2020-06-05T14:02:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:C62A29240384 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2009
Fertility enhancing effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Lophira lanceolata in male Spargue dawley rats E. U. Etuk and A. A. Muhammad Full Length Research Paper Lophira lanceolata stem bark extract is commonly used by herbalists in Sokoto state for the treatment of fertility related problems in males. Recently the sexual stimulatory effect of the plant in male rats has been reported. The present study examined the effect of 7 days oral administration of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of the plant stem bark extract on fertility indices (Sperm motility, Sperm number and Sperm morphology) in male Sprague dawley rats. The extract produced a significant and dose dependent increase (p lt; 0.05) in the sperm number of the rats. There was no significant change in the sperm motility and morphology. There was a decrease in the blood level of Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) but no significant increase in the levels of Leutinizing hormone (LH) and Testosterone. Testicular histology examination revealed increased spermatogenesis. L. lanceolata may have the potentials of being developed into a male fertility enhancing drug. Key words: Lophira lanceolata, fertility enhancer, sperm number, testes. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/C62A29240384 en Copyright © 2009 E. U. Etuk and A. A. Muhammad
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:33C7DB840386 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2009
Effect of aqueous root extract of Treculia africana on haemoglobin glycosylation and plasma lipid per oxidation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rabbits G. C. Ojieh, O. M. Oluba, G. O. Erifeta and G. O. Eidangbe Full Length Research Paper Measurement of glycosylated hemoglobin has been proposed to be a very sensitive index for glycemic control as various proteins, including hemoglobin, albumin, collagen, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), or crystalline proteins has been reported to undergo non-enzymatic glycation in diabetes. In the present study an attempt was made to elucidate the effect of aqueous root extract ofTreculia africana on levels of haemoglobin glycosylation and plasma lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin (STZ),-induced diabetic rabbits. Twenty (20) STZ-induced diabetic male rats divided into two groups (n = 10) designated: Control and Test were treated respectively with 20 ml/kg distilled water and 200 mg/kg aqueous root extract of Treculia africana for five weeks. Plasma total haemoglobin, glycosylated haemoglobin and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), concentration were determined at pre- and post-treatment. Administration ofTreculia africana root extract at 200 mg/kg to STZ-diabetic rabbits was observed to significantly decreased concentration of blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and increased blood total haemoglobin. The elevated plasma levels of lipid peroxidation of diabetic rabbits were reverted back to near control levels following administration of T. africana extract. The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that aqueous root extract of T. africana diminishes the rate of haemoglobin glycosylation in diabetic animals and shows some levels of antioxidant principle. Key words: Haemoglobin, glycosylation, diabetes, extract, glycemic control. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/33C7DB840386 en Copyright © 2009 G. C. Ojieh, O. M. Oluba, G. O. Erifeta and G. O. Eidangbe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:469EC8340387 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2009
Effect of aqueous root extract of Treculia africana on haemoglobin glycosylation and plasma lipid per oxidation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rabbits G. C. Ojieh, O. M. Oluba, G. O. Erifeta and G. O. Eidangbe Full Length Research Paper Measurement of glycosylated hemoglobin has been proposed to be a very sensitive index for glycemic control as various proteins, including hemoglobin, albumin, collagen, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), or crystalline proteins has been reported to undergo non-enzymatic glycation in diabetes. In the present study an attempt was made to elucidate the effect of aqueous root extract ofTreculia africana on levels of haemoglobin glycosylation and plasma lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin (STZ),-induced diabetic rabbits. Twenty (20) STZ-induced diabetic male rats divided into two groups (n = 10) designated: Control and Test were treated respectively with 20 ml/kg distilled water and 200 mg/kg aqueous root extract of Treculia africana for five weeks. Plasma total haemoglobin, glycosylated haemoglobin and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), concentration were determined at pre- and post-treatment. Administration ofTreculia africana root extract at 200 mg/kg to STZ-diabetic rabbits was observed to significantly decreased concentration of blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and increased blood total haemoglobin. The elevated plasma levels of lipid peroxidation of diabetic rabbits were reverted back to near control levels following administration of T. africana extract. The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that aqueous root extract of T. africana diminishes the rate of haemoglobin glycosylation in diabetic animals and shows some levels of antioxidant principle. Key words: Haemoglobin, glycosylation, diabetes, extract, glycemic control. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/469EC8340387 en Copyright © 2009 G. C. Ojieh, O. M. Oluba, G. O. Erifeta and G. O. Eidangbe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:B13D42F40386 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2009
An optimized procedure for the purification of Zo peroxidase (ZoPrx), a low abundance peroxidase from Japanese radish roots Paloma Gil-Rodriacute;guez and Brenda Valderrama Full Length Research Paper Purification of low abundance enzymes for biochemical characterization is frequently labor and cost-intensive. The existence of co-expressing multigene families increases the complexity of the procedure even further as it occurs with plant peroxidases where only the most abundant species have been studied. In this paper we present an optimized purification method for Zo peroxidase, a low abundance isoenzyme with unusual tolerance to hydrogen peroxide. This protocol is straightforward, allowing the purification of the enzyme at milligram levels in 10 days. Furthermore, the protocol may be easily adapted for the direct purification of other non abundant peroxidase isoenzymes from plant tissues. Key words: Peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide, desactivation, Japanese radish. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/B13D42F40386 en Copyright © 2009 Paloma Gil-Rodriacute;guez and Brenda Valderrama
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:5B98C7940389 2009-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2009
Food analytical evaluation of fruits and vegetables-based diets in relation to human carbohydrates Ali Aberoumand and S. S. Deokule Full Length Research Paper Carbohydrates are the major nutrients of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition. Sucrose is one of the important parameters for the assessment of the commercial quality of the fruit, since consumers prefer the sweetest fruits. Results showed that fructose, glucose, sucrose contents were high in Cordia myxa (9.38, 12.75 and 29.09%) respectively and the starch content was high in Alocacia indica(60.41%). Alocacia has high calorie and nutritional value because it contains high carbohydrates contents (72.66%) and Cordia was the sweetest fruits because it contains the maximum amounts of sucrose, glucose and fructose. The TDF content was low in Portulaca oleracia (dried) (8 g %) and was high in Cordia myxa(27.7 g %). It is observed that vegetables of Portulaca, Asparagus, Momordica andEulophia can be recommended in plant -based diets in Iran and India. Key words: Fiber, carbohydrates, nutritional values, edible plants. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/5B98C7940389 en Copyright © 2009 Ali Aberoumand and S. S. Deokule
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:FEE69FD306 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2010
Allelopathy as expressed by Mucuna pruriens and the possibility for weed management O. Nwaichi Eucharia and O. Edward Ayalogu Full Length Research Paper A twelve-week study was undergone to identify selective effects of Mucuna on companion crop plant and to screen Mucuna for capacity to suppress weeds. A 10% (v/w) contamination with Nigerian Bonny light crude oil was simulated for stress tolerance assessment. Mucuna pruriens supported revegetation, soil and water conservation and also contains potentially toxic BTEX and PAHs that are not phytotoxic to itself but suppressed the growth of Sphenostylis stenocarpa and inhibited the growth of weeds. The detrimental influence on crop plant could be linked to the interactions between soil microorganisms and plants at the rhizophere and this conferred competitive advantage on Mucuna. Physiological and environmental stress induced by hydrocarbon contamination, affected the growth performance of Mucunaand decreased the amount of these toxic compounds released. Comparable amount of toxic hydrocarbons were found in Mucuna grown in uncontaminated treatments confirming its natural composition. Growth indices measured as plant height, leaf area and dry weight, confirmed allelopathic suppression on crops. Allelopathic chemicals persisted in some neighbouring plants as those planted in succession. Although produced allelochemicals acted as herbicides, it may also have undesirable effects on non-target species thus the need for prior ecological studies. Key words: Allelopathy, contamination, germination, growth, interplant, Mucuna, toxicity, weed. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/FEE69FD306 en Copyright © 2010 O. Nwaichi Eucharia and O. Edward Ayalogu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:72774CB309 2010-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2010
Changes of some phenolic compounds and enzyme activities on infected pearl millet caused by Sclerospora graminicola Kumar Arun, P. C. Mali and V. K. Manga Full Length Research Paper Purification of low abundance enzymes for biochemical characterization is frequently labor and cost-intensive. The existence of co-expressing multigene families increases the complexity of the procedure even further as it occurs with plant peroxidases where only the most abundant species have been studied. In this paper we present an optimized purification method for Zo peroxidase, a low abundance isoenzyme with unusual tolerance to hydrogen peroxide. This protocol is straightforward, allowing the purification of the enzyme at milligram levels in 10 days. Furthermore, the protocol may be easily adapted for the direct purification of other non abundant peroxidase isoenzymes from plant tissues. Key words: Peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide, desactivation, Japanese radish. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/72774CB309 en Copyright © 2010 Kumar Arun, P. C. Mali and V. K. Manga
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:3F6AE37314 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2010
Study of inter-specific relationship in six species of Sesbania Scop. (Leguminosae) through RAPD and ISSR markers Manoj Kumar Bisoyi, Laxmikanta Acharya, Arup Kumar Mukherjee, and Chandra Panda Pratap Full Length Research Paper Six species of Sesbania were fingerprinted using RAPD and ISSR markers. Both the markers yielded a total of 249 bands out of which 243 were polymorphic in nature indicating high degrees of genetic diversity in the genus. Cluster analysis using the combined data revealed segregation of the lone species Sesbania grandiflora from the rest of the species. High boot strap values in the dendrograms show the accuracy and authenticity of the result. All other five species got separated to a distinct cluster. This supports the taxonomic division of the genus Sesbania into Agati Desv. comprising the only species S. grandiflora (Linn.) Poir. and sub-genus Eusesbania Baker containing all other species. Key words: Sesbania, RAPD, ISSR, phenogram. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/3F6AE37314 en Copyright © 2010 Manoj Kumar Bisoyi, Laxmikanta Acharya, Arup Kumar Mukherjee, and Chandra Panda Pratap
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:AB1283A319 2010-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2010
Validation of generic status of different taxa in the sub-tribe Cassiinae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinoidae) using RAPD, ISSR and AFLP markers Acharya Laxmikanta, and Chandra Panda Pratap Full Length Research Paper Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to verify the segregation of the genus Cassia L. (sens. lat.) into three distinct genera namely, Chamaecrista Moench.,Senna P. Mill. and Cassia L. (sens.str.). Eighteen representatives of the three taxa were characterized using the molecular markers. 25 RAPD, six ISSR primers and six AFLP primer combinations resulted in the amplification of 612, 115 and 622 bands (loci), respectively. Most of the loci are found to be polymorphic, showing high degrees of genetic diversity among the different taxa studied. The dendrogram constructed on the basis of the RAPD, ISSR and AFLP data using the SHAN clustering, divided Cassia L. (sens. lat.) into three different clusters as Chamaecrista Moench., Senna P. Mill. and Cassia L. (sens.str.). High bootstrap value revealed that all the clusters were stable and robust. It was observed from the present investigation that these genera have their identity at molecular level, which supports the elevation of the genus Cassia L. sens. lat. to the level of sub tribe Cassiinae and segregationinto three distinct genera instead of intra-generic categories. In the present study taking the molecular markers into account the trifurcation of the sub tribe Cassiinae could be re-established. Key words: Cassia, molecular phylogeny, RAPD, ISSR, AFLP. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/AB1283A319 en Copyright © 2010 Acharya Laxmikanta, and Chandra Panda Pratap
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:84F343E323 2010-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2010
Molecular phylogeny of Prorocentrum (Dinoflagellata) from the Pacific Coast of Mexico based on the parsimony analysis of fragments of LSUrDNA and SSUrDNA Ereacute;ndira J. Cohen-Fernaacute;ndez, Francisco F. Pedroche, Moacute;nica Rodriacute;guez Palacios,Sergio Aacute;lvarez Hernaacute;ndez and Esther Meave del Castillo Full Length Research Paper A phylogenetic analysis of the Prorocentrum species is presented, that includes the sequences of the large and small ribosomal RNA subunits from 19 cultures from 13 of the 20 species reported in the Pacific coast of Mexico; the results showed that P. micans,P. gracile and P. mexicanum were the closest of species, that planktonic may be more recent than epibenthonic species and it is suggested that the probable ancestor of theProrocentrum genus could be a round cell without apical spine, toxic and epibenthonic. Key words: Prorocentrum, parsimony analysis, dinoflagellates, LSUrDNA, SSUrDNA Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/84F343E323 en Copyright © 2010 Ereacute;ndira J. Cohen-Fernaacute;ndez, Francisco F. Pedroche, Moacute;nica Rodriacute;guez Palacios,Sergio Aacute;lvarez Hernaacute;ndez and Esther Meave del Castillo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:FE8D3EE325 2010-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2010
Protein and polyphenol profile changes in soybean roots under aluminum stress Dechassa Duressa, Khairy Soliman and Ernst Cebert Full Length Research Paper It is well documented that aluminum (Al) toxicity is the most important constraint of crop production on acid soils. Chelation of Al in the rhizosphere with root secreted organic acid anions is a common mechanism of Al tolerance in most plants including soybean. Phenolic substances are recently implicated as additional physiological mechanism of plant Al tolerance. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of phenolics in soybean Al tolerance and to examine protein expression changes in soybean roots under Al stress. An Al-tolerant soybean genotype PI 416937 and Al-sensitive Young were used in the study. Protein and polyphenol profile changes in response to Al stress, were examined in roots tips of hydroponically grown plants 72 h post treatment. Al significantly increased total phenol exudation from roots of the Al tolerant genotype PI 416937, whereas, flavonoid content did not vary with treatment. Al also altered the expression level of several proteins in genotypic and non genotypic specific manner. This is the first study to show that polyphenol is involved in soybean Al tolerance. Future research should consider quantification of individual flavonoid compounds in root tissue as well as culture solution, and sequencing and functional annotation of Al regulated proteins. Key words: Soybean, aluminum tolerance, protein expression, phenolics. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/FE8D3EE325 en Copyright © 2010 Dechassa Duressa, Khairy Soliman and Ernst Cebert
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:3018C979858 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2010
