has become clear that women, men, boys and girls experience violence before, during and after conflicts differently and have different vulnerabilities, insecurities and coping mechanisms. Furthermore, conflicts have an impact on gender roles and relations as people often have to take up roles they might not do in peace times. The mandates of democratic sustainability and peace development have become more and more complex around the globe. There is increasing recognition that a gendered approach to the development of peace is essential to adequately respond to the needs of women, men, boys and girls who have been affected differently by conflict. The integration of gender into issues of peace development has taken two approaches: mainstreaming gender into the mandates, policies and practices of peace development and increasing the number of women working in peacekeeping operations. The United Nations Department of Peace Keeping Operations (UNDPKO) reports that as of 2008, only 2% of military personnel in UN peacekeeping were female. This paper aims to enhance understanding of the challenges that stand in the way of realizing the goals of achieving a gender balance in peace development, and peacekeeping operations, looking at recruitment of women, the impact of women peacekeepers, training and capacity-building activities in peacekeeping operations. Key words: Gender, gender mainstreaming, gender-based violence (GBV) and peace development. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/28D896841062 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000020 en Copyright © 2011 Fapohunda Tinuke M.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:7A9AB4741065 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Fiscal regulation and expenditure pattern in Maharashtra State Sanjay Rode Full Length Research Paper The Fiscal Responsibility and Budgetary Management Act of 2004 has improved state finances of Maharashtra, India. It has also reduced fiscal deficit for the state. The sources of income from various state own tax revenue have increased except other taxes on income and expenditure. There is further scope for improving sources of state own tax revenue. After the FRBM Act, the development expenditure on irrigation and flood control, industry and mining has declined in the State. It is statistically significant and negatively co-related. The development expenditure on education sports, arts and culture, science, technology and environment, and transport and communication has significantly increased. In order to control the fiscal deficit, state government should apply strict methods to reduce the non development expenditure. It should increase development expenditure which has long term effect on overall economic development. Key words: Fiscal regulation, budgetary management, tax revenue, economic development. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/7A9AB4741065 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000015 en Copyright © 2011 Sanjay Rode
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:4B0ABE541067 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Effects of cognitive restructuring and communication skills training on conflict resolution among Nigerian couples Christopher Kalu Okwun Full Length Research Paper The study investigated ldquo;Effects of cognitive restructuring skills training (CRT) and communication skills training (CST) on conflict resolution among Nigerian couples. Two behavioural techniques, CRT and CST, and a combination of the two techniques were used on conflicting subjects who had marital problems in Aba metropolitan city of Abia State, Nigeria. The study employed a 4 times; 2 factorial design with treatment strategies on the rows and gender (male and female) on the columns. A sample of 48 subjects, with marital conflicts, were randomly assigned to, CRT, CST and a combination of both techniques (CRT/CST) and the control groups. Each treatment group comprised twelve subjects, six of which were assigned to each of the genders (male and female).The measuring instrument:- marital happiness scale (MHS), irrational value scale (IVS) and marital communication rating scale (MCRS) were administered at pre-test, post-test and follow up sessions. The experimental groups were each exposed to six sessions of treatment in CRT, CST and six sessions for CRT/CST for a period of six weeks, while the control group was instructed on marital problems. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and Scheffe test were used to analyse the data obtained. Four research questions were stated and twelve null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The major findings indicated that; 1) the subjects used in the experimental groups and the control group had marital conflicts; 2) cognitive restructuring skills training, communication skills training and a combination of both techniques had significant effect on conflict resolution among Nigerian couples when compared with the control group; 3) none of the three techniques was better than the other as indicated in the scheffe test; 4) effects of the three therapeutic techniques at one-month follow-up were significantly different from the control group. The implications of the findings were highlighted. It was recommended that pre-marital and marital guidance programmes be organized for conflicting families and intermittent workshops be organized to sensitize married couples and people intending to marry. Key words: Marriage and family, cognitive restructuring, communication skills training. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/4B0ABE541067 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000010 en Copyright © 2011 Christopher Kalu Okwun
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:39CBFED41072 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
The geopolitics of actuality Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh Review The recent declaration of the ldquo;end of geographyrdquo; and the so-called ldquo;de-territorialization of political spacerdquo;, which results from a combination of revolutionised information technology and a globalized market economy, as well as the free movement of capital beyond borders raises the question of whether scientific enthusiasm can, at times, overshadow scientific prudence. In the face of such possibilities, an examination of variations in the geographical meaning and spatial applications of terms such as ldquo;frontier,rdquo; ldquo;boundary,rdquo; and ldquo;border,rdquo; as well as their fundamental differences, both in terms of meaning and application, with the concept of ldquo;barriersrdquo; might shed light on this problem. Following Jean Gottmannrsquo;s concepts of ldquo;iconographyrdquo; and ldquo;circulation,rdquo; - there can be little doubt that, for as long as human is concerned about his identity -defined geographically- and for as long as man remains preoccupied simultaneously with the notion of independence within a politically organized space, this independence can only be understood within the context of a politically circumscribed space. The revolutionary expansion of information technology together with the globalization of the world economy and the free movement of capital has helped to mitigate difficulties in communication, both in terms of time and space. Indeed, this has happened to the extent that there is sometimes confusion between what is actual and what is virtual. Despite this, there is little doubt that as long as human is concerned with preservation of his independence from all others within his own portion of space, borders will remain in place to manifest his never ending drive for being different from all others and proud of his own particular features. Key words: State, space, border, boundary, geography, politics, Gottmann, Iran, Persia. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/39CBFED41072 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000032 en Copyright © 2011 Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:8F441C241075 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Assessing the effectiveness of the alternative dispute resolution mechanism in the Alavanyo-Nkonya conflict in the Volta region of Ghana Perpertua Francisca Midodzi and Imoro, Razak Jaha Full Length Research Paper Conflict resolution in Ghana has taken centre stage in the last decade with efforts geared towards developing alternative and acceptable mechanisms for dealing with the countryrsquo;s numerous conflicts. One of such mechanisms that has been given prominence is the alternative dispute resolution mechanism. This research was therefore set out to add its voice to this advocacy by investigating the effectiveness of the alternative dispute resolution in Ghana using the Alavanyo-Nkonya peace mediation as a reference point. The aim of the research was to ascertain reasons for the use of alternative disputes resolution in this protracted conflict case and also examine the strengths and weaknesses of the method. The research relied on interviews as a data collection instrument. In all, eight (8) interviews were conducted among members of the various committees as well as members and leaders from the two communities. The research revealed that the method of alternative disputes resolution was preferred by the people of the two communities compared to traditional method of litigation owing to the delays and judgemental posture of these traditional methods. Again, the research revealed that the use of alternative dispute resolution operated under a three pronged structure; the mediation committee, the consultative committee and the community pacesetters. All these structures worked under different remits to culminate in the desired result of peace for the two communities. The research equally revealed a large involvement of the people from the two communities in the peace process. The research therefore recommends that there should be more vigorous education on the relevance of alternative disputes resolution in Ghana as well as a creation of alternative dispute resolution units in all district and regional capitals. Key words: Alternative dispute resolution, effectiveness, strengths, weakness, conflict resolution in Ghana. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/8F441C241075 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000002 en Copyright © 2011 Perpertua Francisca Midodzi and Imoro, Razak Jaha
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:757FA7141079 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Pre-service teacher training for peace education Lokanath Mishra Full Length Research Paper Peace education is more effective and meaningful when adopted according to the social and cultural context and the needs of a country. It should be enriched by its cultural and spiritual values together with the universal human values. It should also be globally relevant. In order for peace education to become a regular inclusion and curriculum expectation within schools, nations and worldwide, teachers must be prepared to teach issues that are often socially uncomfortable and conflicting in order to combat the stigma, conflict and inequality that peace education seeks to diminish. The study is an exploratory study. The data was analyzed according to the three categories listed as main components of peace education. As a pre-service teacher, learning the skills to work with students to create a culture of peace is a difficult task to envision. The finding of the study strongly recommended that the Philosophy course and every core course of the Bachelor of Education program adopt and promote peace education as an effective learning tool. Key words: Conflict resolution, pre-service education, peace education, pre-service teacher, violence. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/757FA7141079 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000030 en Copyright © 2011 Lokanath Mishra
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:E9DCFE141083 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Reshaping mind and behaviour: Media and its impacts Sre Yadav and Smita Jha Review India, the land of diverse cultural traditions and rituals, where women were once considered to be lsquo;avatarsrsquo; of goddesses are now either being victimized by the continual curse of domestic violence , or as a perpetrator of violent criminal activities. The present paper seeks to find from the available literature resources if the mass media actually plays the role of a catalytic source to increase these types of criminal activities and if yes, then how it affects the overall personality and behaviour of the individual who gets affected by this type of external stimuli, that is, mass media. Key words: Domestic violence, criminal activities, mass media. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/E9DCFE141083 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000031 en Copyright © 2011 Sre Yadav and Smita Jha
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:7F6380841087 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2011
Impact of political violence and trauma in Gaza on children’s mental health and types of interventions: A review of research evidence in a historical context Thabet A. A. and Panos Vostanis Review Children of Gaza have been subject to a wide range of traumatic and violent events over the last few decades, which, when considered alongside other risk factors such as gender, socio-economic status and previous mental health history, have led to significant psychosocial problems. This paper provides a review of research findings from across the territories to reveal high levels of mental health problems, including PTSD, depression and anxiety. These mental health problems are predicted by exposure to war trauma, and mediated by socioeconomic adversity and parental responses. A substantial proportion of children continued to experience these problems in the absence of intervention, even following the discontinuation of political conflict. There is less evidence on which interventions can help children under these adverse circumstances, but early findings indicate that universal or targeted programs of psychodynamic, behavioural or psychodynamic frameworks, and applied within schools and communities, can alleviate childrenrsquo;s distress and enhance their resilience. Key words: Child, mental health, trauma, war, political conflict, Gaza. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/7F6380841087 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000019 en Copyright © 2011 Thabet A. A. and Panos Vostanis
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:985443741095 2012-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2012
Tackling terrorism in Pakistan Fauzan Saeed, Mustafa Rahid, Haris Zikr-ul Rehman, Salman Mobin and Shaheer Ahmed Full Length Research Paper Terrorism has become a nuisance for all the citizens of the world especially since the terrorism has taken the form of suicide attacks; this is a phenomenon that cannot be dealt with force. Imagine that a person so motivated that he or she is not afraid to die will eventually end up causing massive destruction. Here in this paper, we discuss the possibilities that can be used to reduce this threat as much as possible; this includes from detection and prevention to reduction of loss of lives. We will also find out that in such event, what else can be done to mitigate the chaos as much as possible. The paper will also focus on ethnic rifts that are brewing in Karachi and might result in explosive situation. Key words: Terrorism in Pakistan, suicide bombings, genocide, tackling terrorism. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/985443741095 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS09.061 en Copyright © 2012 Fauzan Saeed, Mustafa Rahid, Haris Zikr-ul Rehman, Salman Mobin and Shaheer Ahmed
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:468A0BC41101 2012-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2012
Differential reaction patterns to September 11th’s events Leehu Zysberg and Anna Zisberg Full Length Research Paper A quasi-exploratory field study examined the possible differential psychological responses of American (n = 82) and international (n = 50) samples located in the US, to the events of September 11th collected six months after the attack. Comparing two views on the psychological effects of acts of terrorism on the target population, it was hypothesized that the direct target population (American) and the indirect target population or the ldquo;bystander populationrdquo; (international) will vary in their patterns of reaction. A questionnaire assessing three categories of psychological-attitudinal reactions to acts of terrorism (emotional, perceptions of perpetrators and their agenda and behavioral intentions) revealed significant differences between the two samples: while both samples exhibited adverse emotional responses, the American sample tended to view the situation more as a war and tended to be less yielding or understanding toward the perpetrators than the ldquo;bystanderrdquo; sample. Some implications for future research and current existing theories are discussed. Key words: September 11th, psychological responses, international samples, comparative design. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/468A0BC41101 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS09.067 en Copyright © 2012 Leehu Zysberg and Anna Zisberg
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:1D432FB41108 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2012
Migration and policymaking initiatives as appeals to national crises: The Zimbabwean case Gift Masengwe and Francis Machingura Review Migration and policymaking questions have become topical issues in regional and international debates, conferences and policies. In July 2010, the Zimbabwean government in consultation with the International Organization for Migration (IOM) enacted the National Migration Management and Diaspora Policy (NMMDP) to harness the fundamental and meaningful contributions by the diaspora population to national development in exchange of citizenship rights (of voting in the diaspora). Government line ministries linked to the policy were tasked at soliciting for ways to end the Zimbabwean migration and diaspora crisis. It is unfortunate that the resultant policy failed to identify and outline how a plethora of migration causes were going to be addressed. This article thus basically critiques the Zimbabwe government policy document on migration and development (NMMDP), arguing that the policy is elitist, ineffective and self-defeating, insofar as it is based more on maintaining foreign remittances from diaspora residents without addressing the causes of migration and other needs. This article also briefly discusses the negative impacts of market based social relations that help undermine the traditions and cultures of the African people. This article thus calls for an inclusive and democratic approach to policymaking, arguing that the migration policy initiatives will remain unproductive as long as migrantsrsquo; experiences are not considered and highlighted in the process. This concurs with the current global socio-economic and political set ups, emphasizing on human freedoms, participation, human movement, job search and settlement, a new phenomenon on national and international development concerns. Key words: National migration management and diaspora policy (NMMDP), human development, labor migration, diaspora, migrants. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/1D432FB41108 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS11.028 en Copyright © 2012 Gift Masengwe and Francis Machingura
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:302223141113 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2012
Idiosyncrasies of labour market K. R. Pillai Review The present study explores the various attributes of labour market with an extensive literature support. The peculiarities of labour market distinguish it from other conventional markets. Studies have observed that labour market loses its market clearing characteristics due to its opaque nature and uncertain outcomes. With inherent complexities and rigidities, it is not possible to attain an equilibrium solution through conventional supply-demand mechanism. The theoretical context of labour market has been reviewed for a logical convergence. Key words: Labour market, labour vulnerability, downsizing, labour market literature, labour market information, labour market process, labour market function, non-competing groups. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/302223141113 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS11.032 en Copyright © 2012 K. R. Pillai
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:245463541172 2012-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2012
Quest for internal party democracy in Nigeria: Amendment of electoral act 2010 as an albatross Itua Paul Okhaide Full Length Research Paper The conduct of a credible election has been hinged on many factors. One of them is a well-developed internal party democracy. This assertion underscores the quest for internal democracy among the various political parties in Nigeria. Before the enactment of the Electoral Act 2010, stakeholders had argued that Nigeria needs an Electoral law that will incorporate procedures / steps that will guarantee internal party democracy. This explained the robust acceptance of the Electoral Act 2010. This Act, contained specific provisions dealing with internal party democracy particularly, as it affect the nomination of candidates for elections. The Act further provides that where these procedures are not followed, an aggrieved candidate can apply to the High Court of a State or the Federal High Court for redress. Also, the Act provides that where cases of non-compliance and violations of its provisions particularly those sections dealing with internal party democracy has been established before a court, the court is empowered by the Act to make an order directing the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) to withdraw the name(s) of such candidate(s) for that election. This paper therefore seek to examine the recent amendment to the Electoral Act 2010 particularly the sections dealing with the nomination of candidate for election and posit that the amendment were an albatross to the quest for internal party democracy in Nigeria. Key word: Credible election, political party, internal party democracy, Nigerian electoral acts. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/245463541172 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS11.073 en Copyright © 2012 Itua Paul Okhaide
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:71A57E441175 2012-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2012
Post-conflict operations of local governments in dispute resolution in Northern Uganda Katie Missimer Full Length Research Paper Conflicts destroy the social fabric of communities by reducing the ability of people to trust their government and their neighbors. In situations where the conflict has been sustained over decades, as in Northern Uganda, basic levels of trust between individuals, between communities and towards the government have been severely fractured. In the post-conflict period one of the crucial tasks towards providing genuine security and peace to communities is to rebuild levels of trust between and among individuals, communities and with the government (or the governmentrsquo;s representatives). Given the decentralized powers that have been assigned to lower local councilors (LC1s at the village level and LC2s at the parish level) in Uganda these elected government officials are in a unique position to facilitate therehabilitation of trust and provide security to individuals and communities in the post-conflict environment. Understanding how the attitudes and opinions of the population towards local government have been impacted by the conflict is important in determining the policy prescriptions for ensuring the emergence of a participatory, trusting and representative relationship between the people and the government which are prerequisites to developing a stable post-conflict environment that allows people to heal and develop within their community. This paper adopts the use of a mix of primary and secondary sources. Secondary sources included books on conflict resolution and journal articles regarding local government in Uganda. The main primary source was information collected from 252 qualitative interviews (adults 18 years or older) conducted between May and October, 2010. Key words: Northern Uganda, conflicts, security, lower local councilors (LC1s). Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/71A57E441175 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS12.011 en Copyright © 2012 Katie Missimer
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:BAD08DE41178 2012-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2012
The nexus between labor reallocation and sectoral productivities in Pakistan: 1980 to 2007 Babur Wasim Arif Full Length Research Paper This paper empirically studies the labor allocation between rural and urban sectors due to economic growth in one of the least developed economies, Pakistan. The paper adopts a time-series analysis from 1980 to 2007, to study the causal impact of sectoral productivities on labor reallocation among sectors. The results indicate that labor productivity in manufacturing induces labor mobility from agriculture to manufacturing. The results also support the view that improvement in labor productivity in the agricultural sector pushes labor allocation to non-agricultural sectors. Key words: Labor reallocation, sectoral productivity, exports, Pakistan. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/BAD08DE41178 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS11.070 en Copyright © 2012 Babur Wasim Arif
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:F091BDF41182 2012-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2012
Political economy of the new slave trade in Africa Azeez O. Olaniyan and A. I. Aladegbola Review A macro analysis of various inquiry into the nature and causes of Africarsquo;s crises may revealed a continent placed on perpetual slavery. From trans-Atlantic slave trade to colonialism; from colonialism to flag independence and Neo Colonialism; from trade imperialism to human trafficking; from the rampaging momentum of globalization to erosion of African culture and communal morality; from lsquo;Tokunborsquo; Syndrome and America Lottery to the debt burden and fall of Africarsquo;s currencies; Africa seems to be on a verge of internationally-inspired perpetual servitude. The costs of these old and modern vices are enormous and the task of salvaging them is not less so. While the paper exposes the two divides, it goes to argue that, the actualization of the New International Economic Order (NIEO) remain a must for Africa as a continent, if she must survive the present socio-economic and political disempowerment eating deep to her efforts at meeting aims and objectives of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Key words: Political economy, new slave trade, colonialism, trade imperialism, capitalism, globalisation. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/F091BDF41182 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS.9000029 en Copyright © 2012 Azeez O. Olaniyan and A. I. Aladegbola
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:D36036E41184 2012-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2012
Communal conflict and resource development in Ini Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria Ikurekong E. E., Udo Anietie Sunday and Esin J. O. Full Length Research Paper Communal conflicts and violence have become a plague that has eaten deep into the fabric of Nigerian economy. These conflicts result from different value systems, aggressive competition for environmental resources and ethnic/identity crisis amongst others. In the study area, several communal clashes abound. The major consequence of this bloody communal clashes have been an outright reduction in the livelihood and development potential of the natural resource base of the people. Through empirical survey of 27 communities; 9 drawn from non-conflict and 18 from conflict areas, information on the major causes and patterns of communal conflict and its effect on resource development in Ini Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was obtained. Several conflict variables were measured and correlated with variables of resource development in these communities. The result indicates that resource development in the study area has been adversely retarded by communal conflicts. Key words: Communal conflicts, value systems, natural resource development. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/D36036E41184 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS11.056 en Copyright © 2012 Ikurekong E. E., Udo Anietie Sunday and Esin J. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:3F0E4BB41192 2012-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2012
U.S. Aid falls short in the social, political and economic advancement of Afghan women Reneacute; S. Ryman Review In this article, the author addresses the effect of USAID investments in educational programs offered to Afghan women and how this investment is falling short in its goal to assist females in securing leadership opportunities that allow them to participate in decision making activity. Annual gross domestic product (GDP) data is reviewed along with the results of newly implemented quota systems in Afghanistan to confirm if educational programs are revealing evidence that their efforts are affecting economic growth and development through the hiring of Afghan women into jobs that coincide with their education. This information is compared to GDP data from western cultures where women play a significant role in economic growth and development through workforce participation. Key words: Afghan women, social, womenrsquo;s rights, gross domestic product, USAID, Afghan culture. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/3F0E4BB41192 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS12.019 en Copyright © 2012 Reneacute; S. Ryman
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:F92D7FA41197 2012-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2012
Women in the informal sector: Evidence from Southwestern Ethiopia Ebisa Deribie Full Length Research Paper The major objective of this study is to assess the status of women in the informal sector with particular emphasis in south western Ethiopia. The study was carried out in Gomma Woreda of southwestern Ethiopia. In this study primary data sources were used. In the research it was found that there is statistically significant difference (P lt; 0.05) between religion, education, ethnicity and type of informal sector activities. Women in the informal sector were more engaged in the small retail trade activities (46.0%). On the other hand, on street selling activities come second with 31.3% as an activity of women. Besides, production and sell of local drinks (22.7%) such as lsquo;tejirsquo; lsquo;telarsquo;, lsquo;arekirsquo;, lsquo;shametarsquo; and lsquo;bordersquo; is the third important activity of women. Many women inhabit slum and squatter settlements with poor conditions of houses, electricity, water and drainage systems. Informal sector is the only hope for a large number of women who are not able to find employment in the formal sector. Key words: Informal sector, women, monthly income, migrant, capitals. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/F92D7FA41197 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS12.015 en Copyright © 2012 Ebisa Deribie
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:73EAE1B41207 2013-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2013
The mutual determinants of individual, community, and societal health and peace Izzeldin Abuelaish and Nadia Fazal Review Health and peace are complex ideologies that share several fundamental elements. In this paper, we begin by defining health and peace to better understand and appreciate their elements and how they can be promoted. Building on this, the paper tackles the determinants of peace and health at various levels: at the individual, community, and societal level by identifying barriers to health and peace promotion. Using this background, mutual determinants of peace and health are analyzed, with the goal of developing an integrated model that covers both facets of well being. Key words: Health promotion, peace promotion, determinants of health, determinants of peace. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/73EAE1B41207 http://dx.doi.org/DOI: 10.5897/IJPDS12.008 en Copyright © 2013 Izzeldin Abuelaish and Nadia Fazal
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:332CF3841212 2013-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2013
Conflict zone and developmental issues faced by youth: “A study from Kashmir” M. Mudasir Naqshbandi and Wakar Amin Full Length Research Paper Conflict in any of its forms affects the human beings; Youth are the future leaders of any nation and impact of conflict hampers their efficiency of work and thinking; this study looks at the issues faced by the youth of Kashmir due to ongoing conflict, arose by infiltration after 1989. A study on youth aging between 15 to 30 years was conducted in three conflicted affected districts of Kashmir. Interview schedule was used to collect the responses of youth so that both illiterate and literate youths can be interviewed. Survey method was used to conduct this study, the questions were asked to youth in local language namely Kashmiri and back-translation (Brislin, 1970) procedure was used to ensure validity of the interview schedule. The study results make some interesting revelations. It emerges that most of the youth think that issues like identity crises, unemployment, psychological stress, identity crises etc., are all offshoots of conflict. In any conflict hit zone, the government and other agencies should ensure economic security, safety of women and children, skill based education should be provided to youth and parents at their ends should properly do counselling to their children about good and bad. The study about the impact of conflict on youth reveals many facts and also re-verified many others, the data collected from different districts of Kashmir Valley showed youth feels and sufferings they go through due to conflict. Key words: Youth, conflict, Kashmir, identity crises, unemployment, psychological. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/332CF3841212 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2012.0147 en Copyright © 2013 M. Mudasir Naqshbandi and Wakar Amin