Red blood cell membrane stabilizing potentials of extracts of Lantana camara and its fractions O. O. Oyedapo, B. A. Akinpelu, K. F. Akinwunmi, M. O. Adeyinka and F. O. Sipeolu Full Length Research Paper Anti-inflammatory activity of extract of Lantana camara, Linn and its fractions was investigated using stabilization of red blood cell membrane lysing technique. Phytochemically, whole plant extract (WPE) and ethanol fraction (EF) gave positive reactions for the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) gave reactions for the presence of flavonoids while butane fraction (BF) gave positive test for the presence of saponins. The percentage membrane stability exhibited by the extract and various fractions was concentration dependent and compared favourably with those of standard drugs (Ibuprofen and Indomethacin). The results revealed that both ethanol and ethyl acetate fractions contained principles that protected the erythrocyte membranes effectively. Moreover, ethyl acetate fraction provided highest protection against induced lyses and exhibited both monophasic and biphasic responses at all the concentrations assayed. The possible mechanism of action of the extract and fractions is described and discussed. Key words: Membrane, stabilization, anti-inflammatory, Lantana camara. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/3018C979858 en Copyright © 2010 O. O. Oyedapo, B. A. Akinpelu, K. F. Akinwunmi, M. O. Adeyinka and F. O. Sipeolu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:E69C8049865 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2010
Effect of leaf area on dry matter production in aerated mung bean seed Ahmad Khan and Shad Khan Khalil Full Length Research Paper An area of plant science that is still unexplored is how leaf area affects crop dry matter production due to aeration of seed in osmoticum. In view of this, an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farm of NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan in the summer of 2003 and repeated in 2004. The seeds of two mung bean cultivars (NM-92 and NM-98) were primed, some for 6 h and others for 12 h in using either distilled water (0MPa osmotic potential) or Polyethylene glycol-8000 (PEG) solution having -0.2, -0.5 and -1.2 MPa osmotic potential. A control treatment (dried seeds) was also included in the experiment. The primed seed were dried back, till the weight become constant and were store for sowing at 25deg;C. Data was collected on mung bean leaf area, dry matter production and growth parameters at different growth stages. Seed moisture content at maturity stage was also determined. There was no significant difference in leaf area for the different cultivars and seed treatment duration also did not lead to a significant difference in leaf area. However, seed priming techniques significantly affected the measured parameters. Dried seed had developed lower leaf area and dry matter compared to primed seeds. An exponential linear model of leaf area and total dry matter revealed that dry matter production was linearly related to leaf area (r2 = 77.23). The linear relationship between the leaf area and dry matter hold true our hypothesis and thus we concluded that beside environmental and genetical factors, the dry matter production is a function of leaf area in aerated seed of mung bean crop in semi-arid areas like North western Pakistan. Key words: Mung bean, priming, growth, dry matter and leaf area. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/E69C8049865 en Copyright © 2010 Ahmad Khan and Shad Khan Khalil
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:98490B79928 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Interaction of lycorine with UV-B and kinetin in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Cotyledons Karishma Jain, Sunita Kataria and K. N. Guruprasad Full Length Research Paper Interaction of lycorine, a strong inhibitor of ascorbic acid biosynthesis with kinetin and UV-B radiation has been studied in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons. Lycorine inhibited hypocotyl growth of seedlings as well as kinetin induced expansion growth of cotyledons in darkness. Exposure to UV-B radiation has similar inhibitory effect on growth. Inhibition of growth by lycorine was accompanied by inhibition of ascorbic acid biosynthesis but UV-B radiation promoted ascorbic acid synthesis while inhibiting growth. The inhibitory effect of lycorine on ascorbic acid synthesis could be completely recovered by kinetin. The role of ascorbic acid as a growth promoter and as an antioxidant is discussed in the light of lycorine effect. Key words: Ascorbic acid, growth, kinetin, lycorine, Ultraviolet ndash;B radiation. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/98490B79928 en Copyright © 2011 Karishma Jain, Sunita Kataria and K. N. Guruprasad
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:218B96B9946 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Adathoda vasica leaf extract induces resistance in rice against bacterial leaf blight disease (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) Govindappa M., Umesha S and S. Lokesh Full Length Research Paper Three plants extracts were used for the management of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in vitro. The efficacy of the plant extracts was tested by antibacterial activity and was used as seed treatment to know the enhancement of seed germination and seedling vigour. Beside promising results given, plant extracts were tried under greenhouse studies to test the efficacy in controlling bacterial blight disease incidence. To get the molecular level of evidence and the estimated defense enzymes in plant extracts, plants were treated, after challenge inoculation, with a target pathogen at different intervals. Adathoda vasica leaf extract significantly reduced the bacterial leaf blight pathogen, X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) in vitro. Seed treatment was found to be effective in reducing the incidence of the disease under greenhouse condition. Physiological observation of A. vasica treated plants indicated that restriction of pathogen colonization or disease development in plant tissue was correlated with the pronounced increase of peroxidase, PAL, b-1, 3-glucanase, polyphenol oxidase and phenol activity after challenge inoculation with the target pathogen. This investigation clearly demonstrated that the A. vasica leaf extract has the ability to induce the activation of defense enzymes accumulation which can be associated with induction of resistance against rice bacterial leaf blight. Key words: Adathoda vasica, bacterial leaf blight, defense enzymes, induced systemic resistance, rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/218B96B9946 en Copyright © 2011 Govindappa M., Umesha S and S. Lokesh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:383EDBE10013 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Effect of drought at the post-anthesis stage on remobilization of carbon reserves in two wheat cultivars differing in senescence properties Saeed Saeedipour Full Length Research Paper This study examined the relationship between the senescence induced by water deficits and carbon remobilization during grain filling. Two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.), Marvdasht and Zagros (sensitive and tolerant to terminal season drought, respectively) grown at a day: night temperature of 22:15deg;C from anthesis were held as well watered controls (Field capacity), or subject to water deficit (50% FC) imposed either from anthesis to 14 days later (WS1) or from 14 days after anthesis to maturity (WS2). Relative water content, photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll content, soluble proteins of flag leaves, level of soluble sugars, in the peduncle (enclosed by the flag leaf sheath) and the penultimate internodes and grain yield were assessed. Results showed that water deficits enhanced the senescence by accelerating loss of leaf chlorophyll and soluble proteins and the loss was more under WS2 than WS1. The net CO2 assimilation rate (PN) in flag leaves during water deficit display a strict correlation with the drought sensitivity of the genotypes and showed an early reduction in Marvdasht. Water stress, both at WS1 and WS2, facilitated the reduction in concentration of total soluble sugars in the internodes, promoted the re-allocation of pre-stored carbohydrate from the peduncle and penultimate to grains. WS2 resulted in more deleterious effect on grain yield than WS1 in both cultivars and led to a smaller kernels and lesser aerial biomass at maturity. The loss was more in Marvdasht than Zagros. Our results suggest that the senescence and remobilization promoted by water deficits during grain filling are coupled processes in wheat, and mass of soluble sugars in the stems is premier than sugar remobilization efficiency. Varietal differences in the extent of such trait existed. It would be advantageous to select genotypes with greater capacity to do this under water deficit conditions. Key words: Chlorophyll, flag leaves, grain filling, grain yield, soluble sugar, internodes, photosynthesis, soluble proteins, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/383EDBE10013 en Copyright © 2011 Saeed Saeedipour
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:174DF8A10025 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
The proximate and mineral compositions of five major rice varieties in Abakaliki, South-Eastern Nigeria Oko A. O. and Ugwu S. I. Short Communication The proximate compositions were estimated using compositional analysis of Association of Official Analytical Chemists, while the mineral element contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Analysis of variance shows that there is significant difference (plt;0.05) in the proximate compositions of the rice varieties studied (Sipigt;Faro14gt;Awilogt;Faro15gt;Canada). No significant difference (pgt;0.05) exists in sodium, phosphorous, calcium and magnesium contents of the rice varieties studied. There is significant difference (plt;0.05) in nitrogen (Canada gt; (Awilo, Faro15)gt;Sipigt;Faro14) and potassium (Canadagt;Sipigt;Awilogt;Faro15gt;Faro14). Canada and Faro 14 varieties should get more attentions among other varieties in terms of proximate and mineral compositions. The result of this study can be exploited by rice consumers and also rice farmers in Abakaliki and its environs in their choices regarding mineral and proximate compositions. Key words: Rice varieties, proximate composition, mineral elements, Abakaliki. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/174DF8A10025 en Copyright © 2011 Oko A. O. and Ugwu S. I.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:04BF06E10153 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Analysis of brain cell activation by nanosized particles of Ginkgo biloba extract Shimada Shinji, Tanaka Yasukazu, Waki Hatsue, Kon Kazuo, Iwamoto Machikoand Maruyama Naoki Full Length Research Paper It is quite difficult to treat Alzheimer#39;s dementia, where one of the problems is inadequate absorption of drugs. Revolution in manufacturing drugs is expected by the development of nanotechnology. Animal test was conducted to see whether the Ginkgo biloba extract processed with nanotechnology changed the function of cerebral cortical synapses and hippocampal nerve action. Rats underwent euthanasia 1 month after nanosized G. bilobaextract administered. Synthesis and release activity of acetylcholine was measured, also the population spike and excitatory postsynaptic potential measured using hippocampal slice. Additionally, measurement with quantum resonance spectrometer was performed for human blood, artery and cardiac muscle. The rats with nanosized G. biloba extract administered showed a trend of acetylcholine release from cerebral cortical synapses more promoted than the control rats. Also, these rats showed greater amplitude of population spike at hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell layer than the control rats. Remarkable effect on human blood, artery and cardiac muscle was also indicated with quantum resonance spectrometer. Test result showed that the nanosized particles of G. biloba extract resulted in easier absorption. However, acetylcholine synthesis is not explained completely, and this is to be one of the research themes in nano-medicine to be solved. Key words: Ginkgo biloba extract, brain cell activation, nanotechnology, synapse, acetylcholine, hippocampus. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/04BF06E10153 en Copyright © 2011 Shimada Shinji, Tanaka Yasukazu, Waki Hatsue, Kon Kazuo, Iwamoto Machikoand Maruyama Naoki
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:79F59E910186 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Effect of irrigation with wastewater and foliar fertilizer application on some forage characteristics of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) Amir Ahmadi Aghtape, Ahmad Ghanbari, Alireza Sirousmehr, Baratali Siahsar, Mohamadreza Asgharipour and Abolfazl Tavssoli Full Length Research Paper In order to study effects of treated wastewater, with complete fertilizer sprayed on some forage quantitative and qualitative characteristics of foxtail millet (Setaria italica), A split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design (R.C.B design) with three replicates was carried out at the Agriculture Institute of Zabol University in south east Iran during 2009 growing season. Treatments included three levels of irrigation namely, irrigation with tap water at all stages of grows (control), irrigation with wastewater and tap water alternately, irrigation with wastewater for all growing stages, as the main plot and sprayed with three levels of complete fertilizer (NATBA-LIB): non-spraying (control), Sprayed with 600 g of complete fertilizer in each hectare, sprayed with 1200 g of complete fertilizer in each hectare, as were the subplots. According to the results, the irrigation with wastewater and complete fertilizer sprayed had a significant effect on yield and forage quality characteristics. Among the irrigation treatments, irrigation with wastewater for all growing stages cause increase of grain yield and forage quality characteristics such as soluble carbohydrate, crude protein, ash, dry matter digestibility and significant decrease in cell wall, cell wall without hemi cellulose and lignin percentage. Also the highest grain yield and dry matter digestibility were obtained from 1200 g of fertilizer sprayed in comparison with sprayed with 600 g of complete fertilizer and control treatments. Therefore, in order to achieve the desired quantitative and qualitative characteristics of forage millet, using the treated wastewater and complete fertilizer has recommended. Key words: Irrigation, nitrogen, micronutrients, yields. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/79F59E910186 en Copyright © 2011 Amir Ahmadi Aghtape, Ahmad Ghanbari, Alireza Sirousmehr, Baratali Siahsar, Mohamadreza Asgharipour and Abolfazl Tavssoli
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:1ACB2D610196 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
The effects of spermidine and putrescine polyamines on growth of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. cv ‘Rabbab’) in salinity circumstance Elias Amri, Mohammad Mirzaei, Majid Moradi and Kavoos Zare Full Length Research Paper Different foliar treatments of spermidine and putrescine polyamines were applied to investigate the responses of the commercial genotype of pomegranate, P. Rabbab, to salinity. Pomegranate cuttings were rooted and planted in the plastic bag that contained sand and perlite medium in a ratio of 1:1 and irrigated with complete Hoaglandrsquo;s solution immediately. Four salinity levels of irrigation water (0, 40, 80 and 120 mM NaCl) were used. At about 72 h after salinity treatments, foliar treatments of spermidine and putrescine (0, 1 and 2 mM) were used, while growth characteristics (that is, the length of the main stem, the length and number of internodes and the leaf surface) were measured during the experiment. At harvest, concentrations of Na, K and Cl in root, apical and basal leaves of two genotypes were separately determined 120 days after treatments. In Rabbab genotype, the increasing salinity proportional to NaCl concentration reduced the length of stem, the length and number of the internode and the leaf surface. There was an increase in the growth rate of salinity levels with an application of polyamines; although a decline in the growth rate occurred at salinity levels higher than 70 mM. With the increasing salinity level, the tissue concentration of Na and Cl increased, while the K/Na ratio decreased. No significant differences were observed among the two genotypes in Na, Cl and K concentrations of roots, apical and basal leaves. This result showed that the use of different degrees of exogenous polyamine can reduce the effects of stress on growth of pomegranate. Key words: Pomegranate, polyamines, putrescine, salinity, spermidine. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/1ACB2D610196 en Copyright © 2011 Elias Amri, Mohammad Mirzaei, Majid Moradi and Kavoos Zare
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:CC50BA810221 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Effect of nickel toxicity on the alteration of phosphate pool and the suppressing activity of phosphorolytic enzymes in germinating seeds and growing seedlings of rice R. Maheshwari and R. S. Dubey Full Length Research Paper To determine the effects of nickel on the phosphate pool and the activity of phosphorolytic enzymes in rice germinating seeds and growing seedlings, rice cvs. Malviya-36 and Pant-12 were germinated for 120 h, submitted to 200 and 400 mu;M NiSO4 and the level of phosphate pool and the activities of key phosphorolytic enzymes acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and inorganic pyrophosphatase were observed in germinating seeds and growing seedlings. The result showed that in germinating rice seeds, 400 mu;M NiSO4treatment caused a decline in phosphate pool at 24 h of germination but during the later period of 72 to 120 h, an increase in phosphate level was observed in both endosperms and embryoaxes, while in seedlings raised for 10 to 20 days, a decline in total phosphate pool was noticed. With a nickel treatment level of 400 M in situ, about 19 to 38% decline in acid phosphatase activity was observed in endosperms and embryoaxes at 96 h of germination and 23 to 52% decline in activity in roots and shoots in 15 day grown seedlings. Similarly the seeds germinating in presence of 400 M Ni2+ showed about 17 to 41% decline in alkaline phosphatase activity in endosperms and about 51 to 59% in embryoaxes at 72 h of germination while about 21 to 60% inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity was noticed in roots and shoots of 15 day grown seedlings under 400 M Ni2+ treatment. The activity of inorganic pyrophosphatase was also inhibited substantially in germinating rice seeds and growing rice seedlings in presence of 200 M or 400 M Ni2+. The results suggested that alteration in the level of phosphate pool and inhibition in the activities of phosphorolytic enzymes might contribute to reduced metabolic activities, delayed germination of rice seeds and decreased vigour of seedlings in Ni2+ polluted environment. Key words: Germination, nickel, phosphate, phosphatase, rice, seedling. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/CC50BA810221 en Copyright © 2011 R. Maheshwari and R. S. Dubey