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:B4E444141213 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2013
A perspective on public policies during the last dictatorship and the beginning of democracy in Argentina: The case of “Obras Sanitarias Sociedad de Estado Mar del Plata-Batán” Geraci Fontana, Augusto, Luchini Pedro Luis Horni, Agustina and McQueen, Amelia Teresa Review During the 1990rsquo;s Argentina was at the forefront of one of the most important privatization processes in the Western world. This breaking down of the old, post-war Intervention State began in the 1980rsquo;s when this state was in clear decline. The purpose of this paper is to explore the first privatization attempts which -unlike the following privatizations- caused great conflicts among the political leaders and the organized labor movement. This study focuses on a state-owned, water and sewerage company in Argentina; this company begins its decentralization during the studied years and it is privatized in the following years. Key words: Privatization process, political struggle, democracy, dictatorship. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/B4E444141213 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS12.003 en Copyright © 2013 Geraci Fontana, Augusto, Luchini Pedro Luis Horni, Agustina and McQueen, Amelia Teresa
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:A8D1B5E41214 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2013
Contact, communication and compassion as stairways to peace: A holistic sociological perspective Shulamit S. Gubkin Full Length Research Paper This paper describes the attitudes of academic Israeli students of Jewish and Arab descent after having participated in diverse processes to promote cross-cultural empathic communication within special workshops and in regular academic courses. Grounded in a holistic planetary consciousness perspective, these experiences suggest that empathy, caring, loving and compassion, taken together as a synergistic gestalt of pro-social behavior, can indeed be trained. It is further suggested that such training is urgently needed to sustain life as we know it, and that it appears conducive to optimism, builds hope towards eventual peace and contributes to more effective and meaningful participation in the world for all those involved. Theoretically, this paper suggests an emerging sociological paradigm shift that embraces the subjective experience together with the structural analyses of planetary circumstances, the promotion of necessary institutional change and a committed activism towards a sustainable society. Such framework addresses and embraces the four dimensions suggested in Burawoy#39;s 2004 ASA Presidential Address to the American Sociological Association for public and holistic sociology, and it resonates with Sorokin#39;s Integralist perspective. Key words: Holistic sociology, planetary consciousness, communication, empathy, compassion, peace. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/A8D1B5E41214 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2012.0148 en Copyright © 2013 Shulamit S. Gubkin
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:5AFEADB41215 2013-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2013
Siachen stalemate Sajad Padder Review Indian and Pakistani militaries have been occupying the Siachen Glacier and surrounding regions for decades. Although a cease-fire is in place since November 2003, continued occupation carries the risk of an inadvertent conflict, which could escalate into a full-fledged nuclear-backed confrontation. Political and military analysts in India, Pakistan and abroad now question the strategic significance of the Siachen Glacier and agree that under the right circumstances, military withdrawal from the Siachen Glacier region would not adversely affect either state. The Siachen glacier was once considered a no man#39;s land as it was left out in both Karachi (1949) and Shimla (1972) agreements, which demarcated border between India and Pakistan. Siachen is a veritable nightmare even for the experienced mountaineers, who have to traverse the glacier to climb the icy peaks. Yet Indian and Pakistani forces are battling 24 h a day to gain control of the range. In this paper the author narrates the utter uselessness of continuing the conflict any further at the cost of socio-economic development. Besides, the continued military presence has deteriorated the pristine beauty and ecological balance of the region. Key words: India-Pakistan relations, Kashmir conflict, Siachen dispute, demilitarization, confidence building measures. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/5AFEADB41215 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS12.010 en Copyright © 2013 Sajad Padder
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:0C8485241216 2013-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2013
Religion and social cohesion in Ethiopia Tony Karbo Review Ethiopia is one of the fastest growing economies in Africa. It is also a home to multitude of ethnicities, religions and cultures. The country has been experimented with several political formations with mixed results. The recent transformation into a federal state has put religion, ethnicities and the nature of the federal state into direct confrontation with each other. Like many developing countries, Ethiopia faces the major challenges in managing diversity of religion and ethnicity. Recent events (in the past fifteen months) indicate a rising tension between the state and Islam on the one hand and Islam and Christianity on the other. This paper explores the role of religion in social cohesion in Ethiopia and social cohesion as a prerequisite to development in Ethiopia. The article argues that social cohesion can only be enhanced and deeply promoted through collaborative efforts of all religions and through engagement with federal and state authorities. Key words: Development, ethnicity, politics, peace building, religion, social inclusion, social exclusion. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/0C8485241216 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2013.0164 en Copyright © 2013 Tony Karbo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:1E97AE541235 2013-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2013
Is the Eritrean Government a victim or a sponsor of Islamic extremism and terrorism? Alexius Amtaika and Mustafa Ahmed Review The government of Eritrea stands accused by numerous United Nations reports as well as by neighbouring countries, of supporting and sponsoring Islamic insurgents in the Horn of Africa, yet it suppresses its home-grown Islamic insurgents at home. Most interestingly, the Eritrean government is dominated by Christians. This raises questions. What does the Christian-dominated government of Eritrea share or have in common with the Islamic extremists in the Horn of Africa? Why does the Eritrean government support and collaborate with the Islamic insurgents/extremists in the neighbouring countries, when similar groups threaten its existence at home, with the broader objective of establishing an Islamic government? With these questions in mind, this paper argues that the rise and the spread of Islamic extremists in the Horn of Africa did not necessarily come as a result of religious identity, but was motivated by the struggle for political power among the people of this region. This resulted in the existence of two forms of Islamic extremism: (i) lsquo;state-sponsoredrsquo;, which commits acts of terror in other countries (external), under the logic of lsquo;the enemy of my enemy is my friendrsquo; and (ii) lsquo;home-grown onesrsquo;, (internal) which poses threats and aims to overthrow the government at home. This has resulted not only in hostilities between Eritrea and its neighbours, but also in the political intolerance between the Eritrean government and domestic Islamic groups. Key words: Eritrean, Ethiopia, Sudan, terrorism, Islamic extremist, Islamic fundamentalism, Horn of Africa. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/1E97AE541235 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2013.0171 en Copyright © 2013 Alexius Amtaika and Mustafa Ahmed
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:6387B7A41239 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2013
Foreign policy of Eritrea: Explained in the light of ‘democratic peace’ proposition Salih O. Nur Review During the past two decades since its independence in 1991, Eritrearsquo;s foreign policy had been characterized by conflict and confrontation. It maintained pretty much troubled and usually violent relations with all its neighbours. Likewise, its relations with major powers at the international arena had been strained, particularly since the beginning of the last decade. Its relations with donors and human rights agencies have also being extremely troubled mainly because of the regimersquo;s intolerance, fears of external subversion, and gruesome human rights record. An analytical approach based on conflict of interests may proffer a partial explanation, but it hardly explicates Eritrearsquo;s militarized foreign policy. This article contends that an account of the absence of democratic norms and institutions that ensure accountability, transparency, and institutional checks and balances in policy-making better explains the countryrsquo;s awkwardly troubled foreign policy. In line with the democratic peace (DP) proposition, it is argued that the ruling partyrsquo;s embedded authoritarian political culture and absence of democratic rule in post-independent Eritrea have seriously jeopardized the new nationrsquo;s foreign policy. Key words: Foreign policy, democratic peace, conflict, EPLF/PFDJ, political culture, institutions. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/6387B7A41239 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2013.0178 en Copyright © 2013 Salih O. Nur
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:E5336E141240 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2013
Impact of “Implementing the Third Mission of Universities in Africa (ITMUA) collaborative research project, 2010-2011” Wapula .N. Raditloaneng Full Length Research Paper This article is informed by the Implementing the Third Mission of Universities in Africa (ITMUA) which was an 18 months Action Research collaborative regional research project incepted January 2010 to August 2011. It was a Support Project of the UK Department for International Development (DFID) in Africa, and the Association of African Universities (AAU), Accra under the Mobilizing Regional Capacity Initiative (MRCI). During the three staged Action Research Project, 10 work packages were completed. The four universities which were part of the ITMUA project provide testimony and point of contact that African universities can work together on collaborative projects that depict university service to communities in their regions. A conclusion drawn from the impact assessment journal prepared during the life of the project suggests that there are positive evidence based initiatives to write about selected African universities that have fruitfully brought the 18 months collaborative engagement research project to a fruitful completion. Key words: Impact assessment, Implementing the Third Mission of Universities in Africa (ITMUA), Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), community service. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/E5336E141240 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS12.017 en Copyright © 2013 Wapula .N. Raditloaneng
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:0E2BCD341240 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2013
An essay on the necessity for universal outlawing of use of force in the 21st century Graham Nicholson Essay The essay addresses what is argued to be a pressing need for the introduction of binding law, applicable at all levels of human society, in the form of a ban on the use of force as a method of conflict resolution. It is envisaged that the proposed legal ban would operate at both the national and international levels and would be given the force of a peremptory norm or ius cogens, applicable to and binding on all governments, bodies, groups and individuals, with a legal force that overrode any international, regional, national or sub national law. It would be expressed to be subject to the narrowest of exceptions, being only those cases that are genuinely necessary in the public interest, for example, under an accepted system of international collective security or in aid of the internal police power to ensure peace and good order, and then only if the degree of force is appropriate and reasonable in all the circumstances and is not in breach of fundamental human rights (other than the right to self-determination or any other right that asserts there is an associated right to use force in aid). The essay notes that there is already a patchwork of both international and national laws that seek to ban or restrict the use of force at various levels, or which condemn the use of force, but it argues that now is the time to express that ban in a comprehensive, consistent, coherent and universal manner applicable at all levels of human society and in all circumstances. In the 21st century, any continuing acceptance of the legitimacy of the use of force in any situation is said to be incompatible with the notion of a civilized global human society and can only be described as being barbaric. In a world still torn by violent conflict notwithstanding the rush to globalization, this is arguably the most pressing need of the age. This paper takes the view that it is time to put such a general legal prohibition into the law of the world. The essay accepts that merely introducing such a general legal ban will not in itself prevent the continuing use of force where the actors are intent on breaching that new law. The essay makes it clear that such a ban cannot, by itself, be a panacea for resolving all conflict. But it is argued that such a ban would have a profound effect on global thinking about the need for a peaceful world and may gradually lead to a change in emphasis and approach on the part of the main actors. It would place a heavy onus on any entities seeking to use force to justify their actions, which in time may facilitate refinement of methods and institutions for prevention of the use of force and improvement of methods of peaceful resolution of conflict; nor is it argued in the essay that it would be easy to reach agreement on the terms of any such general ban. The impediments to implementation are discussed in the essay and are seen as being huge and deep seated. But then all contrary arguments will ultimately be seen for what they really would be ndash; against the best interests of the planet as a whole and all humanity in seeking a future world of peace, prosperity and security; one in which the expectation is that conflicts will be resolved by peaceful, lawful and fair means. The interests of universal justice must ultimately demand this result, because the arbitrary contest of opposition might can never equate with justice. And the very exercise of consultation in an effort to seek such agreement can be expected to have beneficial side effects. Ultimately it is argued that humanity will be driven to accept that the use of violence and brute strength as a means of human conflict resolution is incompatible with this modern global age and the establishment of a united and peaceful world civilization. The introduction of the proposed general legal ban would arguably be a huge step in that direction. Key words: Universal, international, national, legal, ban, use of force, conflict resolution, peremptory norm, collective security, global, human society, peace, non-violence, world civilization, world law. ldquo;It is my conviction that nothing enduring can be built on violence.rdquo; - Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ldquo;In this, the cycle of Almighty God, violence and force, constraint and oppression, are one and all condemned.rdquo; - Baha#39;u#39;llah. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/0E2BCD341240 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS11.058 en Copyright © 2013 Graham Nicholson
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:53E316341241 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2013
A review of trade liberalisation and trade between Jordan and the United States Imad El-Anis Review Promoting trade is a key aspect of Jordanrsquo;s development policy. As a developing country, increasing exports and maintaining a healthy balance of trade with its trading partners are amongst the governmentrsquo;s most important goals. The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) signed with the United States in 2000 is a cornerstone of Jordanrsquo;s foreign economic policy and a key test case for its broader policy of trade liberalisation. Yet while there is some evidence for a positive relationship between trade liberalisation, and increased bilateral trade and economic growth, this approach to development is also criticised for opening up developing markets to competition from their more advanced counterparts. This investigation argues that FTAs do facilitate bilateral trade but that states with large and advanced economies benefit more than small developing states and markets. To explore this argument, this study examines overall levels of bilateral trade between Jordan and the United States before and after the JUSFTA came into effect. Linear trendline projections are used to offer a comparison between experienced levels of trade and projected potential levels of trade based on pre-JUSFTA era data. The conclusions drawn are that bilateral trade between Jordan and the United States rapidly increased after 2001 and this coincided with the implementation of the JUSFTA confirming a strong correlation between the two. Furthermore, we can observe that Jordanian exports to the United States have grown more rapidly than imports. Furthermore, Jordan has benefitted from an overall trade surplus since the implementation of the JUSFTA compared to the trade deficit experienced in the pre-JUSFTA era. However, following the complete implementation of the JUSFTA, Jordanian imports from the United States now exceed exports and the Jordanian trade deficit may continue in the coming years. Key words: Jordan, United States, free trade, economic development, policy. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/53E316341241 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2012.0148 en Copyright © 2013 Imad El-Anis
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:9D4411449053 2014-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2014
The era of empire or globalization? The impact of the global shift on development thinking and society James E. Conable Review This study is a literature review with the ambition to answer the question, what is globalization? The myriad of perspectives, both for and against globalization theses makes it an elusive concept and can be confusing both for undergraduate students and laypersons. Hence, in this paper globalization theses reconsidered, pulling together diverse perspectives in order to provide an alternative way of understanding globalization debate, according to the manifestation of the phenomena associated with it rather than grappling with various explanations. Therefore, globalization means information age and integration, transnational movement and an intersection of global and other special qualities. This paper used two examples related to development issues: economic liberalization and sustainable development to operationalize this definition. The analysis is both descriptive and explanatory. The aim was not to develop new concepts, but to use the existing concepts to formulate a simple definition of globalization. Also, to assess the overall impact of globalization was not the ambition but to show the empirical justification of the definition. This paper concludes that this definition is useful in order for the undergraduate students and laypersons to follow the arguments about globalization and to understand the impact of globalization on development thinking and society. Key words: Empire, environment, development, globalization, liberalization. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/9D4411449053 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2013.0360 en Copyright © 2014 James E. Conable
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:65C3A4949285 2015-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2015
Emerging role of NGOs in the world’s socio-political affairs Firdoos Dar Review The past two decades had witnessed tremendous increase in the role of NGOs in various walks of life and it is now an established fact that their role cannot be sidelined any state while formulating and implemented the her policies. The number of NGOs has grown tremendously and so their functions, conservatively estimated at between 6,000 and 8,000.... They are bringing the voice of voiceless and marginalized to the centers of power, enforcing accountability, building responsive and transparent systems. They are performing an important task in the arena of social, cultural, economic and political activity alongside the state and market. They are being perceived as a constructive power building vibrant democracy and people oriented development. Its absence is being considered as a criterion for authoritarian move. This paper is an attempt to shed light on the emerging role of NGOs in world politics, making an assessment with regard to their gains in the socio-political arena. Key World: NGOs, Role, Politics, Human Rights, Public Policy, State, UN, Lobbying. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/65C3A4949285 http://dx.doi.org/DOI: 10.5897/IJPDS2014.0202 en Copyright © 2015 Firdoos Dar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:9AF205D49290 2015-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2015
Genuine leadership and the global financial crisis Franck Renand Review Since the primitive era, mankind is facing repeated crises and wars at increasing levels. One of the main reason might be a continuous misunderstanding of the leadersrsquo; activities and goals. For instance the 2007 Global Financial Crisis was the result of high risk lending, failure of regulators, inflated credit rating and investment bank abuses. Hopefully, contemporary researches focus on the behaviors that constitute effective leadership. Accordingly, this article suggests a new model called ldquo;Genuine Leadershiprdquo;. This approach of leadership is supposed to be an antidote to crisis arising in a western context. The suggested model is based on three main components: Leaderrsquo;s activities, Leadersrsquo; tool box and Leadersrsquo; universal goal. Key words: Crisis management, leadership styles, transformational, transactional, servant, spiritual, authentic. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/9AF205D49290 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2010.014 en Copyright © 2015 Franck Renand
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:C5EFA9950044 2015-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2015
The effects of communal land sub-division and land use changes on household waste production in the Southern rangelands of Kenya Ekisa T. George Full Length Research Paper In the past few decades, the inhabitants of now Kajiado County in the southern rangelands of Kenya have experienced changes in land tenure and in land use that have impacted other aspects of their livelihoods as well as the environment. The study sought to examine these changes within the context of their potential influences on the household production and management of solid waste. Local residents from three different study areas were interviewed using questionnaires which included questions pertaining to basic demographic information, to land ownership and use, and to knowledge and behaviors regarding organic and inorganic household waste. The study revealed that while some characteristics of waste management were affected by land tenure and use, the use of waste from agricultural farms to feed livestock as a waste disposal method worked well for most households. Whereas some respondents burned their solid wastes others just left waste to litter in the compound. The majority of the results indicated that present changes in land tenure and land were key factors in influencing solid waste generation in the region. However, the study highlights several concerns about the lack of education and infrastructure for proper waste management which deserved attention. The study concluded that there was a relationship between solid waste generation and the nature of land use; agriculturalists produced more waste due to sedentarisation than pastoralists. Proper infrastructure and sensitization on solid management are keys to the negative impacts of solid waste to the inhabitants of the southern rangelands of Kenya. Key words: Solid waste, land tenure, land use, waste management, sedenterisation. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/C5EFA9950044 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2014.0200 en Copyright © 2015 Ekisa T. George
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:9AA474552077 2015-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2015
The paradox of Cameroon-Nigeria interactions: Connecting between the edges of opportunity/benefit and quandary Mark Bolak Funteh Full Length Research Paper Cameroon and Nigeria are neigbouring nations that share a common border, people and history. Both nations relied on this propinquity to create opportunities that benefited them in the economic, social and the political domains. But considering the ethnic character of and the stakes involved in controlling the natural resources of the borderlands, these opportunistic benefits were intermittently perturbed by incidences of conflict and hostility typified by the Bakassi territorial dispute, piratesrsquo; actions and the transnational insecurity orchestrated[NVP1] by Boko Haram and, hence placing the relationship on the balance of a paradox. However, this paper, based on written data, argues that the geographical and historical proximity - and therefore interdependence between Cameroon and Nigeria has been beneficial for both countries and has reinforced their willingness to work together in seeking lasting solutions for their conflicts and the growing trans-border insecurity threats. Key words: Paradox, interaction, proximity, connection, edge, opportunity, benefit, quandary, Cameroon, Nigeria. [NVP1]orchestrated Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/9AA474552077 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2015.0224 en Copyright © 2015 Mark Bolak Funteh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:D0408FA56147 2015-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2015
Scheduling village heads in enhancing conflict resolution and peace building in a rural community Mwembe Desmond Full Length Research Paper This study assessed the effectiveness of village heads in Simatelele Ward, Binga District in resolving conflicts in Zingozo village. The study was from April 2012 to June 2013. Four village heads were sampled using a simple random sampling technique and four types of conflicts common to all the four selected village heads were taken. A mathematical model was developed to assign village heads to cases they can resolve and improve their effectiveness. The four types were divorce cases, conflict of interest, witchcraft and domestic violence. The principle behind was to assign each village head to a single case to resolve so that the overall effectiveness of the village heads at community level is maximized. Ten observations were made per village head per case. The results indicated that, on average, if the village heads resolve the conflicts the same way they are currently doing, they will be 69% effective. The collaborative approach as suggested by the research indicated that the effectiveness of the village heads in resolving conflicts will increase by 14% translating to approximately 9 cases out of 10 being resolved. It concludes that the collaborative approach improves the effectiveness of village heads in resolving conflicts hence its recommendation. Key words: Scheduling, village heads, peace, rural community. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/D0408FA56147 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2015.0231 en Copyright © 2015 Mwembe Desmond
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:A2CEBD556823 2016-01-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2016
The clash of sexuality or rhetoric of human rights: Exploring same sex marriage and sustainable human development nexus Luke Amadi and Steve Wordu Full Length Research Paper On June 26th 2015, the United States Supreme Court legalized same sex marriage. Similarly, the adoption of the United Nations Human Rights resolution for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) rights during its 27th session in September 2014 by a 25-14 vote margin after more than an hour of debate, condemns violence and discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity across the globe. Some countries from the South such as Pakistanrsquo;s representative to the U.N. Human Rights Council called it a ldquo;divisive and controversial initiative.rdquo; While Saudi Arabiarsquo;s representative during debate said; ldquo;We feel there is an attempt to impose uniculturality that runs counter to religious and cultural practices of some countries; in my opinion, this (resolution) is a human rights violation.rdquo; As this resolution was passed, Russiarsquo;s Constitutional Court upheld their countryrsquo;s anti-gay ldquo;propagandardquo; law 1. This paper is a desk review which explores contending theoretical debates on same sex marriage (SSM) discourse and suggests that SSM is not akin to sustainable human development. It advances a novel theoretical argument which classifies SSM as virtual and unsustainable union beyond human rights debate. It recognizes the emotions of LGBTs but argues for an alternative, namely; green sexuality- a union between a man and woman rooted in procreation and conjugal bliss. It demonstrates that SSM falls short of these criteria. The paper suggests that the union of man and man or woman and woman should have a distinct classification other than marriage in the conventional context. This theme is important in contemporary global sexuality debate both as analytical and policy instrument to re-examine Western rights notion and amenable ways to douse violent attacks ,stigmatization and discrimination on LGBTs, in particular, re ndash;examine sexuality beyond Western ldquo;human rightsrdquo; rhetoric or is the world experiencing a clash of sexuality? Key words: Same Sex Marriage, Sexual Rights, Sustainable Human Development, Sexual Identity, Green Sexuality Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/A2CEBD556823 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2015.0235 en Copyright © 2016 Luke Amadi and Steve Wordu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:1BC2EFE58946 2016-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2016
The democratic peace theory: Validity in relation to the European Union and 'Peaceful' cooperation between United States and China Nibal Attia Short Communication According to the democratic peace theory, democratic states are less likely to go to war with other democratic states. Consequently, the ultimate goal of the theory is to create a world of democracies that is, a world without war. However, from the realist perspective in some cases democracies go to war with other democracies to influence their power. This paper will critically analyze the validity of democratic peace theory in its assumption that democracies rarely fight each other, by providing the example of the establishment of the European Union, in which democracies are co-operating with each other to achieve their common good. The paper is divided into three parts; the first one will provide an explanation of the Peace Democratic theory and its main assumptions. The second one will evaluate to what extent these assumptions are practical ones through the application of the case studies. Then a counter-argument for one of its assumption will be included questioning the core claim of the democratic peace theory from the commercial peace theory perspective. Key words: Democracy, peace theory, war, co-operation. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/1BC2EFE58946 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2015.0234 en Copyright © 2016 Nibal Attia
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:36F02CB59216 2016-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2016
How do interventions in land administration in post-conflict situations facilitate state building? Dimo Todorovski, Jaap Zevenbergen, Paul Van Der Molen Full Length Research Paper In earlier research in the area of land administration in conflict and post-conflict contexts the relation between land administration and state building was recognised. This paper aims at increasing the understanding of this relation. Available literature is explored to learn more about the concepts of state building, and land and its administration in post-conflict contexts. The most suitable methodology to increase the understanding of the relation under investigation here is a qualitative research approach using a multiple case study for data collection. In doing so, the cases of Kosovo and Rwanda are used as the two main case studies, and the cases of Mozambique, Cambodia and Timor-Leste are used as supportive case studies. The empirical data from the main case studies and data collected through literature review from the supportive case studies has been used to derive lessons learned from those cases. For analyses of the collected data a three-dimensional matrix has been generated, which is supported by the findings from our cases results in analytical generalisation of the relation. Discussions and analysis of collected evidence indicate how interventions in land administration facilitate post-conflict state building. Key words: conflict, post-conflict, land administration, state building. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/36F02CB59216 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2015.0244 en Copyright © 2016 Dimo Todorovski, Jaap Zevenbergen, Paul Van Der Molen