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:87710E110229 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
The contribution of remobilization of storage materials in wheat yield as affected by potassium iodide (KI) Saeed Farhangi and Masoud Ghodsi Full Length Research Paper This investigation was conducted to study the accumulation and remobilization of storage materials (carbohydrate) and their contribution to wheat yield by using a split plot design in agricultural and natural resources research station of Torogh, Mashhad in the 2006 to 2007 growing season. The experiment included two levels of water status: 1-normal conditions (full irrigation) and 2- terminal water stress as main plot, 8 new wheat genotypes as sub plots, and 2 photosynthesis treatments: 1) using of current photosynthesis and 2) inhibition of current photosynthesis by applying a 0.4% solution of KI after spike appearance in sub-sub plots. Results showed that under terminal water stress condition, the percentage of storage material remobilization increased compared with the normal condition. Genotypes 9212, 9116 gave the highest biological (total dry matter yield) and grain yield and amount of reserve use was moderate, while genotypes C-81 - 10, 9103 had the highest percentage of storage remobilization. Key words: Wheat genotype, water stress, remobilization, solution, potassium iodide (KI) Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/87710E110229 en Copyright © 2011 Saeed Farhangi and Masoud Ghodsi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:55A6C7C10237 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Production of ethanol from cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) W. Braide and R. N. Nwaoguikpe Full Length Research Paper Cocoyam is an edible root crop belonging to the family Araceae. It makes significant contribution both as root crop and vegetable in the diet of mainly Africans people and Nigerians inparticularly. The high percentage of starch was exploited in the production of ethanol. Two hundred grams (200 g) of mashed Colocasia esculenta, gelatinized in a pressure cooker was allowed to undergo two stage enzyme hydrolysis using bacterial alpha-amylase (Amylitic-TS) and fungal alpha-amylase (AMG) to produce fermentable sugar (wort). The hydrolysed liquor was inoculated with viable yeast cells,Saccharomyces uvarum, and yielded 12.9% ethanol after 7 days of fermentation. The pH and brix level (total soluble solids) of the fermenting broth dropped significantly from 4.50 to 3.82 and 15.0 to 2.0 respectively. This suggested that the saccharification process was effective. The reduced pH provided an enabling environment for optimum activity of the yeast. The sugar level decreased appreciably as the ethanol content increased from 0 to 12.9%. The decrease in the specific gravity from 1.0000 to 0.9830 could be attributed to the decrease in the brix level as the sugar in the broth was converted to ethanol. Key words: Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta), ethanol production, enzyme hydrolysis,Saccharomyces uvarum. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/55A6C7C10237 en Copyright © 2011 W. Braide and R. N. Nwaoguikpe
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:BF9CCD910257 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Comparative lipid peroxidation, leaf membrane thermostability, and antioxidant system in four sugarcane genotypes differing in salt tolerance R. Gomathi and P. Rakkiyapan Full Length Research Paper Role of plant antioxidant systems in salt stress tolerance was studied in four contrasting sugarcane genotypes. Salt stress imposed at various stages of crop growth resulted in an increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in membrane stability, chlorophyll fluorescence ratio (fv/fm) and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. The activity of antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroixdase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase) increased significantly under salt stress. The genotypes C 92038 and Co 85004, which had the highest ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, catalase and SOD activity, had the lowest lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde content) and highest membrane stability, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents under salt stress, while the susceptible genotypes Si 94050 and Co 85036 exhibited lowest antioxidant enzyme activity, membrane stability, contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid with highest lipid peroxidation. The higher salt tolerance of varieties C 92038 and Co 85004 were related to higher membrane stability, significant higher chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, and maintenance of high fv/fm ratio under salt stress and lower lipid peroxidation of membranes. Hence, the relative tolerance of a genotype to salt stress as reflected by its lower lipid peroxidation, and higher membrane stability and pigment concentration, is related to the levels of activity of its antioxidant enzymes. Key words: Ascorbate peroxidase, carotenoid, chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation, glutathione reductase, membrane stability index, chlorophyll fluorescence ratio, sugarcane, salt stress. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/BF9CCD910257 en Copyright © 2011 R. Gomathi and P. Rakkiyapan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:B403B1110272 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Paraquat toxicity and its mode of action in some commonly consumed vegetables in Abeokuta, Nigeria Akinloye O. A., Adamson I., Ademuyiwa O. and Arowolo T. A. Full Length Research Paper Paraquat (PQ) is a toxic chemical that is widely used as herbicide in developing countries. This has led to extensive contamination of the environment, foods and food products. Therefore, this study investigated possible occurrence of PQ residues in some commonly consumed vegetables and the mode by which some of them were able to withstand oxidative stress condition associated with PQ toxicity. Levels of PQ residues and constituent antioxidant enzymes activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Paraquat residue concentrations in all vegetables were in the range of 0.04 to 0.27 ppm. A significant (plt;0.05) increase in the activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were observed in PQ-treated Amaranthus caudatus, Celocia argentea and Chorchorus olitorius as compared to the control groups during the first week of growth. Vegetables treated with 0.50 mM PQ showed initial signs of wilting without necrotic lesions. A progressive increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content of PQ-treated vegetables compared to the control was observed. The chlorophyll content of the treated vegetables decreased with increased PQ concentrations. These results did not only revealed that these vegetables showed differential sensitivity to PQ, but also suggested that elevated antioxidant enzyme activities, especially during early stage of growth, is one of the likely mechanistic basis for the observed tolerance withholding capacity of these vegetables to PQ. Key words: Paraquat, mode of action, leafy vegetables, antioxidant enzymes. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/B403B1110272 en Copyright © 2011 Akinloye O. A., Adamson I., Ademuyiwa O. and Arowolo T. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:0832E6710302 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Identification of genes involved in rice seed germination at low temperatures Demoacute;crito Amorim Chiesa Freitas, SilmarTeichert Peske, Francisco Amaral Villela, Paulo Dejalma Zimmer, Paulo Ricardo Reis Fagundes, Fernanda Plucani do Amaral, Elaine Gonccedil;alves Rech and Geri Eduardo Meneghello Full Length Research Paper Rice is a model for many genomic studies among crop species. The adaptation to different crop environments is partly the result of traditional breeding combined with molecular assisted selection. Comparative studies between contrasting genotypes can be performed efficiently by the cDNA-AFLP technique, allowing the identification of genes involved in the expression of the target trait. The objective of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes in cultivars contrasting for the character germination at low temperatures. The genotypes used were BRS-Firmeza (Tolerant) and SCSBRS Tio-Taka (Sensitive). Seeds of the two cultivars were sown at 13 and 25deg;C, respectively. Total RNA was extracted from embryos and cDNAs were synthesized. The cDNAs were analyzed by AFLP (Amplified Fragments Length Polymorphisms) to identify differentially expressed sequences between BRS-Firmeza and SCSBRS Tio-Taka varieties. Four polymorphic fragments were present at 13deg;C IN BRS-Firmeza molecular profile and absent in SCSBRS Tio-Taka. It is concluded that the technique of AFLP on cDNA as template is efficient to produce and identify fragments of differentially expressed genes in rice during germination under low temperatures. Key words: Oryza sativa, seeds, cDNA-AFLP (cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism). Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/0832E6710302 en Copyright © 2011 Demoacute;crito Amorim Chiesa Freitas, SilmarTeichert Peske, Francisco Amaral Villela, Paulo Dejalma Zimmer, Paulo Ricardo Reis Fagundes, Fernanda Plucani do Amaral, Elaine Gonccedil;alves Rech and Geri Eduardo Meneghello
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:B31A33010313 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Analysis of viscosity of jamun fruit juice, squash and jam at different compositions to ensure the suitability of processing applications Muhammad Shahnawaz and Saghir Ahmed Shiekh Full Length Research Paper Rheological behavior of jamun fruit (Eugenia jambolana) juice, squash and jam at different compositions was studied at the Institute of Food Sciences and Technology, Singh Agriculture University, Tandojam in 2007. LFRA Texture Analyzer of Brookfield Engineering was used to determine the flow properties and consistency of the products. Two indigenous cultivars of jamun (indigenous-V1 and Improved-V2) were exploited for processing application. The suitability of viscosity was based on the compositions of TSS, total sugars, acidity and pH of the products. Results revealed that squash and ready-to-drink juice of jamun had showed significant rheological behavior, however, jam has rather poor quality attributes and was more sticky. Thus, the study specifies the shear-rate and shears-stress values of jamun and their rheological behavior. This study would be a ready reference and helpful communication particularly to those desires for commercial processing of jamun products with customary feature. Key words: Jamun cultivars, processing of jam, squash, juice, viscosity analysis. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/B31A33010313 en Copyright © 2011 Muhammad Shahnawaz and Saghir Ahmed Shiekh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:A8184AA10330 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Investigations on the nutritional and medicinal potentials of Ceiba pentandra leaf: A common vegetable in Nigeria Emmanuel Titus Friday, Omale James, Olupinyo Olusegun and Adah Gabriel Full Length Research Paper Ceiba pentandra is huge, wide, normally found in wild forest of West Africa. The present study investigated the nutritional and bioactive components of the leaf of the popularly consumed vegetable in some part of Nigeria and other West Africa countries. The proximate analysis and bioactive constituents were determined by standard methods of AOAC, while vitamins A, E, micro/macro elements and fatty acids were determined using AAS and HPLC respectively. The results showed that the leaf contained 4.891 plusmn; 0.35% moisture, 12.97 plusmn; 1.60% protein, 52.06 plusmn; 2.10% carbohydrate, 4.35 plusmn; 0.60% fat, 7.54 plusmn; 0.46% ash, 18.15 plusmn; 0.05% crude fiber, 0.73 plusmn; 0.07 g/g vitamin A, 4.91 plusmn; 0.16 mg/g vitamin C and 0.18 plusmn; 0.02 mg/g vitamin E while micro/macro elements and fatty acids showed that the leaf contained 0.33 plusmn; 0.05, 7.66 plusmn; 1.40, 2.46 plusmn; 0.46, 11.40 plusmn; 2.10, 5.53 plusmn; 0.95, 0.02 plusmn; 0.04, 0.03 plusmn; 0.01 and 0.04 plusmn; 0.02 mg/100 g of Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Cu and Zn respectively. 15.92 plusmn; 0.17% palmitic acid and 0.72 plusmn; 0.02% linolelic acid. The bioactive compound found were 173.94 plusmn; 3.09 mg/g phenolics, 4.54 plusmn; 0.02 mg/g alkaloids, 26.06 plusmn; 0.16 mg/g flavonoids, 0.48 plusmn; 0.03 mg/g tannins, 1.55 plusmn; 0.04 mg/g saponnins, 0.15 plusmn; 0.02 mg/g phytate, 14.54 plusmn; 0.50 TUI units/mg trypsin inhitors, 9.65 plusmn; 1.28 HUI unit/mg hemagglutinin inhibitors. All these results indicate that the leaves of this C. pentandra contained nutrients and mineral elements that may be useful in nutrition, while the bioactive compounds explained the medicinal action of the plant leaves encountered in its therapeutic uses and or which provide scientific basis for its use in folk medicine. Key words: Ceiba pentandra, nutritional, medicinal potentials and proximate. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/A8184AA10330 en Copyright © 2011 Emmanuel Titus Friday, Omale James, Olupinyo Olusegun and Adah Gabriel
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:18ACE2A10338 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Effect of moisture content and maturity on hardseededness and germination in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) El Balla M. M. A., Saidahmed A. I. and Makkawi M. Full Length Research Paper Hardheadedness is induced in the wild and the majority of seeds of the cultivated okra. Seed moisture content was highly significantly affected by cultivar and seed maturity. Seed moisture content within each cultivar significantly decreased with the increase in seed maturity. Averaged over seed maturity, Higairat had the highest moisture content percentage. On the other hand, Afreeta had the lowest moisture content percentage. Effect of interaction between cultivar and seed maturity on seed moisture content was not significant. Germination percentage and hard seed percentage were significantly affected by cultivar and seed maturity in both seasons. Averaged over cultivars, percentage germination increased significantly as harvest time was delayed. There was a significant interaction between seed maturity and cultivar on germination percentage. Cultivar and seed maturity had a highly significant effect on hard seed percentage of okra. Percentage of hard seed increased significantly as harvest time was delayed. The results also showed a significant interaction between cultivar and seed maturity on hard seed percentage. The correlation between seed moisture content, seed germination and hard seed percentage was highly significant. Moisture content was correlated positively to germination percentage (0.98) and negatively to hard seed percentage (-0.97), while germination percentage was negatively correlated to hard seed percentage (-0.99). To analyze further, the relationship between seed moisture, germination percentage and hard seed percentage linear regression parameter and coefficient of determination were calculated. Linearity test showed that the relationship between moisture content and germination percentage and hard seed percentage was linear. Key words: Okra cultivars, seed moisture content, maturity, hardseededness, germination. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/18ACE2A10338 en Copyright © 2011 El Balla M. M. A., Saidahmed A. I. and Makkawi M.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:6B4C41810366 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Comparative study of the major components of the indigo dye obtained from Strobilanthes flaccidifolius Nees. and Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Warjeet S. Laitonjam and Sujata D. Wangkheirakpam Full Length Research Paper Investigation on the chemical constituents including the chemical structure of major components in the water extracts from Strobilanthes flaccidifolius Nees. and Indigofera tinctoria Linn. was done. It was found that the indigo from fresh leaves of S. flaccidifolius Nees.fermented for three days gave the highest amount of indigo. The thin layer chromatography of the crude extract revealed four pigments; the major pigments were of red and blue having Rfvalues of 0.88 and 0.76, respectively. The Rf value, the maximum absorption from UV-Visible spectroscopy and infra red spectrum of blue pigment were the same as those of the standard indigo. Both blue and red pigments are highly soluble in chloroform whereas only red pigment is soluble in methanol. Key words: Comparative study, Strobilanthes flaccidifolius Nees., Indgofera tinctoria Linn., indigo. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/6B4C41810366 en Copyright © 2011 Warjeet S. Laitonjam and Sujata D. Wangkheirakpam