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:A21C60C59433 2016-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2016
“To summon the nations”: Russia and The Hague peace conferences Graham Nicholson Review A consideration of the history and importance of the Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907, being the first of such Conferences held otherwise than at the conclusion of a conflict and designed to lay the foundations of a global peace and to reduce the risk or effects of war. It includes a consideration of the legacy of such Conferences and plans for a third Conference, being the centenary of the first in 1999, which did not occur despite much support. It considers whether, in the current worsening state of global affairs, if there is a necessity to hold such an all-encompassing Conference of all world leaders now. Key words: Hague, peace, conference. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/A21C60C59433 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2014.0221 en Copyright © 2016 Graham Nicholson
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:EBFE01D60000 2016-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2016
Employment creation, income generation, poverty and women in the informal sector: Evidences from urban Eritrea Fitsum Ghebregiorgis, Habteab Tekie Mehreteab and Stifanos Hailemariam Full Length Research Paper This study is set out to investigate poverty and women in the informal sector with evidences from urban areas of Eritrea. The study uses descriptive technique on primary data collected using interview and questionnaire from 12 towns distributed throughout the 6 administrative regions of the country. The approach adopted includes both a survey and structured interviews targeted at women who are active in the informal business sector. The main findings from the sample data of 1604 women collected indicate that majority of the respondents are poor as their monthly income hovers around the poverty line set by the world bank (of one dollar and fifteen cents per day). Furthermore, it has been noted that the greater part of women interviewed are active as petty traders, followed by services and only a minority of them are active in the manufacturing (production) sector. Poverty and unemployment are the two main driving forces that made them to try their chance by making themselves active in this sector. However, they lack the entire necessary infrastructure and amenities to facilitate their businesses as the majority of them work in open public places under continuous harassment and uncertainty. They do need legal and social protection, place of work, training, credit and other amenities if they are going to expand their business and go out poverty. The result shows the situation and plight of women in informal sector in the country and the paper therefore recommends that policy makers take notice of their situation and give more support and formulate policies that will provide an enabling environment for the growth, expansion and prosperity of the sector in general and women working in the sector in particular. Key words: Women, informal business, developing country, Eritrea. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/EBFE01D60000 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2015.0243 en Copyright © 2016 Fitsum Ghebregiorgis, Habteab Tekie Mehreteab and Stifanos Hailemariam
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:5C3879860468 2016-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2016
Semiotics expert system: An integrative approach towards maintenance of community peace Saurabh Shanu, Siddharth Talwar Benet Hermon, Ojasvi Goswami and Neelu Jyoti Ahuja Full Length Research Paper Optimum peace maintenance amongst monitored communities is needed for sustainable and social development of the communities and society. The maintenance of peace with the application of correct strategies should be able to deliver maximum degree of trust and strength of relations among the communities. This study presents STES, an expert system that utilizes a biologically inspired novel optimization technique of semiotics that imitates the behavior of predators in marking their territories with their odours and physical marks, known as territorial predator scent marking strategies (TPSMS), to obtain appropriate strategies for maintenance of peace. The current study presents the use of game theory and deterministic finite automata (DFA) theory to model and design a strategic rule set for the Expert System to take decisions for maintenance of optimum peace amongst the communities. A DFA is obtained using various peace states as the set of states, and the alphabet set is constructed by modelling a two-person Prisonerrsquo;s Dilemma game over TPSMS. A context free grammar is then obtained by employing top-down parsing, which would suggest the proper rules to be included in the rule set of the Expert System for the maintenance of peace and bringing out sustainable development. A key objective in such decision making therefore would be to select the semiotical peace maintenance strategy in a manner that their applicability configuration ensures a high degree of cooperation within often intensely conflicting communities, over a long term resource use scenario. Key words: Peace, semiotics, prisonerrsquo;s dilemma game, deterministic finite automata (DFA), context free grammar, top-down parsing, territorial predator scent marking strategy. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/5C3879860468 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2015.0256 en Copyright © 2016 Saurabh Shanu, Siddharth Talwar Benet Hermon, Ojasvi Goswami and Neelu Jyoti Ahuja
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:B02B4AF61520 2016-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2016
International responses to human trafficking: The Ghanaian experience Gerald Dapaah Gyamfi Full Length Research Paper Human trafficking in this era has been conceptualized as a global event that is likened to slavery because of the inhumane treatment that the victims go through. The scope and the criminal aspect of it demands police initiative to curb the menace. The current researcher used semi-structured qualitative interview, direct observation, and review of documents to gather data from Ghana Police Service and some anti-human trafficking institutions in Ghana to identify the nature, scope and responses to reduce or eradicate this menace that has detrimental effect on the people of Ghana, as a case study. Contemporarily, in terms of origin, destination and transit of people to engage in this criminal act, the menace put Ghana into Tier Two Watch-List classification in 2015 on the international level. Human trafficking in Ghana was characterized as violence, debt bondage, exploitation, deprivation of the freedom of the victims, and confiscation of travelling and other documents. The study revealed that the government of Ghana had put in only a minimal effort to curb the menace, and that the trafficking of people had created a security concern that the police must be apt to control. There is a recommendation that the Government of Ghana puts in maximal effort to educate the people and equip the Police service in Ghana to enable the service take tough action to ensure the maximum implementation of the regulations against human trafficking. Key words: Human trafficking, Ghana, policing, inhumane treatment, criminalization, border crime. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/B02B4AF61520 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2016.0282 en Copyright © 2016 Gerald Dapaah Gyamfi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:7D5003261522 2016-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2016
Implications of ethnic nationalism: The Niger delta region of Nigeria as a case study Sulaiman Olayinka Opafola Full Length Research Paper This paper examines the implications of ethnic nationalism within the context of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. It employs the methods of analysis and evaluation in investigating the concepts of national question and nationalism, implications of the two concepts as well as advantages and disadvantages of nationalism. Its aim is to identify the factors responsible for disunity and consequently suggest means of promoting unity in diversity. Nationalism relates to the wish of a large group of human beings belonging to the same origin and language, to mention a few links, to establish an independent nation. This is also what is meant by ethnic nationalism. The paper also considers the merits and demerits as well as solutions to ethnic nationalism. The paper found out that the main cause of ethnic nationalism is injustice. This injustice is mainly expressed in exploitation or discrimination in the distribution of resources, rights and power. It was discovered that ethnic nationalism has been an attempt to redress the injustice favourably. The paper recommends that in order to attain unity in diversity and good governance, justice should be promoted (183 words). Key words: Implications, nationalism, Niger, Nigeria, region, self-determination. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/7D5003261522 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2016.0274 en Copyright © 2016 Sulaiman Olayinka Opafola
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:E7D077E61869 2016-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2016
Name your price: Economic compensation and suicide terrorism Samuel Rohrer and David Sobek Full Length Research Paper Suicide terrorism remains a difficult action to rationally explain. Often, scholars rely on ideological or religious motivations to explain these seemingly irrational actions. While it seems clear that non-economic motives matter, it is also the case that economic compensation can incentivize suicide terrorism in ways that allow for more robust suicide terrorism campaigns. As such, we would expect that organizations that provide cash to suicide bombers will generate more attacks. In addition, the general economic environment plays into this in that poor economic conditions should increase the attractiveness of monetary compensation. To test our arguments, we conduct a series of statistical analyses looking at seven terrorist organizations that engaged in suicide terrorism from 2000 through 2008 and find that both high levels of economic compensation and poor economic conditions are correlated with a greater number of suicide terrorist attacks. Key words: Political economy, terrorism, compensation. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/E7D077E61869 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2016.0276 en Copyright © 2016 Samuel Rohrer and David Sobek
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:A989FDB62946 2017-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2017
Political party youth wings and political violence in sub-Sahara Africa: A case of Ghana Sebastian Angzoorokuu Paalo Full Length Research Paper This paper presents findings from a study of political violence by party youth wings in sub-Sahara African polities from 1990 to date. Using a case study of Ghana, the research draws some similarities, and or differences in the mechanisms through which youth wings perpetrate violence across other parts of the sub-region. During the December 2016 general elections in Ghana, the aggressive role of party youth wings was very visible, and calls for policy attention. Due to the high stakes involved in wining or retaining state power in Africa, politicians value the organizational abilities of their respective youth groups. However, youth wings in most polities rather engage in aggressive political activities including, vandalizing public property, rioting/violent protests, seizer and control over facilities of public good, militias/vigilantism and electoral violence. And these acts thwart democratic advancement. Drawing on over four years of participant observation in Ghana; extensive analysis of media political discourse across Africa; and relevant secondary data, the author argues that though youth wings are meant to contribute positively to democratic consolidation through peaceful and democratic activities with their mother parties, they mostly rather engage in aggressive, violent politics, annulling the expectation of constructive contribution from the demographic majority in the continent. And this violent politics is generally due to their systemic exclusion from core political and democratic processes by their respective parties. These incendiary acts are catalyzed by increasing youth unemployment; weak institutions or unprofessional state agents; illegitimate electoral systems; political manipulation of social cleavages, and history of violence in societies all mired in patronage political system. Key words: Youth wing, violence, political party, sub-Sahara Africa, democracy. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/A989FDB62946 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2016.0284 en Copyright © 2017 Sebastian Angzoorokuu Paalo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:ADA180263709 2017-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2017
Road traffic accident: Human security perspective Micheale Kihishen Gebru Full Length Research Paper The objective of this study is to assess road traffic accident based on human security perspective. In this study, an attempt is made to analyze the causes, contributing and determinant factors, and effects of road traffic accident with regard to itrsquo;s over all linkage with human security. The study tried to explore how road traffic accident is a human security threat in the contemporary world. Methodologically, this study employed descriptive qualitative approach. Relevant data were collected from secondary sources such as academic literatures, reports, and policy and research documents. The finding of the study revealed that multiple factors contributed for the incidence of road traffic accidents mainly the human factors (road usersrsquo; error), environmental factors, and vehicle defect factors. The study found that road traffic accident is a human security threat with multifaceted effects on the economy of households and the national economies of states especially in the developing countries. It has negative effect on food security, which affects access to basic food; on the health security, which could cause of mortality, illness (pain and grief and suffer) and disability; on the physical security or safety of the individuals and on the social interactions of victims and their families. The study concludes that road traffic accidents have multifaceted effects on human security and little attention is given to the problem, despite the fact that the increase of road crashes from time to time especially in developing countries of the world. Key words: Road traffic accident, human security, threat. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/ADA180263709 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2016.0289 en Copyright © 2017 Micheale Kihishen Gebru
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:E374F4265151 2017-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2017
The reasons behind the debates and discussions on population growth: Positive or negative impacts on economic, social, political, natural resources and environmental developments Kiros Abeselom Full Length Research Paper The reasons behind the debates and discussions on population growth and the impacts on economic, social, political, natural resources and environmental developments have different motives, for instance ideologies or class struggle. The so-called North-South-Conflict is one reason behind the issue. In other words, developed countries are not willing to share the resources of the Third World countries with these countries, that is, the developed countries are protecting their economic, political and military hegemonies. Also, the hypothesis of Thomas Robert Malthus (1766 to 1834) and of his followers, the Neo-Malthusians is one reason behind the debates and discussions on population growth and the impacts on economic, social, political, natural resources and environmental developments. Therefore, the allegedly alarming figures about world population growth in thousands and in millions per second, per minute, per hour, per day, per month or per year without the necessary infrastructure or registration systems are created purposely to divert discussions and debates on resources allocation, distribution, and sharing. However, the discussions and debates on world population growth impacts on economic development and environmental developments have vital influences on international relations as well as on public perception in solving current economic, social and environmental problems in the Third World Countries, especially in Africa. Hence, the discussions and debates about ldquo;overpopulationrdquo; in the Third World Countries serve as a means of preserving the existing economic, social and political structures in the world. In order to make the issue more concrete, two different locations and study areas (Addis Ababa and Ambo Town/Ethiopia) are selected. Moreover, two case studies (empirical studies) are applied in this Research Paper, that is, one case study is to test the different hypotheses about the population growth impact on economic, social, political, natural resources and environmental developments and the other case study is to conduct empirical study and observations about the causes of poverty in different selected areas of western Ethiopia for example Ambo District. Key words: World population, population growth, North-South-conflicts, hypothesis, ldquo;overpopulationrdquo;, Neo-Malthusians, Third World Countries, empirical studies. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/E374F4265151 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2016.0286 en Copyright © 2017 Kiros Abeselom
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:9D54C1565213 2017-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2017
Somalia’s turbulent path to peace and stability Fantahun Ayele Review After gaining its independence in 1960, Somalia tried in vain to unite all Somalis in the Horn of Africa. As part of that project, Siad Barre launched a full-scale invasion of the Ogaden in 1977 in an attempt to take this vast territory from Ethiopia. But Somaliarsquo;s crushing defeat in the 1977/78 war brought about far reaching repercussions. Armed resistance against Siad Barrersquo;s government eventually led to state collapse in 1991. While the former British Somaliland declared its independence, civil war and anarchy began to rock Mogadishou and southern Somalia. To make matters worse, a devastating famine claimed the lives of thousands of Somalis. The UN and US intervention to mitigate the humanitarian crisis ended in disaster. Neighbouring countries like Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya made their own efforts to set up a new government in Somalia. Ethiopiarsquo;s intervention in support of the Transitional Federal Government triggered armed resistance by al Shabaab. On its part, the US government has been very much worried that Somalia has become a safe haven for terrorists. As a result, the Horn of Africa became a battle ground in the war on terror. The United States has been using unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) to hunt down al Shabaab leaders and destroy the terrorist groups. Using both secondary and primary sources including archival documents of the Ministry of National Defence based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, this paper attempts to examine Somaliarsquo;s thorny path towards peace and stability. The findings show that Somaliarsquo;s clan based politics, the stockpiles of arms acquired during the cold war that eventually fell into the hands of the warlords and the inability of the international community to put an end to anarchy and civil war, have contributed to Somaliarsquo;s insatabilty for over two decades. Key words: Somalia, Ethiopia, al Shabaab, anarchy, civil war, war on terror. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/9D54C1565213 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2017.0301 en Copyright © 2017 Fantahun Ayele
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:EDFD16566585 2017-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2017
National dialogue as solution to African problems: The D. R. Congo in focus Jean-Marie Mbombo Full Length Research Paper Some African leaders cause problems in Africa when they breach peace accords, rig elections or manipulate their respective constitutions in order to remain in power indefinitely. At the same time, they expect a frustrated opposition to come along through national dialogues and help to quench the fire which they have deliberately ignited. It appears however that lasting solutions to political crisis are yet to be found in countries such as Burundi, Congo and Gabon to name but a few. This paper focuses on a series of actions initiated by the government of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in recent times. Such actions included the reluctance of the Kabila administration to fund the Independent Electoral Commission, the Constitutional Courtrsquo;s interpretation of Article 70 of the Constitution that ruled in favour of the incumbent to remain in power until a new president is elected and the inconclusive nature of the national dialogue to discuss the future of the country beyond 2016. The study relies on secondary data (review of extant literature) and adopts a paradigm of elite clientelism in order to make sense of the current political stalemate. Findings suggest that the government-initiated political dialogue was a sophisticated strategy of dividing the opposition and rewarding a few sympathisers to the regime with political appointments in order to maintain the status quo ante. The study calls on donor countries to step up pressure on the regime and condition their development aid on its readiness to hold credible elections in order to avert another major crisis looming. Key words: National dialogue, constitution, Kabila, elite clientelism, term limit, conflict. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/EDFD16566585 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2017.0309 en Copyright © 2017 Jean-Marie Mbombo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:51539FA66755 2017-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2017
Changes and continuity in the conceptualization of development: A review Jarso Galchu Review Development has been among the most contested terminologies in the field of politics, sociology and economics over the last two to three centuries. Development is a concept with diverse view across the world and among different scholars, mainly because of its widely changing conceptualization and lack of unified and internationally accepted standards used to measure development across countries and organizations. From the early 18th to the middle of the 20th centuries, conceptualization of development was in line with the colonial objective of the north during which development was believed to be a social shift that dictate the people of the south to abandon their ancestral culture, norms and values to accept the Eurocentric one to gain the status of developed or developing. In the middle of 20th century, the concept was further sophisticated by the emergence of development theory which put a ladder for every country to climb to reach the level of development required by the European power. This paper attempts to outshine the changing and widening conceptualization of development concepts over the centuries, particularly paying close attention to social and cultural aspects of development. And how these changes affected the economic and social recovery of African society after the continent secured the political liberation in the second half of the 20th century. In addition, this article indicated that development has lost its traditional Eurocentric conceptualisation over the last three centuries, and more focused on the need of the people receiving development goal. Key words: Development, change and continuity, social, cultural, Africa. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/51539FA66755 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2016.0277 en Copyright © 2017 Jarso Galchu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:E9A63B367077 2017-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2017
Natural resources and civil conflicts: Policy analysis under general equilibrium Md. Didarul Hasan and Sajal Lahiri Full Length Research Paper In this paper, a two-period general equilibrium model on the relationship between natural resources and civil conflict has been developed. Unlike existing literature, both resource extraction and wage rate are considered as endogenous during the conflict. The main purpose of the paper is to examine policy options for international community to limit the conflict intensity. It has been found out that a current international sanction will reduce civil conflict if the wage rate is fixed. However, when the wage rate is endogenous, the effect of current sanction is uncertain. Productivity improvement in agricultural sector may also subside the conflict. The study results also suggest that a bilateral piece-meal reduction in war efforts is the most effective policy for conflict reduction. Key words: Natural resources, civil conflicts, general equilibrium, sanctions. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/E9A63B367077 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2017.0310 en Copyright © 2017 Md. Didarul Hasan and Sajal Lahiri
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:B8F01D156646 2018-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2018
Relative deprivation: An explanation to inter-ethnic conflict in Metekel Zone, North Western Ethiopia, since 1991 Dagnachew Ayenew Full Length Research Paper This study explains chief causes of covert and overt conflict between indigenous and non-indigenous ethnic groups of Metekel zone, since 1991. For the sake of convenience, however, particular emphasis is given to the conflict between Agew and Gumuz. The study employs relational ethnography research design. The data collected through in-depth interview, observation, informal conversation, and review of available documents is analysed thematically. The conflict between the two ethnic groups in the period is explained based on the assumption of horizontal and longitudinal deprivation. The paper demonstrates that coincidence of relative deprivation with ethnic line is creating favourable conditions for violent conflicts in the study area. In the period, Agews felt deprived of political resources in contrast to their history and Gumuz. On the other hand, though Gumuz are politically empowered, the socio-economic status of the people is hardly comparable with the Agew and other non-indigenous ethnic groups. The salience of ethnicity in the period has also been providing opportunity for elites to mobilize the mass for violence. But, the study argues the transformation of dormant conflicts into violence is determined by cost and benefit analysis of the action rather than by a mere mobilization of elites. Accordingly, in the period instigating violence seems persuasive for Gumuz than Agew. The finding implies that when the underlying conditions of relative deprivation are eliminated, the motive to use violence as a political instrument can also be minimized. Key words: Ethnicity, ethnic conflict, relative deprivation, ethnic federalism, indigenous ethnic groups, non-indigenous ethnic groups. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/B8F01D156646 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2017.0315 en Copyright © 2018 Dagnachew Ayenew
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:1772B2C57007 2018-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2018
Security, peace and development: Unpacking discursive constructions of wartime rape and sexual violence in Syria Stacy Banwell Full Length Research Paper The lsquo;rape-as-a-weaponrsquo; of war narrative has been particularly influential in the securitization of sexual violence. Drawing upon ideas about the fetishization of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence (CRSV), this article unpacks the language used within this security paradigm. Using an original case study, discourse analysis is used to unpack how policymakers, activists and the news media construct a lsquo;truthrsquo; about rape and sexual violence committed in Syria. It is argued that the international political economy of this conflict is being obscured by a biopolitical security agenda that prioritizes CRSV. The foreign policy implications of this security narrative are reviewed within the broader context of International Peace and Development. Using secondary data analysis, this study examines how gendered dimensions of the Syrian conflict interact with global economic and local state/military practices to; reinforce existing patterns of violence against women and girls and expose them to new forms of gender-based violence. Analyzing concepts such as lsquo;rape-as-a-weapon of warrsquo; and terms such as lsquo;widespreadrsquo; and lsquo;systematicrsquo;, findings suggest that the selective focus on wartime rape and sexual violence in Syria, particularly by extremist groups, precludes an understanding of the complexities of conflict violence and impedes efforts to eliminate it Key words: Biopolitics, conflict-related sexual violence, discourse analysis, rape-as-a-weapon of war, securitization, Syria, peace and development. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/1772B2C57007 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2018.0318 en Copyright © 2018 Stacy Banwell
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:2571CC058011 2018-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2018
Remedying the retreat in the protection of citizens’ international human rights Graham Nicholson Full Length Research Paper The article argues that in the light of the many continuing gross abuses of international human rights perpetrated in many parts of the world and the growing disillusionment with the international human rights regime as a whole, the regime needs comprehensive reassessment. It is argued that the underlying cause of this situation is the disunity of the present global system and its competing systems of governance. The author suggests that incremental improvements over time are no longer sufficient and that if real change is desired for the better , and then a significant global change towards a more united and just world order is required. Otherwise, we can expect to see many more gross abuses of international human rights of the worst kind, among other things. The author argues that such a significant change is supportable on the grounds of reason and conscience, as well as of morality and spirituality. Key words: International human rights regime, effectiveness, globalisation, supranational, global governance, unity, federation. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/2571CC058011 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2018.0324 en Copyright © 2018 Graham Nicholson
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:847A79F58734 2018-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2018
Rural development: Lessons never learnt Shadreck Tanyanyiwa Full Length Research Paper Life is supposed to be a great teacher, but in the development field lessons have never been learnt because errors of decades ago continue being entrenched today, by more enlightened people. This paper deploys critical theories of rural development and community participation to explain why communities resist development projects. One such incident is community resistance to a donor-funded mega irrigation project in Nyangavi, Guruve, in Northern Zimbabwe. The community felt that the poverty alleviation project was imposed on them. The resilient lsquo;modernisationrsquo; thinking countered by people-centred ideas of development in Guruve promotes active participation of rural communities as subjects rather than objects of development. Resistance in this paper is underscored to highlight the lack of fit between rural development policy and the actual implementation on the ground and underscores rural communitiesrsquo; agency as masters of their own destiny. National governments have explicit rural development policies that can help rural communities drive economies. However, these policies are ignored, for expedience purposes as officials futilely fast-track change that is meant to improve the standard of living of the poor. There appears to be selective use of community participation policies to suit certain conditions. This kind of development characterises most of Africa and development of billion-dollar projects throughout the world. Key words: Community-based rural development, community, community leadership, decentralisation, development, engagement, human rights, irrigation, land reform, militant leaders, mobilise, modernisation, participation, policy, resistance, rural development. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/847A79F58734 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2018.0319 en Copyright © 2018 Shadreck Tanyanyiwa
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:0F08B9258736 2018-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2018
Community participation in transformation of rural livelihoods and climate smart farming technologies in the semi-arid lands of Kenya Jane Mutune and Abdimajid Nunow Full Length Research Paper Semi-arid areas in developing countries continue to depend on rain-fed agriculture which is exacerbated by climate change and poor governance. Despite efforts and investments by governmental and non-governmental organizations to address the issue of food insecurity in the semi-arid areas of Kenya, the problem still persists. The communities have designed themselves to be resource poor whereas they are not. This paper argues that the communities have accepted their incapability to utilize their naturally occurring resources and foot their own development. Yet, there exist transformational models that have involved empowering communities to realize and reframe opportunities. The purpose of this paper was to document outcomes of transformational leadership model and its effectiveness on community participation and engagement in improving food security and climate change adaptation outcomes. The study involved key informant interviews and showed that the community Christian Impact Mission had transformed, engaged and empowered communities through mind-set change and green farming technologies with the locally available resources. Without any donor support, a semi-arid community in Yatta sub-county has since successfully footed their own development, realized food security and engaged in sustainable and climate smart agricultural technologies. The study argues therefore, that participation and inclusivity of communities by development organizations is imperative for realization of food security and climate change mitigation and adaptation actions. Key word: Community, empowerment, food security, transformational, leadership. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/0F08B9258736 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2018.0323 en Copyright © 2018 Jane Mutune and Abdimajid Nunow