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:27444BF10388 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Purification and some properties of b-amylase from the nodes of sugar cane, Saccharium offinacium Oyefuga O. H., Adeyanju M. M., Adebawo. O. O. and Agboola F. K. Full Length Research Paper b-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2, a-1,4ndash;D-glucan maltohydrolase) was isolated and purified from the nodes of sugar cane by using ammonium sulphate precipitation, acid-treatment, gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose. Purity was ascertained by the presence of a single band of protein on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions. The specific activity was 4.68 unit.mg-1 of protein and recovery of 15.67%.The Km value of the enzyme for starch as substrate was 3.20% while its Vmax was 1.11units.min-1.ml-1. The apparent molecular weight was estimated by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-200 column to be 156,000 Da. The subunit molecular weight was found to be 154,000 Da by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This suggests that the enzyme exists in a monomeric form. The optimum pH for the activity of the enzyme was pH 5.5, while its optimum temperature was 60deg;C. The hydrolysate of the action of the enzyme showed maltose as the main product of hydrolysis on thin layer chromatography. Key words: Sugar cane (Saccharium offinacium), b-amylase, nodes. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/27444BF10388 en Copyright © 2011 Oyefuga O. H., Adeyanju M. M., Adebawo. O. O. and Agboola F. K.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:0CE205410401 2011-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Palm oil and rice bran oil: Current status and future prospects Kusum R., Bommayya H., Fayaz Pasha P. and Ramachandran H. D. Review The continued demand for edible oils by the ever increasing population makes it pertinent to explore new sources. In this direction, two new edible oils namely palm oil and rice bran oil have been subjected to nutritional and toxicological evaluations of their chemicals constituents. An attempt has been made in this article to assess the acceptability of the two oils based on the various investigations that have been carried out so far. Key words: Palm oil, rice bran oil, anti-oxidants, cholesterol fatty acids, phospholipids, tocopherols, oryzanol, cardiovascular diseases. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/0CE205410401 en Copyright © 2011 Kusum R., Bommayya H., Fayaz Pasha P. and Ramachandran H. D.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:0133FB210416 2011-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Heavy metal phytoremediation by Commelina benghalensis (L) and Cynodon dactylon (L) growing in Urban stream sediments K. Sekabira, H. Oryemndash;Origa, G. Mutumba, E. Kakudidi and T. A. Basamba Full Length Research Paper Urbanisation and industrialization lead to heavy metal pollution in the Nakivubo drainage ecosystem. The objectives of this study were to determine heavy metal concentrations and distribution in Commelina benghalensis (L.) and Cynodon dactylon (L.) that grows in different polluted sites along the urban stream sediments of the Nakivubo drainage ecosystem in Kampala, Uganda. To investigate the possibility of using these plant species in phytoextraction and phytostabilisation of heavy metal pollutants, assessment of heavy metals was done using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor values (BAF and TF gt; 1) for both plant species were greater than one for Cu at some sites suggesting efficient accumulation in the shoot. BAF gt; 1 and TF lt; 1 values for Pb, Cd and Zn suggest accumulation in roots and qualify these plants also as good candidates for phytostabilisation. In conclusion, the heavy metal sequestration from urban stream sediments by plant parts that are harvestable are characterized and recommended as good candidates for phytoremediation (phytoextraction and phytostabilisation) and can be used as indicators of heavy metal pollution for the urban stream ecosystem. Key words: Bioaccumulation, heavy metals, phytostabilisation, translocation, wastewater. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/0133FB210416 en Copyright © 2011 K. Sekabira, H. Oryemndash;Origa, G. Mutumba, E. Kakudidi and T. A. Basamba
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:AAA0B0310448 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Response of green alga Ulothrix zonata to nitrogen and humic substances Asha Udayamali Meegolle Lokuhewage Full Length Research Paper Nitrogen and phosphorous are essential elements to aquatic biota. Different types of humic substances (HS), such as humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) have impact on the freshwater nutrients. The aim of the study was to examine how the presence of humic substances may affect nutrient availability to the growth of Ulothrix zonata (Weber and Mohr) Kutz. Samples were incubated on different nutrient treatments: nutrient sufficient (+NP), nitrogen deficient without HA or FA (-N) and with HA or FA (-NH/-NF) and phosphorous deficient without HA or FA (N) and with HA or FA (NH/NF). The results demonstrated that addition of HA or FA increased the production of Chlorophyll a and cell density as compared with the cultures exposed to nutrients only at the same concentration. U. zonata represented the highest growth efficiency (cell density 14.5 x107 cells/ml, determined by counting number of cells per milliliter in suspension of filamentous green alga)under N deficient with HA or FA treatment. During the experiment, whereas the N deficient treatments had the lowest cell numbers (2.2 to 2.5 x 107 cells /ml). It is suggested that HA and FA could be of great importance in the growth of green alga U. zonata. Key words: Fulvic acid, green alga, growth efficiency, humic acid. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/AAA0B0310448 en Copyright © 2011 Asha Udayamali Meegolle Lokuhewage
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:DA304DB10456 2011-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Response of pearl millet (Pennistetum glaucum) cultivars to post-flowering drought stress Yalew Addisie and Gebre-Egziabher Yemane Full Length Research Paper Two pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) cultivars (Dadda and Shella) were evaluated at post-flowering stage for drought tolerance based on morpho-physiological criteria. The experiment was laid down in a randomized complete block design which comprised of a combination of two factors (cultivars and three water stress regimes; (well watered (36%), moderately stressed (21%) and severely stressed (9%)). Data on morpho-physiological variables such as total green leaf area, relative water content, potential quantum yield, root/ shoot ratio and yield per panicle revealed significant (P le; 0.05) differences between the cultivars at severely water stress treatment. Dadda showed the maximum relative water content (RWC) (45.70plusmn;1.13%) than Shella with the RWC of (32.00plusmn;1.06%) under SS. Under SS moisture level Dadda showed the maximum potential quantum yield of 0.77 molm-2s-1 than Shella, 0.69 molm-2s-1. Dadda showed better drought stress tolerance than Shella in terns of relative water content, potential quantum yield, yield per panicle and root/ shoot ratio under sever water stress. The analysis of growth revealed the importance of total green leaf area, relative water content, potential quantum yield, yield per panicle and root/ shoot ratio as markers for drought tolerance during post-flowering stage in Pearl millet cultivars. Key words: Cultivars, morpho-physiological criteria, pearl millet, post-flowering. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/DA304DB10456 en Copyright © 2011 Yalew Addisie and Gebre-Egziabher Yemane
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:543840D10468 2011-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Effects of NaCl on Na+, Cl- and K+ ions accumulation in two sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) cultivars differing in their salt tolerance Christophe Bernard Gandonou,, Fidegrave;le Bada, Simplice Leacute;opold Gnancadja, Jamal Abrini and Nadia Skali-Senhaji Full Length Research Paper The effects of salt on growth and ions accumulation were investigated in two sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) cultivars, CP66-346 (salt-tolerant) and CP65-357 (salt-sensitive). Young plants of these cultivars were exposed to four NaCl concentrations (0, 17, 34 and 68 mM). Na+, Cl- and K+ions concentrations were quantified after 2 weeks of stress. NaCl effect resulted in plant growth reduction in both cultivars but cv. CP66-346 plants were less affected compared to CP65-357 indicating that CP66-346 was more salt-tolerant than CP65-357. Na+ and Cl- concentrations increased significantly in leaves and roots under salinity while K+ concentration significantly decreased in both cultivars. The highest accumulation of Na+ and Cl- occurred in young leaves of the salt tolerant cv. CP66-346 coupled with the lowest reduction in K+ concentration. These results suggest that the salt tolerance of cv. CP66-346 is closely related to a high accumulation of Na+and Cl-. . K+ ions also may play a key role in sugarcane salt tolerance. Key words: Ions concentrations, sugarcane, Saccharum sp., salt-tolerance. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/543840D10468 en Copyright © 2011 Christophe Bernard Gandonou,, Fidegrave;le Bada, Simplice Leacute;opold Gnancadja, Jamal Abrini and Nadia Skali-Senhaji
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:9146D2A10475 2011-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Biochemical response of two Atriplex species (Atriplex halimus L. and Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.) under salt stress conditions Ouiza DJERROUDI, Samia BISSATI and Moulay BELKHODJA Full Length Research Paper Soil salinization is an environmental problem that many world regions must fight; it is one of the major plants abiotic stress factors. In fact, in addition to mineral imbalance and toxicity of certain ions, salinity causes, in consequence of osmotic pressure increase, water absorption decrease which leads to stress. In the current study, the behavior and response of two Atriplex species, A. halimus L. and A. canescens, (Pursh) Nutt. under effect of high salt concentrations (400 and 600 meq of NaCl + CaCl2) and seawater at 25, 50 and 100% dilutions, were studied, using proline as metabolic marker in relation to resistance to salinity. Three-month-old Atriplex plants were subject to the various salinity levels. The amount of proline was determined from different plant organs after three weeks stress period. The results revealed a metabolic variability characterized by proline accumulation as function of the species, plant organ, and the concentration and nature of salt treatment. In general, the accumulation of proline within the plant occurs in proportion to the medium salt concentration. Indeed, on one hand, the recorded proline contents show that this accumulation is very important in Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt, compared with Atriplex halimus. On the other hand, these contents are high in leaves of both species in presence of high NaCl + CaCl2 and seawater concentrations. Key words: Atriplex, salt stress, proline, tolerance, halophyte. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/9146D2A10475 en Copyright © 2011 Ouiza DJERROUDI, Samia BISSATI and Moulay BELKHODJA
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:9AA984C10488 2011-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Effects of aqueous root extract of Treculia africana on blood glucose, lipid profile and body weight changes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic and normal rats Omage Kingsley, Onoagbe, O. Iyere, Erifeta O. Georgina, Uhunmwangho S. Esosa, Ajeigbe O. Kazeem and Amegor O. Frank Full Length Research Paper In this study, the effects of aqueous root extract of Treculia africana on blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and body weights of both STZ-induced diabetic and normal rats were investigated. Oral administration of aqueous root extract of Treculia africanaat a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight per day, for a period of 14 days, caused a significant (p lt; 0.05) reduction in the blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol of both diabetic and normal rats. This dose also caused a significant (p lt; 0.05) increase in the HDL-cholesterol concentrations and body weights of both diabetic and normal rats. These effects portend the effectiveness of the plant in the management of diabetic conditions and hyperlipidemic states. Key words: Streptozotocin (STZ), medicinal herbs, Treculia africana, lipid profile, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/9AA984C10488 en Copyright © 2011 Omage Kingsley, Onoagbe, O. Iyere, Erifeta O. Georgina, Uhunmwangho S. Esosa, Ajeigbe O. Kazeem and Amegor O. Frank
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:5290C5A10507 2011-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Fatty acids and phytochemical contents of different coconut seed flesh in Nigeria Odenigbo, U. M. and Otisi, C. A. O. Full Length Research Paper Some positive health benefits have currently been attributed to coconut intake. An attempt has been made to determine the fatty acids and phytochemical contents of coconut seed flesh collected from the different parts of Nigeria. The fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography while phytochemical content was detected using the polar and non polar solvents. The findings revealed that samples from eastern Nigeria had highest fatty acids (caprylic: 8.60plusmn;0.00%; lauric: 41.30plusmn;0.14%; palmitic: 13.00plusmn;0.14%, and stearic: 3.6plusmn;0.07%) contents. The fats and oil constituent of coconut was more of lauric acid (37.40-41.30%), a medium chain fatty acid considered to be responsible for the many health benefits attributed to coconut consumption.Both solvents used in determination of phytochemicals revealed the presence of alkaloid, resins, glycosides, terpenoids and tannins in all the Nigerian coconut samples. However, saponin was found present in coconut when polar solvent was used while flavonoids, steroids and acidic compounds were absent with the use of both polar and non polar solvents. The detected phytochemical and beneficial fatty acids revealed that Nigerian coconut seed flesh should be regarded as one of the functional foods in our diets. Thus, the use of coconut seed flesh in our diets should be encouraged for health supporting functions. Key words: Coconut, fatty acids, phytochemicals, functional foods. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/5290C5A10507 en Copyright © 2011 Odenigbo, U. M. and Otisi, C. A. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:81E120210514 2011-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
The effect of 28-Homobrassinolid in reducing the effects of drought in savory herbs Mahdi Eskandari Full Length Research Paper Drought stress is the most significant factor that reduces crop yield and is used as a drug. Using materials such as a plant growth regulator (Brassinosteroids) is a practical solution to reduce losses. Brassinosteroids steroidal plant compounds are broad biological activities that are able to increase plant performance through changes in plant metabolism and in protecting them against environmental stress. In a greenhouse study that was carried out in Vocational City Center Arsanjan, the impact of three levels of irrigation: field capacity (FC), mild stress (FC2/3) and severe stress (FC1/3) and four concentrations of plant growth regulators: Article 28-Homobrassinolid zero, M 10-10, 10-8 M and 10-6 M digits on some savory characters of Satureja bachtiarica was investigated. The results showed that reducing irrigation to reduce the significant effect it has on growth parameters, including length and root dry weight, stem diameter, branch number, plant height, shoot yield and total yield, was essential. More so, the concentration of 10-8 M 28-Homobrassinolid that was significantly used to increase root dry weight, stem diameter, branch number, plant height, total yield and performance was also essential. Percentage oil increased significantly at 1% by reducing irrigation so that 36% oil in full irrigation increased to 87% in severe stress, and 10-8 M was recorded for the use of hormone. Essential oil yield at 5% level under the influence of irrigation and the use of hormones were the most essential functions related to irrigation and the use of 10-8 M 28-Homobrassinolid and value 32/29 kg/ha, respectively. The relationship of these hormone levels in full irrigation, mild and severe stress significantly increased by 59, 30 and 24% oil yield respectively than the control plants did. Key words: Drought stress, Brassinosteroids, essential oil percentage, shoot yield. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/81E120210514 en Copyright © 2011 Mahdi Eskandari