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:B9C98D159691 2018-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2018
Christian-Muslim dialogue with particular reference to Pentecostals and Muslims in Nairobi, Kenya Patrick Mburu Kamau Full Length Research Paper Interfaith dialogue is becoming a household name in our global society within the context of religious pluralism. Christians and Muslims are widely spread across the globe commanding almost a half of global population. Some Christians, particularly among some Pentecostals view Muslims with distrust, apprehension and rivalry. In Nairobi, Kenya, features of mistrust, disharmony, and intolerance among Pentecostal churches toward Muslims have been witnessed and vice versa. The study explored Christian-Muslim dialogue with particular reference to Pentecostal Christians and Muslims in Nairobi, Kenya. It examines Biblical and Qurrsquo;anic teaching on Christian-Muslim dialogue. Integrated Inclusivism Conceptual Model of interfaith dialogue is discussed showing how various areas of convergence and divergence work. Constructive Christian-Muslim dialogue should take into consideration integrated inclusivism ideals such as shared theological concepts and values, socio-political and economic dialogue and divergent theological concept. The paper recommends that Pentecostals Christians and Muslims should not ignore Biblical and Qurrsquo;anic teachings. Overarching interfaith hindrances should be reduced in order to talk to each other in a respectful way. In conclusion, interfaith dialogue is the solutions for effective dialogue between Muslims and Pentecostal Christians in Nairobi, Kenya. Key words: Christian-Muslim dialogue, christocentrism, divergent theological matters, integrated inclusivism conceptual model, interfaith dialogue, religious equality, Muslim umma, Pentecostal Christians, personal relationships, Religio-political interests, shura, socio-economic, socio-political and economic dialogue, socio-religious love, theological or reader presupposition. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/B9C98D159691 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2015.0245 en Copyright © 2018 Patrick Mburu Kamau
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:A5681A259693 2018-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2018
Countering “Islamic fundamentalism” and out group hostility in North-East Ethiopia: Kemissie city administration Muslims Ayalew Yimer Full Length Research Paper Religious fundamentalism and inter/out group conflict have gained international concerns. Fundamentalism in relation to Islam is subject to debate and controversy, in particular because of the way in which Islam has been objectified as the fundamentalist by the West. Fundamentalism is understood as exclusive to religion. And the research intends to explore the responses, positions and views of Muslims in tackling the problem of fundamentalism and out group hostilities in Ethiopia, Kemisse City administration. Case study design was employed with qualitative research approach since it gives an understanding to the context or setting in which people behave. Primary data collection was undertaken mainly through Focus Group Discussion (FGD), key informant interview and observation. In line with the research objective and question, the major findings were the Muslims are starting to develop misperception and views towards Islamic fundamentalism and the US and their classifications with non-believers are gaining a huge momentum than ever before in Kemissie City administration. With the view to mitigate the above mentioned constraints, the following recommendations are forwarded. (1) Religious leaders must do a lot in sharing and teaching the principles of Islam. 2) The government should liftoff its hand and gives freedom to religious matters by restricting its role to create a secure environment. Key words: Muslims response and views, countering fundamentalism, Islamic fundamentalism, in/out-group, hostility. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/A5681A259693 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2018.0326 en Copyright © 2018 Ayalew Yimer
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:C9F9E6661348 2019-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2019
Presenting natures, factors, and security implications of farmland related inter-household conflict in Northern Ethiopian Highlands of Wollo: Evidences from Jamma Woreda Mulugeta Tesfaye Teshome Full Length Research Paper The focus of this study is to investigate and analyze the different factors of inter-household conflicts over farmland. The study further sought to assess the human security implications on the community of the study area. It has been found that farmers in the study area are suffering from land-related conflicts and its associated impacts. Descriptive-case study was employed in the study. In-depth interviews with key informants and FGDs were data collection instruments used in the study. Secondary data drawn from archival documents and government reports were also used. The major study finding indicated that inter-household conflicts over farmland occurred with the interface of underlined and risk factors. Boundary encroachment, land eviction, inherited land conflict, contract breaching conflict are among the most common. The divisive land administration institutions, individualsrsquo; unproductive competition over farmland, poorly implemented land administration programs, and cultural attachment to land identified as underlined factors for the farmland conflicts have continued to happen. The culture of violence, availability of small arms and light weapons, and prevalence of other forms of social conflicts are also risk factors which have created fragile peace among the members of the community. The conflict has affected the economic, social, political, and psychological wellbeing of the study area residents, as well as human security threats. It was found to be imperative to revise and harmonize land administration laws and even to amend some of the faulty legislated articles. Above all digital land registration and data administration should be considered by governmental organizations and NGOs who are working on land administration sector. Key words: Household, farmland, conflict, human security, Jamma woreda. Academic Journals 2019 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/C9F9E6661348 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2018.0332 en Copyright © 2019 Mulugeta Tesfaye Teshome
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:810FBCA61362 2019-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2019
Extremist violence, secular and religious: Is there a more basic counter path? Graham Nicholson Review This paper argues that the present counter-measures to deal with the plague of extremist violence in the world are inadequate, in that they are largely reactive rather than addressing the root causes, which are prejudices of various kinds. It postulates the need for a united global approach in this matter based on spiritual principles. Key words: Extremism, extremist violence, terrorism, prejudice, counter measures, unified global approach, spiritual. Academic Journals 2019 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/810FBCA61362 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2019.0346 en Copyright © 2019 Graham Nicholson
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:698862A62682 2019-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2019
Trust relationship: The way of peace between India and Pakistan Anindya Sinha Review This article investigates the root cause of conflict between India and Pakistan and ways to mitigate it. Following lsquo;Trust Relationshiprsquo; theory, both countries can send a number of their citizens to the neighbour country for some useful purposes. But as they come to the other country as a part of Trust Relationship pact, they need not to be harassed by long process of Passport and Visa processing, instead they can identify themselves by an identity card issued by their own country. Their background check would be done by their own country and will not get harassed unnecessarily by the long verification process by the other country. If the two governments trust each other, they will accept the people from other country who are sent by the government bodies of the neighbour country only. If this pact is signed and succeeded, as a direct impact of this, both countries can open some Trust Corridors like lsquo;Kartarpur Corridorrsquo; through which they can send their citizens to the other country. Key words: Trust relationship, trust corridor, Kartarpur Corridor, belt, road. Academic Journals 2019 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/698862A62682 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2019.0360 en Copyright © 2019 Anindya Sinha
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:50134E362923 2020-02-29T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2020
Urban local authorities in Zimbabwe and the new constitution Mapuva Jephias and Takabika Tendai Review Urban areas have always attracted the attention of political parties due to their dense demographic compositions, hence their popularity as battle grounds among political parties. This has resulted in amendments and consolidation of local government legislation to ensure that urban local authorities enjoy only delegated powers and remain accountable to the central administration. Consequently local authorities remained creatures of statute. This tended to hamstring the operations of local authorities, as their autonomy was limited. However, with the coming in of the new constitutional dispensation in 2013, local government, for the first time, has enjoyed constitutional status. This paper seeks to unpack the content and practice of the law governing urban local authorities and the potential of this constitutional provision to promote good local governance. Key words: Amalgamation, political parties, local authorities, local government. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/50134E362923 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2019.357 en Copyright © 2020 Mapuva Jephias and Takabika Tendai
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:CFDBCA064577 2020-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2020
Investigating the impact of child abduction and cattle raiding among the Dinka, Nuer and Murle communities in Jonglei State, South Sudan Bithou M. Mayik Full Length Research Paper Child abduction and cattle raiding pose a threat to sustainable socio-economic development among the Dinka, the Nuer and the Murle communities in Jonglei State, South Sudan. A 7-month study was conducted to investigate the impacts of child abduction and cattle raiding among the three communities-Dinka, the Nuer and the Murle community. Two hundred fifty households, one hundred fifty two Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and fifty six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were investigated using semi-structured questionnaires, interview guide and observation checklist. Simple random sampling procedure and proportionate stratified sampling were used to select respondents from each community. Both qualitative and quantitative data were concurrently analyzed and interpreted. Analysis of FGDs revealed that the increasing need for bride wealth and the availability of small arms or light weapons were the major driving factors behind cattle raiding and child abduction among the three communities. Consequently, increasing death rates, illiteracy, displacement, poverty, and loss of properties were rampant threatening social coherence among these communities. Disarmament, demobilization and re-integration, and other peace building processes are highly needed for sustainable socio-economic development among the Dinka, the Nuer and the Murle communities in Jonglei State, South Sudan. Key words: Child abduction, cattle raiding, local communities, peace building, Jonglei State. Academic Journals 2020 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/CFDBCA064577 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2020.0376 en Copyright © 2020 Bithou M. Mayik
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:7BE6AC566503 2021-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2021
Human security and threats associated with the impacts of 2019 Hong Kong social unrest Bryan Tzu Wei LUK Full Length Research Paper Hong Kong has just experienced unprecedented social unrest that started in 2019. The unrest dragged the city into a chaotic situation that had not been seen in the last 50 years. Violence and crimes occurred across every corner of the territory, affecting every citizenrsquo;s livelihood. Several studies have been carried out, analyzing its social, economic, and political causes. However, most of them are limited to the political scope, and there is no profound work comprehensively reviewing and organizing the security impacts against citizens in Hong Kong. In that case, this article aims to fill up this missing gap by exploring its impacts on personal and community security that are adhered to the human security concept and framework. The article lists several critical personal and community insecurities and threats, which were respectively (1) group conflicts and increasing crime rate, (2) the legitimacy issue caused by the distrust among citizens and authorities, (3) psychological stresses that endanger public mental health and (4) violent political radicalization that could potentially trigger future hate crime and violent extremism. Thus it argued that the community stakeholders and government shall first mobilize their resources on handling these issues and shall introduce multipronged, peace-oriented and sustainable policies to handle them in a cost-effective and timely manner. Key words: Human security, anti-bill social unrest, conflict and peace studies, Hong Kong. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/7BE6AC566503 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2020.0388 en Copyright © 2021 Bryan Tzu Wei LUK
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:9FBB1D466505 2021-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2021
Police officers’ perceptions about corruption in Zimbabwe: A case of police officers at a University Tapfuiwa James Katsinde Full Length Research Paper The study investigated police officersrsquo; perceptions about corruption in Zimbabwe. The study was informed by Bourdieursquo;s theory of habitus. A case study design involving a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from sixty-four respondents sampled using a census method of sampling. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and presented on tables and pie charts. The study revealed that police officers were aware of corruption through training, discussions, presentations by bosses and literature. Police officers do not continue to learn about corruption through formal means like workshops. They perceived that corruption existed in the police force; believed that police corruption was due to low salaries, poor working conditions and greediness. Police officers perceived that the existence of corruption in society was due to low salaries, long time in positions of authority and greediness. They also said that corrupt people were usually the rich, the middle class, company owners, top politicians or top management. The factors contributing to corruption in the police force are not due to lack of awareness but relate to power, conditions of service or selfish behaviour or interests. It is recommended that the government improves conditions of service for police officers to reduce corruption. Key words: Awareness, police officers, corruption, habitus, power, field. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/9FBB1D466505 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2020.0385 en Copyright © 2021 Tapfuiwa James Katsinde
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:B47A37C66939 2021-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2021
The post genocide reconciliation in Rwanda: Erasing ethnicity and building citizenship Ouafaa RAFI Review The Rwandan genocide, seen as the result of years of ethnic antagonization and segmentation, was followed by a political effort leading to the restructuration of Rwandan national identity in order to unify the society and eventually achieve national reconciliation. By implementing measures such as the removal of ethnic affiliation on national identity documents, or by reforming the national education curriculum, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RFP), governing the country since 1994 under the leadership of the President Paul Kagame, aimed at the progressive obliteration of the ethnic frame of references in the Rwandan society. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the dynamics of obliteration of the ethnic factor in the Rwandan state narrative and to study, under a multidimensional lens, the post-genocide nation-building processes. Key words: Ethnicity, ethnic denialism, genocide, nation building, civic transition. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/B47A37C66939 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2021.0391 en Copyright © 2021 Ouafaa RAFI
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:150D6FE67061 2021-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2021
Indigenous knowledge of conflict resolution for transformative peace building: Amare of Jama Woreda, Amhara - Ethiopia Kefelegn Tesfaye Full Length Research Paper The paper focuses on the role of indigenous knowledge system in the quest for conflict resolution and sustainable peace building. The data were collected from key informants, in-depth interview, focus group discussion, and document analysis. To this end, purposive sampling is used to select the participants. The finding has revealed the existence of many local and community based customary practices and indigenous conflict resolution institutions. Among them is the Amare Council of Elders a well-known and formally recognized mediation and reconciliation mechanism to deal with range of conflicts from simple disputes to horrifying murder acts. There are customary practices and ritual cleansing ceremonies used by Amare in blood feud reconciliation and non-homicide. The prominent ways and modes that have been practiced by Amare conciliators in mediation and blood feud reconciliation include Bele (a kind of swearing to do or not to do something), Arami (a payment from murdererrsquo;s family to temporarily calm the issue until Guma will pay) and Guma (blood price during reconciliation). Nevertheless, from transformative peace building perspective, as per the finding currently Amare Shimglina is imperceptible due to the challenges emerged from the community, formal justice actors and conciliators themselves. As a result of these, the paper suggests the need to empowerment and up-keeping of indigenous knowledge systems of conflict resolution for developing comprehensive restorative justice mechanism in the study area. Key words: Amare, indigenous, conflict resolution, peace building, Jama Woreda. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/150D6FE67061 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2018.0337 en Copyright © 2021 Kefelegn Tesfaye
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:53B4A4567064 2021-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2021
Remembering summerdale: A scandal that reformed policing Greg Hoffman and Anne D. Kroemer Commentary The following article contains never-before-published accounts from first-hand witnesses to the events surrounding the Summerdale Scandal, garnered by one of the authors in personal interviews with key stakeholders. These include interviews with former Evanston and Bartlett Police Chief William McHugh, former Illinois Police Superintendent James McGuire, former Cook County Statersquo;s Attorney Chief Investigator Paul Newey and renowned attorneys Gerald Getty, Julius Echels and Louis Galippo. Though all have now passed away, their words bring to life an event that forever changed policing in America. In 1960, a massive scandal rocked the Chicago Police Department. Rife with clandestine schemes, audacious exploits and a level of corruption that stunned the public, the Summerdale Scandal nearly brought down the entire Chicago police organization. Once the scandal unfurled, it would transform policing, not just in Chicago, but around the country. 2020 will mark the sixtieth anniversary of the Summerdale Scandal, and once again find ourselves recovering from police corruption. The scandal surrounding the events of the 2017 Chicago Police shooting of Laquan McDonald resulted in the firing of a police superintendent, affected the decision of Mayor Rahm Emmanuel in not running for re-election, and forced the Chicago Police Department into a Federal Oversight Consent Decree. Now, as we approach the 60th anniversary of the Summerdale Scandal, it bears revisiting this transformative event that dramatically overhauled policing four decades earlier. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/53B4A4567064 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2020.0378 en Copyright © 2021 Greg Hoffman and Anne D. Kroemer
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:D9289A867316 2021-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2021
Keys to sustainable and enduring societal peace in intractable conflicts: A theoretical and empirical justification in apartheid South African peace process Oguntuwase Olugbenga-Jay Review The perpetual search for solutions to societal conflicts, particularly those tagged intractable, that is, irresolvable, took a dramatic turn when South Africa, one of such age-long conflicts, bowed to mediation after about 48 years of fierce existence. Until now, no rigorously deep insight that is capable of accurately and adequately accounting for the dialectics of history that brought apartheid to such an abrupt end. South Africa became a new model of a democratic society in a transition that did not involve an external third-party and bloodshed. A rigorous study of the South African conflict, using critical discourse analysis and navigating through the political theory of nation-building, reveals that a set of theoretical paradoxes may have underlain the peace process as teased out in this paper. Key words: Apartheid, de-escalation, intractable conflict, transition, sustainability, deconstruction, societal peace. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/D9289A867316 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2021.0393 en Copyright © 2021 Oguntuwase Olugbenga-Jay
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:43844D267534 2021-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2021
African continental free trade area (AfCFTA) trade vs. security dilemma: From borders’ perspective Alazar Melkamu and Adonias Adugna Full Length Research Paper Africa embarked on an ambitious and promising free trade area agreement. If applied fully, it can inject a magical potion into the lives of the African economies which currently seem doomed to economic ICU. The agreement is expected to induce intra-continental trade, industrialization, integration all mainly because of free movement of people and goods. Meaning, lowering border controls and checkpoints, but, here the free movement of people and goods can be problematic for the continent. As we all know, the availability of porous borders in the continent is one of the main causes of peace and security challenges of the continent. The article show the dilemma the continent will face to choose between security and economic advancement. Key words: African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), free movement, porous borders, dilemma. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/43844D267534 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2021.0392 en Copyright © 2021 Alazar Melkamu and Adonias Adugna
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:DC3178168372 2021-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2021
Sexual violence against women during the Rwandan genocide: A narrative review Nharaunda-Makawa Rejoice and Kurebwa Jeffrey Review The Rwandan genocide was characterized, in addition to brutal killings, by equally brutal acts of sexual torture, mutilation, and enslavement as weapons against Tutsi women and girls on a mass scale. Existing scholarship on sexual violence has enhanced a general increased understanding of the contexts and challenges confronting survivors. Though the raping of women in combat and occupation zones is very common, it is never justified and will always be a serious human rights violation. This is a narrative review of sexual violence against women during the Rwandan genocide. Sexual violence was an intentional strategy of genocide. The study relied on literature review to analyze the sexual violence cases that were committed during the Rwandan genocide. Key words: Rwandan genocide, sexual violence, rape, gender violation, sexual assault, genocidal rape, opportunistic rape. Academic Journals 2021 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/DC3178168372 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2021.0408 en Copyright © 2021 Nharaunda-Makawa Rejoice and Kurebwa Jeffrey
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:1899E2168455 2022-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2022
The impact of humanitarian aid on post conflict development in Borno State James Emmanuel Ada and Mukhtar Abdullahi Full Length Research Paper The protracted Boko Haram insurgency continue to ravage the Northeast Nigeria with 1.8 million people displaced and 7.1 million in dire need of humanitarian aid. The conflict also caused a great havoc on the giant stride towards development of these states which Borno state being the worst affected where an estimated 751.78 billion naira (6.898 billion dollar) worth asset were destroyed. The humanitarian aid and United Nations agencies has continued to provide humanitarian assistance to the most affected group since the declaration of the state of emergency in 2013. The study aimed at assessing the impact of humanitarian aids on development of Borno after the conflict with a view of identifying the opportunities in humanitarian aid that can foster development of the state. The study adopted a combination of disaster relief, missionary and Oxfam model of humanitarian and development assistance and uses the mixed method of research. The data collected for this study were drawn largely from primary source and secondary data which were analysed using quantitative analysis tool and qualitative content descriptive analysis. The study established that the impact of the protracted insurgency on the development of the state manifest across both human capital and infrastructural indicators. The study reveals that humanitarian aid being provided cut across all the developmental indices and is highly connected to the development. Hence, should consider as a foundation for post conflict development. Therefore, it was recommended that government should take the lead in coordination of humanitarian aid in line with its development agenda. Key words: Humanitarian aid, post - conflict, Boko Haram insurgency, development, Borno State. Academic Journals 2022 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/1899E2168455 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2021.0409 en Copyright © 2022 James Emmanuel Ada and Mukhtar Abdullahi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:E49E2AA68708 2022-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2022
Land conflict dynamics in Africa: A critical review on farmer-pastoralist conflict perspectives Mabebe Erasmus Ntumva Full Length Research Paper This paper examines the theoretical bases underlying the causes of land conflicts. It involves a critical analysis of various contentions surrounding land nexus violent conflicts with particular attention to farmer-pastoralist conflicts. The drive for this examination is more on a comparison of causes between such conflicts in varying contexts of African. The major aim is to broaden the understanding about the nature of these conflicts with the prospect of setting grounds for scholars and policy makers for reviewing and crafting relevant intervening measures. The paper draws on debates and literature on farmer-pastoralist conflict to develop insights into their dynamics. This aims at making stakeholders informed of the existing gaps in research and underlying causes that could be capitalized on in devising relevant mitigating measures. The review shows that the uncontrolled interaction of the supply; demand and structural induced aspects contribute to the state of inequality, competition, and conflicts among land users. This situation is found to be aggravated by the social and political conditions surrounding the causes and governance of natural resources, with typical scenario of the changing policies of land tenure that have exacerbated increasing land grabbing and tenure insecurities. The paper recommends the need for revisiting the formal and informal structures that governs resource distribution in a bid to alleviate existing land- access inequalities and conflicts. Key words: Conflicts, farmers, pastoralists, resource conflicts, competition, environmental scarcity, structural scarcity, resource degradation. Academic Journals 2022 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/E49E2AA68708 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2021.0412 en Copyright © 2022 Mabebe Erasmus Ntumva
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:A7592B370229 2023-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2023
The national peace building policy of Somaliland: Undoing what has worked? Abdulahi Hamdi I. and Mydlak Robin Full Length Research Paper Part of the foundation of Somalilandrsquo;s stability over the last three decades has been its localized customary, clan-based peacebuilding mechanism. This may now be at risk. The ongoing institutionalization of Somaliland#39;s peacebuilding structures through the National Peacebuilding Policy (NPP) reflects many features of a liberal peacebuilding milieu and legitimizes state-building models shaped by international development partners rather than local conflict resolution actors. This article posits that the key policy objective of institutionalizing the peace building in Somaliland threatens to undermine an existing and dynamic tradition with proven efficacy. Rather than promoting peace, the NPP#39;s layering of government peacebuilding capacities at district, regional, and national levels could endanger peacemaking efforts by truncating local capabilities and hitching these to governmental structures reliant on external funding. Rather than retaining proven localized practices, this institutionalization undermines volunteerism, creates unnecessary costs for the state along with new opportunities for political clannism, extraversion, and rent seeking, which threatens to undermine what Somaliland has achieved thus far. Key words: Somaliland, peace building, liberal peace building, conflict transformation. Academic Journals 2023 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/A7592B370229 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2022.0417 en Copyright © 2023 Abdulahi Hamdi I. and Mydlak Robin
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPDS:A95ADDF70235 2023-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPDS IJPDS:2023
The quest of democratic governance for sustainable peace in Ethiopia: the case of Oromo Protest of 2014-2018 Afeta Galata Gamachu, Full Length Research Paper This article examines the inexorableness of democratic governance in multinational states for sustainable peace by considering the essential questions of the Oromo Protests in Ethiopia from 2014 to 2018. Ethiopia adopted the policy of a #39;democratic developmental state#39; in post-2000, which aimed to realize development initially and then democracy. However, the serious mass struggle was prompted in Ethiopia by the demand for a democratic type of government. And this imperative act became conspicuous in Ethiopia following the outbreak of protest in the Oromia National Regional State in 2014 and resulted in 2018 political changes within the ruling regime. The article was steered as a qualitative research in which both primary and secondary data were utilized. Primary data were collected through interviews and focus group discussions and secondary data were collected from literature through content analysis. Then, Oromo in Ethiopia have been raising the central questions of owning their land for three particular reasons; first, to develop themselves by effectively utilizing available resources, second, to respect human security (not to be displaced from their land, avoid massive human rights violation, and others); thirdly, the questions of self-governance or exercise political power within their territory. These serious questions are pressed on the demand for effective democratization in Ethiopia to reconcile it. Since democratic governance could answer all questions of effective development by averting unequal distribution of resources and averting the threats to human security by amending state-society relationships and it would pave the way to exercise power through democratic election. Key words: Democratic Governance, Sustainable Peace, Ethiopia, and Oromo Protest. Academic Journals 2023 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPDS/article-abstract/A95ADDF70235 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPDS2021.0410 en Copyright © 2023 Afeta Galata Gamachu,
2024-02-27T02:33:39Z|100|oai_dc|ijpds