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:C3846E810523 2011-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Expression of novel ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in response to heat stress Kumar, R. R., Goswami, S., Kumar, N., Pandey, S. K., Pandey, V. C., Sharma, S. K., Pathak, H. and Rai, R. D. Full Length Research Paper Active oxygen species are produced by some of the important organelles like chloroplast and mitochondria through their electron transport chain even under normal environmental condition but the rate of active oxygen species (AOS) production increases many times in response to different abiotic stresses. Plants has antioxidant enzymes system like ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase, SOD, GR etc. which helps in reducing the AOS produced inside the plant system in order to protect the key enzymes from AOS. In present investigation, expressions of many new proteins were observed in thermo tolerant (8 in case of C306) and susceptible cultivars (2 in case of PBW343) at different stages in response to heat stress. Isoenzymic profile of APX in response to differential heat shock revealed the expression of 8 APX isoenzymes in C306 (thermo tolerant) compare to 2 in PBW343 (susceptible) cultivars of wheat. A stage specific study revealed the expression of 5 APX isoenzymes at vegetative, pollination, milky dough and seed hardening stages (C306) whereas, 3 APX isoenzymes were observed during milky dough and seed hardening stages in PBW343. It is clear now that high expression of endogenous APX isoenzymes supplements the antioxidant enzyme systems of the plant and protects the plant from oxidative damage in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Key words: Heat shock proteins (HSPs), antioxidant isoenzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), active oxygen species, abiotic stress, wheat. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/C3846E810523 en Copyright © 2011 Kumar, R. R., Goswami, S., Kumar, N., Pandey, S. K., Pandey, V. C., Sharma, S. K., Pathak, H. and Rai, R. D.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:FEAAB6A10540 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Biochemical changes in chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporium f. sp ciceri RATHOD P. J. and Vakharia D. N. Full Length Research Paper Study was conducted to see the changes in ascorbic acid, free amino acids, proline and totalphenol content at different stages of infection of wilt disease in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) roots tissues. The results indicated that total phenol content was significantly higher in root of all the cultivars obtained from sick plot. The level of phenol declined from pre infection (S1) to postinfection stage (S2) and further it increased in all the cultivars among six cultivars tested, JG-62 and GG-1 had lower concentration of total phenol than others. Free amino acid content remarkably decreased with rise in the intensity of wilt disease. Susceptible cultivars had greater reductions in free amino acid content as compared to tolerant cultivars (GG-1 and GG-2) that is (50-52%). Root tissues of different cultivars grown in sick plot possess significantly more amount of free amino acids than the tissues obtained from normal plots at different stages of growth. Ascorbic acids content was significantly higher in chickpea root tissues obtained from normal plot. Susceptible cultivars GG-4 and JG-62 had higher content of ascorbic acid either it was grown in sick soil or normal soil as compared with other cultivars. With the progress of disease from pre infection (S1) to post infection stage (S2), a greater reduction was recorded in root tissues received from sick plot (47%) as compared to normal plot (38%). Interaction effect of TxS showed that the percentage reduction in ascorbic acid content was same from pre infection stage to post infection stage (36%) in root tissues from both sick and normal plot. Key words: Chickpea, wilt, proline, phenol, free amino acid, ascorbic acid. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/FEAAB6A10540 en Copyright © 2011 RATHOD P. J. and Vakharia D. N.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:FDE6C0B10549 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Growth, photosynthetic efficiency, yield and swelling factor in Plantago indica under semi-arid condition of Gujarat, India Manish Das Full Length Research Paper An experiment was carried out with Black Isabgol (Plantago indica L) an annual herb cultivated recently as a medicinal plant at Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research (DMAPR) in India, aiming on the effect at different stages of growth under the influence of different sowing dates and spacings on growth, seed yield and seed swelling factor as a part of good agricultural practices (GAP). No detail morpho-physiological work has been carried out in this species including yield. Results revealed that growth and yield were significantly influenced by sowing dates and spacings. The best time for sowing of P. indica was found to be between 15 to 30th November and the suitable spacing was either 50 or 60 times; 15 cm. Swelling factor was not influenced by these factors, however, a positive trend was observed towards suitable date of sowing and spacing. The finding was a step forward towards determining good agricultural practices (GAP) of P. indica, probably an alternative of P. ovata in future. Key words: Plantago indica, Sowing date, spacing, growth, yield, swelling factor. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/FDE6C0B10549 en Copyright © 2011 Manish Das
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:CDC402C10568 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Mineral nitrogen affects nodulation and amino acid xylem transport in the Amazonian legume Inga edulis Mart Rebeca Patricia Omena-Garcia, Gilberto Costa Justino, Ladaslav Sodek and Joseacute; Francisco de Carvalho Gonccedil;alves Full Length Research Paper The characteristics of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in tropical forest tree species have received little attention but it is well established that mineral N negatively affects symbioses in crop legumes such as soybean and common bean. Nevertheless, ecophysiological mineral nitrogen dynamics in terms of nitrogen xylem transport of native Amazonian legume has been not documented so far.The objective of this study was to evaluate nodulation and amino acid xylem transport of Inga edulis, a tropical Amazonian perennial legume, in response to mineral N. Plant growth, nodule number, nodule dry weight and xylem sap amino acid contents were determined in nodulated I. edulis in response to nutrition with ammonium, nitrate or no mineral N (total dependence on N2fixation). In addition, free individual amino acids were quantified in the different plant tissues and in the xylem. Plant growth (total dry weight) responded significantly to both nitrate and ammonium, especially the latter. Nitrate negatively affected nodulation and total amino acid transport to the shoot while ammonium increased nodule dry weight, but not total amino acid contents of the xylem which diminished. On the other hand, mineral-N showed only discrete changes in the amino acid composition of the xylem where asparagine was the predominant form. Our results suggest that I. edulis responds to ammonium nutrition through greater plant and nodule growth compared to the other N sources, consistent with ammonium being the principal source of mineral N in the acid soils of the natural habitat of this species. Key words: Tropical tree species, nitrogen fixation, glutamine, symbiosis. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/CDC402C10568 en Copyright © 2011 Rebeca Patricia Omena-Garcia, Gilberto Costa Justino, Ladaslav Sodek and Joseacute; Francisco de Carvalho Gonccedil;alves
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:C4B92DA10581 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Physiological responses of Chenopodium quinoa to salt stress A. Jason Morales, , Prabin Bajgain, Zackary Garver, Peter J. Maughan, Joshua A. Udall Full Length Research Paper Physiological responses to salt stress were measured in Chenopodium quinoa, a regionally important halophytic staple crop of Andean South America. In a greenhouse experiment, salt (NaCl) was applied to quinoa varieties, Chipaya and KU-2, and to the model halophyte Thellungiella halophila to assess their relative responses to salt stress. Height and weight data from a seven-week time course demonstrated that both C. quinoa cultivars exhibited greater tolerance to salt stress than the model plant T. halophila in these specific conditions. In a separate growth chamber experiment, two quinoa cultivars (chipaya and ollague) adapted to saline soils and one quinoa cultivar (CICA-17) adapted to a lower elevation were grown hydroponically and evaluated for physiological responses to four salt stress treatments. Tissues collected from the growth chamber experiments were used to obtain leaf water content, tissue ion concentrations, compatible solute concentrations, and RNA for real-time PCR. High levels of trigonelline, a known osmoprotectant, were found to accumulate in the high salt treatment suggesting a key role in salt tolerance of quinoa. The expression profiles of genes involved in salt stress, showed constitutive expression in leaf tissue and up-regulation in root tissue in response to salt stress. These data suggest that quinoa tolerates salt through a combination of salt exclusion and accumulation mechanisms. Key words: Salt stress, quinoa, Thellungiella halophila, trigonelline, osmoprotectant. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/C4B92DA10581 en Copyright © 2011 A. Jason Morales, , Prabin Bajgain, Zackary Garver, Peter J. Maughan, Joshua A. Udall
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:B77546B10589 2011-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Impact of diatomite nutrition on two Trifolium alexandrinum cultivars differing in salinity tolerance Mona M. Abdalla Full Length Research Paper Salt toxicity is one of the major problems in modern agriculture. Plants can employ silicon as a protective agent against stresses and the mechanisms of this process remain unknown. Two Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) cultivars differing in salinity tolerance were used (Helaly, salt sensitive and Sarw1, salt tolerant). They were grown in pots filled with normal and saline soil (2000 and 3000 ppm) in the absence or presence of diatomites (0, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 g/kg soil). Results indicated that diatomite significantly offset the negative impacts of salinity and increased tolerance of sensitive cultivar of clover (Helaly) to salinity stress. Salinity decreased markedly all measured growth parameters (plant height and fresh and dry weight of fodder/pot), photosynthetic rate , the percentage of relative water content (%RWC), percentage of membrane stability index (%MSI), total photosynthetic pigment, and the contents of each of magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), and calcium (C) while it increased the levels of both amino acids, proline and sodium (Na) in both T. alexandrinum cultivars, however the effect was more profound on the sensitive line. Addition of diatomite at an upgraded rates solely or combined with both concentrations of NaCl significantly increased the above measured growth parameters, photosynthesis, %RWC, %MSI, total pigment and the accumulation of each of Mg, K, P and Ca. Moreover, it synergistically increased the content of total amino acids while, on the other hand, reduced the contents of proline and Na. Notably, the impact of diatomite in mitigating the deteriorative effect of salinity was clearly manifested more in sensitive lines of clover than in tolerant ones and under the higher dose of salinity (3000 ppm) as compared to the lower dose (2000 ppm). Moreover, diatomite fertilization either alone or interacting with salinity induced two distinctive protein electrophoratic bands (233 and 25 KD) which were absent in either the control or salinity stressed cultivars. In this respect, diatomite was most effective at 3 g/kg on Helaly and 4.5 g/kg on Sarw1 imposed to the higher dose of salinity (3000 ppm). Diatomite application either alone or combined with salinity induced several distinguished amplified DNA fragments in both clover cultivars using PCR- RAPD analysis , although the number of induced polymorphic DNA fragments were more in Helaly than in Sarw1. These results indicate that diatomite recovered and improved the morphologic, metabolic and biochemical status of both cultivars under salinity stress and especially the sensitive line (Helaly). Key words: Diatomite, growth, proline, aminoacids, membrane stability index, relative water content, minerals, protein electrophorasis and RAPD-(DNA). Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/B77546B10589 en Copyright © 2011 Mona M. Abdalla
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:F198D6910609 2011-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Effects of organic and inorganic fertilizer on the productivity of Amaranthus cruentus in an ultisol environment Law-Ogbomo, K. E., Remison, S. U. and Jombo, E. O. Full Length Research Paper A field study was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farms of the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate the effect of palm oil mill effluent and NPK fertilizer on the performance of Amaranthus cruentus. The trial involved three levels of palm oil mill effluent (0. 5 and 10 t ha-1) and three levels of NPK (0, 150 and 300 kg ha-1) using a factorial arrangement fitted into randomized complete block design and replicated three times. Results revealed that the effluent and NPK fertilizer had positive effects on dry matter partitions, relative yield, relative agronomic effectiveness and chlorophyll content of A. cruentus. Integration of 5 t POME and 300 kg NPK ha-1 had the optimum total dry matter (9.65 t ha-1), relative yield (2.08), relative agronomic effectiveness (1.91) and total chlorophyll content (58.80 mg g-1). Key words: Amaranthus cruentus, chlorophyll content, dry matter, relative agronomic, effectiveness. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/F198D6910609 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB11.028 en Copyright © 2011 Law-Ogbomo, K. E., Remison, S. U. and Jombo, E. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:E12909910613 2011-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2011
Evaluation of salicylic acid (SA) application on growth, osmotic solutes and antioxidant enzyme activities on broad bean seedlings grown under diluted seawater Mohamed Mahgoub Azooz, Ashraf Mohamed Youssef and Parvaiz Ahmad Full Length Research Paper Exogenously applied salicylic acid has been shown to be an essential signal molecule involved in both local defense reactions and induction of systemic resistance response of plants after salt stress. Our study was aimed at evaluating the foliar spray with different levels (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mM) of salicylic acid (SA) on broad bean (Vicia faba L) seedlings grown under diluted seawater on growth and some related physiological responses. Seawater irrigation negatively affected growth parameters, free amino acids and K+, while the contents of soluble sugars and protein, proline, Clֿ, Na+, ion leakage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly increased. Foliar spray with SA improved all growth parameters and increases the activities of antioxidant enzymes. On the other hand, plants treated with SA had lower Clֿ and Na+, while K+had a reverse pattern. Based on our findings, the effectiveness of SA in inducing seawater stress tolerance depends upon the concentration of SA applied. The inducer effect of SA was greater with 1 than 0.5 mM treatment. This effect includes the stimulation of antioxidant enzyme activities and regulation of osmotic adjustment through accumulation of osmotic solutes and regulation of absorption and distribution of inorganic ions. Key words: Antioxidant enzyme activities, inorganic ions, proline. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/E12909910613 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB11.052 en Copyright © 2011 Mohamed Mahgoub Azooz, Ashraf Mohamed Youssef and Parvaiz Ahmad
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:27A94F010769 2012-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Regulation and properties of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase: A review Siddhartha Singh, Asha Anand and Pramod K. Srivastava Review Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway that catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconolactone in presence of NADP+. G6PD is an enzyme of vital importance because of its role in various haemolytic disorders and its potential as a regulator for various biosynthetic pathways. NADPH is the important product of the reaction and is used for the reductive biosynthesis of fatty acids, isoprenoids, aromatic amino acids, etc. NADPH produced also plays important function in the protection of the cell against oxidative agents by transferring its reductive power to glutathione disulphide via glutathione disulphide reductase. The present review deals with the importance, occurrence, structure, physico-chemical properties, genetics, and regulation of G6PD. Key words: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NADPH, pentose phosphate pathway, oxidative stress. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/27A94F010769 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB11.045 en Copyright © 2012 Siddhartha Singh, Asha Anand and Pramod K. Srivastava
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:28CE14810786 2012-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Detrimental impact of triplet oxygen in biosphere Sunakar Panda Short Communication Oxygen is essential for the existence of all forms of life since it is an important constituent of almost all biologically important compounds including DNA and serves as blood purifier. Simultaneously oxygen also induces a number of degradation processes through the generation of reactive oxygen species like superoxide radical anion, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide etc. The reactive oxygen species also cause serious health hazards. In this paper an attempt has been made to discuss various methods of generation of triplet oxygen, its reaction, its detrimental effects, and some protective measures to nullify the catastrophic effect of triplet oxygen. Key words: Oxygen, molecular triplet oxygen, superoxide radical anion, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/28CE14810786 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB11.002 en Copyright © 2012 Sunakar Panda
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:C84573B10800 2012-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Comparative study of different protocols for isolation of RNA from polysaccharides and polyphenolics rich plant tissues Subodh Gupta, A. K. Verma and Laxmi Chand Full Length Research Paper The isolation of high quality ribonucleic acid (RNA) from plant has been a difficult problem due to presence of high amount of polysaccharides, polyplenolics and nucleases that mediate RNA degradation. After comparative analysis of four popular protocols for RNA isolation, a modified method was developed which gave maximum yield with purity. Modified method is not only suitable for the isolation of intact RNA from immature seeds of legumes, containing high amount of starch, polyphenolics and several nucleases but also works successfully with other plant organs like leaves, epicotyls and callus. The yield of total RNA extracted by this method varies from 71 to 417mg/g tissues. Key words: RNA isolation, polysaccharides and polyphenolics rich plant tissues, pegionpea and immature seeds. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/C84573B10800 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB11.033 en Copyright © 2012 Subodh Gupta, A. K. Verma and Laxmi Chand
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:98834FE10803 2012-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Abundant CD4 Th-2 cytokine stimulation by medicinal plant Pongamia pinnata Linn. on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) M. Manikannan, P. Durgadevi, S. Subramaniyan and Elanchezhiyan Manickan Full Length Research Paper Immune cells produce cytokines in response to various stimuli. The initial cytokine milieu at which immune cells interact have a positive impact on the outcome of the immune response generated. Modulations or polarizations of cytokines are known to affect the outcome of the disease. Immunotherapy is a novel approach to combat cytokine mediated diseases and several medicinal plants are shown to possess immune modulatory properties. One of the popular Indian medicinal plants known as Pongamia pinnata has been extensively studied for its bioactive properties.However, its immune modulatory property has not been studied yet. Therefore we broached on this study of the immune stimulation property of P. pinnata on healthy human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC). P. pinnata extracts were prepared using various solvents and they were used to stimulate human PBMC. We noticed that P. pinnata extracts induced abundant IL-10 production. Our experimental results indicated that P. pinnata may be a strong inducer of Th-2 cytokines and could be used to treat Th-1 cytokine mediated pathology. Key words: Immunotherapy, cytokines, Th-1, Th-2, Pongamia pinnata, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), ELISA. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/98834FE10803 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB11.049 en Copyright © 2012 M. Manikannan, P. Durgadevi, S. Subramaniyan and Elanchezhiyan Manickan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:EDF0A5710815 2012-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Efficacy of seawater salinity on osmotic adjustment and solutes allocation in wheat (Triticum aestivum) flag leaf during grain filling Heshmat S. Aldesuquy, Zakaria A. Baka, Omar A. El-Shehaby and Hanan E. Ghanem Full Length Research Paper Two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (salt sensitive cultivar, Gemmieza-9 and salt resistant cultivar, Sids-1) subjected to different seawater salinity (10 and 25%). Osmotic pressure (OP), osmotic adjustment (OA) and solutes accumulation (TSS, TSN, proline, organic acids, glycerol and inorganic ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl-) were quantified in flag leaf during grain-filling (14 and 21 days post-anthesis). Seawater salinity induced significant increase in osmotic pressureand the magnitude of increase was higher in Sids-1 than in Gemmieza-9. Furthermore, seawaterconcentrations caused noticeable increase in osmotic adjustment, organic solutes (TSS, TSN, proline, organic acids and glycerol) and inorganic ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl-). On the other hand, clear reduction in K+/ Na+ ratio in the flag leaves of both cultivars was observed. The capacity of osmotic adjustment was greater in younger leaves than in older ones particularly with higher concentration (25%) in both cultivars. Moreover, the production of both organic and inorganic ions tended to be higher in Sids-1 than in Gemmieza-9. Gemmieza-9 appeared to be more sensitive than Sids-1.Osmotic pressure of flag leaf sap appeared to depend mainly on proline, TSN, TSS, organic acids, glycerol and ions content, where there is a positive correlation between osmotic pressure and all of them. Key words: Wheat, seawater, osmotic adjustment, compatible solutes, glycerol. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/EDF0A5710815 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB11.059 en Copyright © 2012 Heshmat S. Aldesuquy, Zakaria A. Baka, Omar A. El-Shehaby and Hanan E. Ghanem
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:DAFFB9510828 2012-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Genotoxicity and molecular screening of proteins in root tip cells of Trigonella foenum- graecum (Fenugreek var- Azad) under cadmium stress condition Towseef Mohsin Bhat, Sana Choudhary, MYK Ansari, Alka, and Rumana Aslam Full Length Research Paper Plants are unique in their ability to serve as in situ monitors for environmental genotoxins.Trigonella is receiving global attention due to rare medicinal properties of significance. Cadmium is one of the most toxic environmental pollutant affecting absorption and transportation of essential elements, disturb the metabolism, growth and reproduction. Present experiment was designed to investigate the genotoxic damage on root tip cells exposed to cadmium nitrate [Cd(N03)2] solution at six different concentration 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 ppm. We evaluated with biological tests based on micronucleus (MN), Lipid peroxidation (MDA) and protein profiling (PP) assay inTrigonella foenum- graecum (var-azad). The results indicate that there was a direct correlation between increased MN frequency, increased MDA content, and increased in protein bands with the increasing concentrations of Cd and maximum damage was found at 125 ppm concentrations.Trigonella constantly exposed to heavy metals and endogenous processes inflict damage to DNA and cause genotoxic stress, which can reduce plant genome stability, growth and productivity. Key words: Cadmium, genotoxicity, protein profiling, MDA content, Trigonella. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/DAFFB9510828 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB11.051 en Copyright © 2012 Towseef Mohsin Bhat, Sana Choudhary, MYK Ansari, Alka, and Rumana Aslam
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:3CB242110840 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Ecophysiological responses of Melaleuca species to dual stresses of water logging and salinity Nurul Aini, Emmanuel Mapfumo, Zed Rengel and Caixian Tang Full Length Research Paper The combined effects of salinity and water logging on growth and ecophysiological characteristics of three Melaleuca species were investigated in a glasshouse study. Salinity treatments were imposed from day 28 at 0.3, 0.8, 2 and 5 g NaCl kg-1 soil. Shoot Na+ concentration and Na+/K+ratio for M. thyiodes at all salt level and of M. nesophila at 5.0 g NaCl kg-1 were higher under waterlogged as compared with non-waterlogged conditions. The concentration of Cl- was double inM. thyiodes and M. nesophila shoots after 2 weeks of water logging at 5 g NaCl kg-1 soil, but not inM. halmaturorum. Final dry weights of shoots and roots of the three Melaleuca species decreased with increased salinity levels. Shoot dry weight of plants grown at 5.0 g NaCl kg-1 soil decreased to 30, 50 and 11% of those achieved at 0.3 g NaCl kg-1 soil for M. halmaturorum, M. thyoides, and M. nesophila, respectively. The results indicated different salinity resistance within Melaleuca species. Key words: Sodium, potassium, chloride, Na+/K+ ratio, water logging. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/3CB242110840 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB11.032 en Copyright © 2012 Nurul Aini, Emmanuel Mapfumo, Zed Rengel and Caixian Tang
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:8127AA610845 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Acidity of tank bromeliad water in a cloud forest, Cusuco National Park, Honduras Jocque M., and Kolby J. E., Full Length Research Paper Phytotelmata are plant-held water bodies housing complex aquatic invertebrate communities drawing attention for their suitability as breeding sites for disease bearing mosquitoes, and the unique fauna occurring in these habitats. Despite the human and scientific relevance, relatively little information is available on the water characteristics in these habitats and these scarce references consist only of isolated point measurements. To begin filling this knowledge gap, we collected high resolution data series of the acidity and temperature of tank water from bromeliads in the cloud forest of Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Average bromeliad water remained acidic for the duration of this study and fluctuated between 4.3 plusmn; 0.1 and 5.5 plusmn; 0.5. Extreme pH values measured as high as 9.3 and as low as 3.3. Water temperature varied between 14.8 plusmn; 0.2deg;C and 19.2 plusmn; 0.2deg;C. We found strong diel fluctuations in water condition increasing in maximum and minimum values together with an increase in acidity as the water evaporated. The variation in water temperature and pH were both strongly correlated with the size (total weight) of the bromeliad. The presence of highly unstable environments with significant variation between neighboring plants is a potential crucial element driving aquatic animal community structure in these aquatic habitats. Key words: Phytotelmata, bromeliads, maximum, minimum, mosquitoes. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/8127AA610845 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB11.056 en Copyright © 2012 Jocque M., and Kolby J. E.,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:3C02F7A10851 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Cassava cyanocarbohydrate metabolism and proposed prehistoric symbionts Van K. Golay Full Length Research Paper Plant/animal symbiosis produces interacting plant food parts that bear selective pressure to produce specific behaviors that aid the plantrsquo;s reproduction and/or survival. The cassava plant is here proposed to have created such a transactional food part in the cyanogenic carbohydrate tubers that acts through a sirtuin-activating pathway. The effect of exclusive cassava cyanocarbohydrate metabolism at the cellular level is to utilize the methylglyoxal bypass of glycolysis. In doing so, deleterious triose-phosphate generated methylglyoxal is dismutated to metabolites necessary for simultaneous glycolysis (inorganic phosphate and NAD). That steady high rate of NAD supply drives gradual systemic sirtuin-activation on an exclusive cassava root diet as it progresses over 1 to 7 days. Clearing the large intestine of other foods (circa 5 to 7 days) correlated with maximal expression of the Sirt1 gene dependant increased physical activity phenotype in personal testing. A rational for such a mechanism is that proposed which involves prehistoric symbionts that coevolved with the cassava plant up until the megafauna extinctions 10,000 years ago. Key words: Cyanogenic glucosides, methylglyoxal dismutation, cassava, symbionts, sirtuin Sirt1, colon microflora, pectin. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/3C02F7A10851 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB11.066 en Copyright © 2012 Van K. Golay
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:936478B10856 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Protection against heat stress in wheat involves change in cell membrane stability, antioxidant enzymes, osmolyte, H2O2 and transcript of heat shock protein Ranjeet R. Kumar, Suneha Goswami, Sushil K. Sharma, Khushboo Singh,Kritika A. Gadpayle, Narender Kumar, Gyanendra K. Rai, Manorama Singh and Raj D. Rai Full Length Research Paper Terminal heat stress causes an array of physiological, biochemical and morphological changes in plants, which affect plant growth and development. In present investigation, real time quantitative expression analysis of HSP90 gene in root showed a maximum of 2.5 fold increase in the transcript level during seed hardening stage. Similarly, in flag leaf 4.5, 4.3 and 6.5 fold increases in the transcript level were observed during pollination, milky dough and seed hardening stages, respectively. A decrease in the cell membrane stability (from 70 to 65%) was observed with growth and development of wheat. An altered expression of H2O2 was observed with highest expression at milky dough stage (0.9 g/g fresh weight). The highest accumulation of H2O2 was observed in response to heat shock of 42deg;C for 2 h. There was a remarkable decline in proline quantity at different stages of growth with lowest accumulation at seed hardening stage. Under differential heat shock, the highest activity of SOD and CAT were observed in response to heat shock of 40deg;and 35deg;C for 2 h. The results from this study suggest a potential role for antioxidant enzymes in the reduction of elevated levels of H2O2 in wheat plants grown under heat stress condition. Key words: Antioxidant enzymes, wheat, heat stress, cell membrane stability, proline, hydrogen peroxide. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/936478B10856 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB12.008 en Copyright © 2012 Ranjeet R. Kumar, Suneha Goswami, Sushil K. Sharma, Khushboo Singh,Kritika A. Gadpayle, Narender Kumar, Gyanendra K. Rai, Manorama Singh and Raj D. Rai
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:533FE0610861 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Comparison of essential oil composition in wild and cultivated populations of Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak. from Iran M. Pirigharnaei, R. Heydari, S. Zare, J. Khara and R. Emam-Ali sabzi Full Length Research Paper Thymus pubescens Boiss. and Kotschy ex Celak. (Lamiaceae) is a grassy and permanent herb which grows wild in some regions of Iran including West Azarbaijan province. Content, composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oils of both wild populations and cultivated ones were compared in this study. The aerial parts of T. pubescens at the beginning of the flowering stage were collected from provenance (T.pub-w1= Shahindezh mountains amp; T. pub-w2=Salmas mountains), and from a cultivated field of the Agriculture Research Centre (T. pub-F) in West Azarbaijan province in June, 2009. The essential oils were extracted by hydro-distillation in a Clevenger apparatus and yield 0.73 and 0.67% in the wild habitats, and 0.43% in the cultivated one respectively, based on v/w. Analyses of the essential oils by GC/MS allowed to identify 20 and 23 constituents in the wild Thymus populations (T.pub-w1, T. pub-w2) representing 98.78 and 98.96% of the oils, respectively. Main constituents of the essential oils were respectively carvacrol (33.49%) (30.16%), thymol (14.19) (15.16), linalool (15.76%) (13.14%), and geranyl acetate (9.59%) (9.08%). Cultivated plants (T. pub-F) presented 24 constituents, representing 96.35% of the oil, whose major components wereshy; carvacrol (34.37%), thymol (13.48%), borneol (10.17%), linalool (6.4%), 1,3,8-p-menthatriene (8.87%), and pinene (8.48%). Two main chemotypes of essential oils were identified, being carvacrol the main component (30.16 to 34.37%). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of essential oils of the aforesaid plants using DPPH radical scavenging was determined; all of the extracts manifested almost the same pattern of antioxidant activity as the ascorbic acid (Vit C). Key words: Thymus pubescens, essential oil, GC/MS, carvacrol-thymol. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/533FE0610861 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB12.009 en Copyright © 2012 M. Pirigharnaei, R. Heydari, S. Zare, J. Khara and R. Emam-Ali sabzi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:6EAC08010871 2012-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Influence of media and growth regulators on regeneration and morphological characteristics of strawberry cvs Kurdistan and Merck (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) Ali-Akbar Mozafari and Mohammad Gerdakaneh Full Length Research Paper To evaluate the best media and growth regulator combinations for the regeneration and morphological characteristics of strawberry, meristems of Kurdistan and Merck strawberry cultivars were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962), Gamborg et al. (1968) and Nitsch and Nitsch (1969) media supplemented with various growth regulator combinations including B1: (BA 1.0 mg/l + IBA 0.05 mg/l + GA3 0.05 mg/l), B2: (Kinetin 5 mg/l + 2,4-D 0.5 mg/l + GA3 0.05 mg/l) and B3: (BA 2 mg/l + IBA 0.2 mg/l + GA3 0.05 mg/l). The largest number of shoots was obtained on NN medium supplemented with B1 followed by MS and B5 media with the same growth regulator combination. In the media, B2 increased shoot elongation rate in both cultivars, but caused a low frequency of shoot formation. There was significant difference among various media and growth regulator combinations in regards to morphological traits such as leaf length, width of terminal leaflets and number of terminal leaflets teeth, whereas little differences were observed in the length of terminal leaflets and the length of terminal leaflet petiolate. Key words: Strawberry, growth regulator, regeneration, cultivar. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/6EAC08010871 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB11.008 en Copyright © 2012 Ali-Akbar Mozafari and Mohammad Gerdakaneh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:D13467810879 2012-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Phytotoxicity of Parthenium hysterophorus residues towards growth of three native plant species (Acacia catechu willd, Achyranthes aspera L. and Cassia tora L.) in Himachal Pradesh, India Kuldip S. Dogra and Sarvesh K. Sood Full Length Research Paper Parthenium hysterophorus is a strong allelopathic plant which belongs to the family Asteraceae of flowering plants. It is a rapidly spreading invasive plant species in the state of Himachal Pradesh up to 2000 m altitude. The allelochemicals produced by P. hysterophorus showed powerful toxic effects on the growth of other plant species. These allelochemicals are either phytotoxic phenolics or flavonoids. The study indicates that residues of P. hysterophorus species when mixed in soil adversely affect the germination and the subsequent seedling growth of native plants (Acacia catechu, Achyranthes aspera and Cassia tora). These allelochemicals in the soil are released by leaching or decomposition and they directly or indirectly affect plant growth by altering the physico-chemical properties of soil. A gradual decrease was observed in the germination, root and shoot length and in dry weight of seedlings of native plants with the increase in the concentration of amended soil residues (1, 2 and 4%). The maximum decrease in seedling dry weight was recorded in A. aspera (54.75%) followed by A. catechu (42.74%) and C. tora 40.25%) respectively at 4% concentration of plant residues. Key words: Allelochemicals, Parthenium hyterophorus, phenolics. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/D13467810879 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB11.009 en Copyright © 2012 Kuldip S. Dogra and Sarvesh K. Sood
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:F2C114310889 2012-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Influence of the harvest age on fructan content and fructosyltransferase activity in Agave atrovirens karw pine Gonzaacute;lez-Cruz Leopoldo, Jaramillo-Flores Mariacute;a Eugenia, Bernardino-Nicanor Aurea and Mora-Escobedo Rosalva Full Length Research Paper The effect of age on the composition and concentration of non-structural carbohydrate was determined in the ldquo;pinerdquo; or ldquo;headrdquo; of Agave atrovirens Karw. The influence of plant age on the 1-FFT enzymatic activity, the electrophoretic pattern of proteins and the non-structural carbohydrate yield were also determined to establish the optimum age for harvest. The carbohydrate composition of 6 years old pine was 69% sucrose and 4.4% inulin-type fructans. The 1-FFT enzymatic activity was higher at this age, and these results suggested a relationship between the activity of the 1-FFT enzyme and the concentration of fructans. Moreover, the results of the 1-FFT-enzymatic activities that differed among different years after planting of the agave suggest three phases of development in this plant. In addition, the age of the plant corresponded with changes in the conformation of the enzymatic complex, a trimer or dimer were observed at early and late ages, whereas 6 years old pines showed a monomer (MW 70 kDa). This last conformation is responsible for the chain elongation that forms inulin-type fructans with a DPge;30. In conclusion, the age of the plant has an influence on the 1-FFT enzymatic activities and the enzymatic complex conformation, therefore on the concentration of carbohydrates in A. atrovirens. Key words: Carbohydrates, maguey, 1-FFT, inulin, Agave atrovirens. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/F2C114310889 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB12.012 en Copyright © 2012 Gonzaacute;lez-Cruz Leopoldo, Jaramillo-Flores Mariacute;a Eugenia, Bernardino-Nicanor Aurea and Mora-Escobedo Rosalva
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:82155F610902 2012-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Inter correlation between soil properties and growth of Azadirachta indica in various types of plantations of Jodhpur region (Rajasthan, India) Verma Puneet and Kishan Kumar V. S. Full Length Research Paper Physico-chemical properties do not vary rapidly for short distance in arid and semiarid regions in absence of plantation or some manual intervention. In case of barren land, it is difficult to enhance soil health and its productivity until and unless a large quantity of fertilizer and irrigation facilities are employed. Application of high dose of fertilisers and insecticides result in short-term increase in production, but it deteriorates the quality of soil and eventually reduces its productivity. There are hundreds of instances where trees improved the soil productivity. Microbial communities in soil have large impact on overall soil health due to production of secondary metabolites, nutrient recycling and decomposition. Various researches have demonstrated that Azadirachta indicaextract also acts as an antimicrobial agent and affects the structure and function soil microbial community. Therefore, it was critical to examine how its extract from different types of plantations becomes necessary to fully appreciate ramifications of its use on the environment for improving soil fertility. For the study, soil samples were collected from 53 different sites, in and around Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India, where A. indica was growing in different types of plantations. The data was analyzed for different properties of soil for separate types of plantations. Key words: Azadirachta indica, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matters (OM), Kruskal Wallis test, sigmoidal growth modal. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/82155F610902 http://dx.doi.org/0.5897/IJPPB12.014 en Copyright © 2012 Verma Puneet and Kishan Kumar V. S.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:67020BD10981 2012-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Effects of nitrogen and irrigation interval on broomrape (Orbanche aegyptiaca) damage reduction in host plant (Cucumis sativa L.) Mehrnoush Eskandari Torbaghan, Gholam Reza Raoufinezhad and Masoud Eskandari Torbaghan Full Length Research Paper In order to study the effects of nitrogen and irrigation interval on broomrape (Orbanche aegyptiaca) damage reduction in cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.), an experiment with two factors, nitrogen (100, 200 and 300 Kg/ha) and irrigation interval (3, 6 and 9 day), in three replications was performed in the greenhouse of Northern Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center. The results obtained show that the seedling emergence was maximum in the treatment of 200 Kg N/ha. However, plant height and plant number of cucumbers were lower. The number of flowering days was significant under effect of irrigation interval, whereas nitrogen fertilizer did not have a significant influence on this parameter. Hence, increase in irrigation interval caused reduction in the number of flowering days. Maximum length and diameter of cucumber were observed in the highest nitrogen level and minimum irrigation interval or the lowest nitrogen level and medium irrigation interval. The maximum number of cucumbers and weight was obtained in maximum nitrogen and irrigation interval. Increase in irrigation interval caused the number of cucumber to increase and the cucumber weight to decrease. Maximum wet weight of shoot and root were observed in the highest nitrogen treatment. The results also revealed that usage of high and medium nitrogen fertilizer with short time irrigation interval had minimum parasite damage reduction in cucumber yield. Key words: Broomrape, nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation interval, cucumber. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/67020BD10981 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB11.050 en Copyright © 2012 Mehrnoush Eskandari Torbaghan, Gholam Reza Raoufinezhad and Masoud Eskandari Torbaghan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:944512C10992 2012-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Effect of lead and nickel toxicity on chlorophyll and proline content of Urd (Vigna mungo L.) seedlings Gurpreet Singh, Rajneesh K. Agnihotri, Rajendra Sharma Reshma and Mushtaq Ahmad Full Length Research Paper The effect of Pb and Ni on chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids and proline content of Black gram (Vigna mungo L.) seedlings were evaluated under 10, 50 and 100 M concentration. These concentrations significantly affected chlorophyll, carotenoid and proline content of Black gram as compared to control. Pb and Ni at 10 M concentration resulted in less significant effect on chlorophyll, a, b and carotenoids. Carotenoids were less affected compared to Chl a and b, while higher concentrations (50 and 100 M) significantly reduced chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of the seedlings. However, the addition of nitrogen (5 mM) somehow minimized the effect of these heavy metals. Nitrogen increased the chlorophyll content of metal treated plants. The proline content of plants was increased under Pb and Ni treatments (10, 50 and 100 M). In this case, the additional supply of nitrogen in the form of ammonium nitrate decreased proline content of plants treated with Pb and Ni. Key words: Carotenoid, chlorophyll, lead, nickel, proline, Vigna mungo. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/944512C10992 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB12.005 en Copyright © 2012 Gurpreet Singh, Rajneesh K. Agnihotri, Rajendra Sharma Reshma and Mushtaq Ahmad
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:F4B3A5011004 2012-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2012
Induction of a C-repeat binding factor gene by calcium to resist low temperature stress in rice Gopal Chowdhary and Chanakya Nath Kundu Full Length Research Paper Adaptation to stress is an important phenomenon in plants. Cndash;repeat binding factor (CBF), an Apetela 2 domain transcriptional activator, helps the plant in combating cold stress. Here, we cloned and purified a CBF family gene (OsDREB1B) from Oryza sativa. This gene (OsDREB1B) is induced by calcium in absence of cold. The bioinformatics analysis reveals that the induction of OsDREB1B is probably mediated through an EF hand calcium binding protein. This result establishes a link between rise in calcium and CBF induction in cold acclimation. Key words: Cndash;repeat binding factor (CBF), abiotic stress, calcium, CBF regulon. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/F4B3A5011004 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB12.018 en Copyright © 2012 Gopal Chowdhary and Chanakya Nath Kundu
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:5DA916811035 2013-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2013
Cyanamide in plant metabolism A. Amberger Full Length Research Paper The calcium (Ca)-cyanamide is a nitrogen fertilizer with herbicide and fungicide side effects. Hydrogen cyanamide is absorbed as a molecule by roots and shoots of plants. It will be decomposed rapidly by the enzyme cyanamide hydratase to urea followed by urease to ammonium. From cyanamide decomposition mainly glutamate and alanine are built and the basic amino acids such as arginine, lysine and histidine are increased. The most dramatic effect of cyanamide is the strong inhibition of catalase and cytochromoxidase and the blocked thiols of redox systems. Cyanamide applied to dormant buds of fruit trees inhibits catalase activity and increases H2O2-content. Prior to bud break, arginine content decreases and associated with increase of polyamines such as putrescine, spermine, spermidine, histamine and cadaverine. These sharply decrease again at fully blooming stage. Key words: Cyanamide, enzymatic break down, reaction with plant constituents and enzymes, amino acid metabolism, polyamines, dormancy break. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/5DA916811035 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB11.010 en Copyright © 2013 A. Amberger
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:BE2867E11041 2013-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2013
Total lipid content in macrophytes of Wular lake, A Ramsar site in Kashmir Himalaya Naseer Ahmad Dar, Aadil Hamid, Ashok K. Pandit, B. A. Ganai, Sami Ullah Bhat, and Arshid Hussain Full Length Research Paper The purpose of this study was to evaluate total lipid content in 15 fresh water macrophytes belonging to four ecological groups and examining the possible variations between the studied periods. The samples were obtained from nine sites throughout the Wular lake, during March to December 2011, spelling four seasons with determinations of lipid content of the aquatic macrophytes. No gross differences in the lipid content, which in general ranged between 1 to 7.6% fresh weight, was observed in the various macrophytic species, however, with a clear pattern between seasons. Results of the investigation revealed that emergents and submergeds presented greater concentration of total lipids when compared with free floating and rooted floating macrophytes. There was a tendency to higher concentrations of total lipids in the tissues of submerged macrophytes (Ceratophyllum demersum and Potamogeton crispus) in the early autumn season (peak growth period) suggesting that this period presents better conditions to Ceratophyllum demersum and Potamogeton crispus development in the Wular lake. Key words: Aquatic macrophytes, ecological groups, total lipids, Ceratophyllum demersum,Potamogeton crispus, peak growth period. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/BE2867E11041 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB12.020 en Copyright © 2013 Naseer Ahmad Dar, Aadil Hamid, Ashok K. Pandit, B. A. Ganai, Sami Ullah Bhat, and Arshid Hussain
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:227748211057 2013-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2013
Vegetation types and rangeland species nutritional values and forage quality indicators at various phonological stages Reza Dehghani Bidgoli and Abulfazl Ranjbarfordoei Full Length Research Paper Information on different rangeland plantsrsquo; nutritive values at various growth stages is important in rangelands management. This information helps rangeland managers to choose proper grazing times to achieve higher animal performance without detrimental effects on the rangeland vegetations. Effects of various plant partsrsquo; growth stages and vegetation types on reserve carbohydrates and forage quality indicators were investigated during 2009 and 2010. Plant samples were collected from natural rangelands in Iran with completely randomized block (CRB) design. The species included, two grass species (Secale montanum and Festuco ovina), two forbs (Lotus corniculatus and Sanguisorba minor) and two shrubs (Kochia prosterata and Salsolarigida). Aerial plant partsrsquo; samples were oven-dried at 80deg;C for 24 h, then analyzed for soluble carbohydrates, crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), dry matter digestible (DMD) and metabolizable energy (ME). Results showed that plants at the seedling stage had more reserve carbohydrates and from the three vegetation types (grass, forbs, and shrub), forbs contained more soluble carbohydrates as compared to the other two (grasses and shrubs). Differences in soluble carbohydrate contents of different species at various growth stages in 2 years were statistically significant. The forage quality indicators (CP, ADF, DMD and ME) in different species, in various vegetation types, in the 2 years were statistically significant, except for the CP. Key words: Phonological stage, forage quality, protein, fiber. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/227748211057 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2012.027 en Copyright © 2013 Reza Dehghani Bidgoli and Abulfazl Ranjbarfordoei
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:D38771211064 2013-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2013
Changes in some biochemical characteristics in response to foliar applications of chelator and micronutrients in green pungent pepper Manas Denre, P. K. Bandopadhyay, A. Chakravarty, S. Pal and A. Bhattacharya Full Length Research Paper In order to study the changes in some biochemical characteristics in response to foliar applicationsof chelator [humic acid: HA1 (0%) and HA2 (0.05%)] and micronutrients [manganese: Mn1 (0%); Mn2 (0.05%) and molybdenum: Mo1 (0%); Mo2 (0.01%)] in green pungent pepper cv. Bullet (Capsicum annum L.), a pot experiment in factorial randomized block design with three replications was conducted in the net house of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal and India. In this experiment, we analyzed some carbohydrate constituents, non enzymatic antioxidants, enzymatic antioxidants and total antioxidant activity. Obtained results show that the highest values of reducing sugar, total sugar and starch were exhibited by applications of HA2Mn2, HA1Mn2 and HA2Mo2, respectively. The ascorbic acid contents significantly increased in treatments of HA2 and Mn2. The highest value of total phenol content was obtained by application of HA2Mo1, while there was significant increase in the application of HA2, HA2Mn2 and HA2Mo2 in the case of free phenol. The highest value of carotene content was obtained by foliar application of HA2Mn2, whereas in the case of capsaicin content, there was significant increase in all treatments, except Mo application alone. The highest activity of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and catalase (CAT) were exhibited by the treatments HA2Mo2, HA2Mo1 and HA2Mo2, respectively. The total antioxidant activity was expressed as molybdate reducing antioxidant power (MRAP). The MRAP values were increased significantly by the foliar application of HA2. Total phenol, free phenol, capsaicin, polyphenol oxidase and total antioxidant activity had a significant positive association with ascorbic acid. Based on principal component analysis and average values, foliar application of HA2Mn2 and HA2Mo2 had good performers with respect to all variables, which may bring about the proper value addition in quality of green pungent pepper by enhancing the carbohydrate constituents, antioxidant constituents and antioxidant activities. Key words: Capsicum annum L., chelator, micronutrients, carbohydrates, antioxidants, enzymes, molybdate reducing antioxidant power. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/D38771211064 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2013.0188 en Copyright © 2013 Manas Denre, P. K. Bandopadhyay, A. Chakravarty, S. Pal and A. Bhattacharya
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:CAC620611103 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2013
Effects of 28-homobrassinolide on growth, photosynthesis and essential oil content of Satureja khuzestanica Mahdi Eskandari and Ali Eskandari Full Length Research Paper Brassinosteroids are a group of plant hormones that have significant biological effects on plant growth and development. The effects of 28-homobrassinolide (HBR) on growth, photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, carbohydrate fractions and essential oil content of savory herbs (Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad) were investigated. Foliar application of 28-homobrassinolide at 10-10, 10-8and 10-6 M concentrations substantially increased growth. 28-homobrassinolide at 10-6 M concentrations improved herbage yield as reflected in the increase of foliar biomass. Exogenous application of 28-homobrassinolide increased the rate of photosynthesis. Growth promotion was also associated with increased chlorophyll content and resulted in the accumulation of carbohydrate fractions. At 10-6 and 10-8 M concentrations, 28-homobrassinolide also incremented the total content of essential oils. The quantitative analysis of savory oil from the savory plant treated with 10-6 M concentration revealed an increase in carvacrol and para-cymene contents and a decrease in the gamma;-terpinene content. Collectively, the present study demonstrates a positive impact of the new group of phytohormones on the agronomic performance of savory plant, a highly valued aromatic plant. Key words: Satureja khuzestanica, 28-homobrassinolide, growth, photosynthesis, essential oil, carbohydrates, chlorophylls, savory. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/CAC620611103 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB11.064 en Copyright © 2013 Mahdi Eskandari and Ali Eskandari
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:5FF0EF311117 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2013
The potential of Moringa oleifera extract as a biostimulant in enhancing the growth, biochemical and hormonal contents in rocket (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa) plants Mona M. Abdalla Full Length Research Paper Moringa oleifera is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. It has an impressive range of medicinal uses and high nutritional value. Accordingly, rocket (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa) plants were foliar sprayed with the aqueous extracts of leaves and twigs of M. oleifera at rates of 1, 2 and 3%. Among these concentrations, fertilization of rocket plants with 2% leaf and 3% twig extracts potentially increased all measured growth criteria (plant height, fresh and dry herb weight), photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, the amounts of each of chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids, total sugars, total protein, phenols, ascorbic acid, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe as well as growth promoting hormones (auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins). Besides, bio-organic manuring with both kinds of Moringa extracts at all concentrations applied negatively reduced the levels of each of lipid peroxidation and abscisic acid as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase). Thus, it is concluded that M. oleifera leaf and twig extracts can be recommended to be used effectively by farmers as a bio-organic fertilizer for various crops due to its high productivity, high nutritive value, antioxidant effect, easy preparation, low cost and environmentally friendly nature. Key words: Moringa oleifera, growth, gas exchange, antioxidants, metabolites, phytohormones, photosynthetic pigments. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/5FF0EF311117 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2012.026 en Copyright © 2013 Mona M. Abdalla
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:CF7523041977 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2013
Role of gibberellic acid (GA3) in improving salt stress tolerance of two wheat cultivars Shaddad M. A. K., Abd El- Samad H. M. and Mostafa D. Full Length Research Paper Several environmental factors adversely affect plant growth and development and final yield performance of a crop. Drought, salinity, nutrient imbalances and extremes of temperature are among the major environmental constraints to crop productivity worldwide. Gibberellic acid (GA3)treatment has alleviated the drastic effect of salinity in growth parameters (leaf area, dry weight of grains and photosynthetic pigments) and chemical constituents (carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and proline content in two wheat cultivars (Sohag 3 and Giza 168). The effect of GA3 on alleviation of damaging effects of different levels of salinity was studied in view of, wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L. Sohag 3 and Giza 168) were screened for germination and growthresponses to different NaCl concentrations (50, 100, 150 and 200 mM). After four weeks, two groups; each of pots were sprayed with GA3 (100 mg L-1 synthetic plant growth regulators). The result in this report reveals that the wheat cv. Sohag 3 was the most sensitive to salinity, while cv. Giza 168 was the most tolerant. Thus salinity stress had no effect on leaf area, photosynthetic pigment and consequently crop yield at mild salinity (100 mM), while in cv. Sohag 3, there was a marked and progressive reduction in these parameters by increasing the salinity stress even at the lowest salinity (50 mM) level used. Carbohydrate and proline content increased significantly by salinity stress in the different organs of the two wheat cultivars except for Giza 168 stem where carbohydrates were significant declined by salinity stress. Soluble protein content varied not only between the two wheat cultivars but also between the different organs. While salinity stress induced a significant increase in the soluble protein content in root and leaf, on the other hand itdeclined the soluble protein in stem of Giza 168. In cv. Sohag 3, the soluble protein content in root and stem decreased slightly by increasing salinity in the soil, this reduction was obvious only at higher salinization. While in leaves the soluble protein content increased markedly by salinity stress. Proline concentration in root, stem and leaf of both cultivars significantly increased with increasing salinity in soil. The accumulation was greater in the salt sensitive cv. Sohag 3 compared to the salt tolerant cv. Giza 168 especially at higher salinity concentration. GA3treatments (100 ppm) improved the growth criteria, photosynthetic pigments and consequently the crop yield of two wheats cultivars. This was injudged with the observable increase in protein content in the different organs of the two wheat cultivars. Key word: Leaf area, carbohydrate, protein, proline, salinity, wheat cultivars, GA3. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/CF7523041977 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2011.055 en Copyright © 2013 Shaddad M. A. K., Abd El- Samad H. M. and Mostafa D.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:14C8BC311176 2013-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2013
The physiological response of wheat plants to exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA3) or indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) with endogenous ethylene under salt stress conditions Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad Full Length Research Paper Wheat (Triticum vulgaris) plants were grown without NaCl and under salinization levels of NaCl. Salinity decreased the fresh, dry matter, water content, length and leaf area. Phytohormonal treatments with gibberellic acid (GA3) or indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) caused a marked increase in these parameters; GA3 was more effective than IAA. This activation was concomitant with the increase of osmotically active solutes, soluble sugars, soluble protein and amino acids. The accumulation of calcium and magnesium in root of plant treated with GA3 and in shoot of plant treated with IAA may contributed in osmotic defense systems of wheat plants. The data also reveals that ethylene production was increased in salinity treatments. Spraying wheat plants with GA3 increased the ethylene evolution while spraying with IAA decreased this evolution under salt stress conditions. Finally, it can be concluded that the GA3 or IAA regulate the disturbances of metabolities and neglicated the negative effects of the accumlation of ethylene especially in plants treated with IAA under stress conditions which in turn resulted in a pronounced alleviated the drastic effects of salt. Key words: GA3, IAA, ethylene, salinity, wheat. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/14C8BC311176 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB12.016 en Copyright © 2013 Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:4F4798440408 2013-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2013
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in leaves of a common weed Commelina nudiflora L. R. B. Deshmukh and C. V. Murumkar Short Communication Survey of weed flora of Baramati region has revealed that Commelina nudiflora L. is a dominant weed among common weeds in croplands and fallow lands. In order to ascertain the survival potential of C. nudiflora some photosynthetic parameters along with water relations of this plant were investigated. Baramati region is a drought prone hot semi-arid area in Pune, Maharashtra. C. nudiflora, belonging to the family Commelinaceae is a typical succulent plant and this was confirmed further by water relation studies like moisture content, osmotic potential, leaf water content and succulent index. Besides above mesophyll succulence, surface expansion and succulence index values were within the range of a typical crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant. Further studies on diurnal fluctuations in pH status, stomatal behaviour and acidity status also confirmed its CAM mode of photosynthetic behaviour. All these findings led to the conclusion that CAM is in an operation in this weed. Key words: Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), Commelina nudiflora L., weeds. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/4F4798440408 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2013.0192 en Copyright © 2013 R. B. Deshmukh and C. V. Murumkar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:8791AFE40407 2013-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2013
Chemical analysis of leaves of Abrus precatorius Paul E. D., Sangodare R. S. A., Uroko R. I., Agbaji A.S. and Dakare M. A. Short Communication Leaves of Abrus precatorius are sweet and traditionally used to treat cough, malaria, snake bites and boils. This study evaluates the proximate and mineral composition of A. precatorius, and establishes the best solvent for the extraction of the sweet component of the leaves, by performing organoleptic test on the extract of different solvents, under different temperature conditions. The proximate composition of A. precatorius shows that it contains carbohydrate (65.50 plusmn; 3.12%) as its largest component, crude fibre (2.00 plusmn; 0.00%) as its lowest component. Moisture is 11.00 plusmn; 0.00%, Ash is 7.00 plusmn;1.41%, crude protein is 8.00 plusmn; 0.00% and lipid is 6.50 plusmn; 2.12%. Mineral analysis reveals that the leaves contains Na 94.10 plusmn; 0.145 mg/100 g, Cu 00.07 plusmn; 0.004 mg/100 g, Fe 24.14 plusmn; 0.002 mg/100 g, Zn 6.09 plusmn; 0.020 mg/100 g, K 246.94 plusmn; 0.0252 mg/100 g, Ca 231.84 plusmn; 0.204 mg/100 g, and Mg 25.66 plusmn; 0.012 mg/100 g of sample. The best solvent and method of extraction of the sweet component of the leaves is hot (soxhlet) methanolic extraction. Key words: Abrus precatorius, minerals, proximate, organoleptic. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/8791AFE40407 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2013.0193 en Copyright © 2013 Paul E. D., Sangodare R. S. A., Uroko R. I., Agbaji A.S. and Dakare M. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:AA681DF42863 2014-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2014
Responses of grapevine rootstocks to drought stress Dargie Tsegay, Dor Amsalem, Manuel Almeida and Molly Crandles Review Drought response of rootstocks is important for overall viticulture as a result of increase in water scarcity due to climate change and irrigation limitations in winegrowing region. Grapevines are generally well-adapted to arid and semi-arid climates, and they appear to primarily rely on drought avoidance mechanisms in water stress situations. In terms of the response of the grapevine to drought conditions, rootstock can have an impact on the gas exchange and water status. It has been shown that different rootstocks have varying capacities to extract water from the soil and transfer it to the scion. This review addressed several factors that contribute to the drought response of rootstock, including the mechanism of drought tolerance, rootstock anatomy, stomatal regulation, physical and chemical responses. Key words: Grapevine, rootstock, stress, abscisic acid, stomata. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/AA681DF42863 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2013.0199 en Copyright © 2014 Dargie Tsegay, Dor Amsalem, Manuel Almeida and Molly Crandles
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:711BB8342864 2014-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2014
Growth and photosynthesis response of the green alga, Picochlorum oklahomensis to iron limitation and salinity stress J. Nana Annan Full Length Research Paper The extreme environment of the Great Salt Plains (GSP) results in low algal biomass, such that natural selection is likely driven by survival of multiple abiotic stresses rather than rapid growth and biotic interactions. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of combined salinity stress and iron limitation on growth and photosynthesis in the green alga, Picochlorum oklahomensis isolated from the GSP habitat. Algal cells were grown in batch cultures under iron sufficiency or iron limitation at salinities of 10, 50 and 100 ppt in artificial seawater (AS 100) medium. Cells were physiologically characterized by growth rates, cell density, photosynthetic light-response curves (oxygen evolution), pigment composition and the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm, ФPSII, qP and NPQ. P. oklahomensis cultured in no added Fe exhibit smaller inhibition by 100 ppt salinity relative to 10 ppt. Thus, high salinity appears to be reduced under low nutrient conditions. Fe stress resulted in qualitative differences in physiological response. The interaction between salinity and low iron is consistent with a general stress response that concurrently protects against several abiotic stress factors. Key words: Iron limitation, salinity stress, Picochlorum sp. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/711BB8342864 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2013.0198 en Copyright © 2014 J. Nana Annan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:0A4FAC545013 2014-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2014
Changes in antioxidants and pungency in response to foliar applications of Mn and Fe in onion Manas Denre, A. Bhattacharya, S. Pal, A. Chakravarty, A. Chattopadhyay and D. Mazumdar Full Length Research Paper The aim of the present work was to study the changes in antioxidants and pungency in response to foliar applications of Mn [manganese: Mn1(0%); Mn2(0.5%); Mn3(1.0%)] and Fe [iron: Fe1(0%); Fe2(0.5%); Fe3(1.0%)] in onion genotype Sukhsagar (Allium cepa L.); a field experiment in factorial randomized block design with three replications was conducted in research farm of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, India. In this experiment, we observed that the total and free phenol contents were significantly higher than control in both the single (0.5%) and double (1.0%) doses of Fe alone. Again, the activity of enzymatic antioxidant super oxide dismutase (SOD) increased with increasing doses of Fe alone, while the maximum peroxidase (POD) activity was obtained in the treatment combination of double doses (1.0%) of both Fe and Mn. The highest dose of Mn (1%) in combination with all doses of Fe (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) exhibited the highest set of values of catalase (CAT) activity. The activity of 2,2-diphenyl-beta;-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (DPPHRAC) assay increased with increasing doses of Fe. The lowest degree of lipid peroxidation was observed in the case of 1% Mn in combination with 1% Fe, which also exhibited the highest pungency. The average values of all the parameters along with the results of PCA, the treatment Mn3Fe3 (the double dose or 1.0% both of Fe and Mn) was found to be the most efficient to ensure the antioxidant properties of the genotype Sukhsagar. Key words: Allium cepa L., manganese, iron, antioxidants, pungency. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/0A4FAC545013 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2014.0201 en Copyright © 2014 Manas Denre, A. Bhattacharya, S. Pal, A. Chakravarty, A. Chattopadhyay and D. Mazumdar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:479A67A43889 2014-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2014
The effects of zinc (Zn) and C14-indoleacetic acid (IAA) on leaf senescence ın Helıanthus annuus L. Serap Sağlam-Ccedil;ağ and Yener Okatan Full Length Research Paper Sequential leaf senescence is defined as a kind of programmed death events which is an important process in growth of plant. This study aimed to explore the sequential leaf senescence rate due to indoleacetic acid and lack of zinc (-Zn). Therefore, the effect of zinc and indole-3-acetic acid on senescence which occurs in Helianthus annuus (sunflower) cotyledons was analyzed. It was found that in cotyledons of seedlings grown in Hoagland solution which was prepared without addition of zinc senescence is delayed. It was recognised that in case of 14C indoleacetic acid (IAA) which was given from apical tip not reaching the root and cotyledons, senescence does not occur in cotyledons. It was studied to get more information about physiological system of sequential leaf senescence. Key words: Sequential leaf senescence, cotyledon, zinc, 14C indole-acetic acid (IAA), Helianthus annuus (sunflower). Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/479A67A43889 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2014.0204 en Copyright © 2014 Serap Sağlam-Ccedil;ağ and Yener Okatan
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:343D14043890 2014-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2014
Interactive effects of virus and Rhizobium inocula on nodulation, growth and yield of cowpea L. B. Taiwo, M. A. Taiwo, S. A. Shoyinka, S. E. Jegede, J. A. Okogun, O. S. Oyatokun and G. G. Adebayo Full Length Research Paper The effect of separately inoculating cowpea cultivars, lsquo;Ife brownrdquo; (IF) and ldquo;Owoderdquo; (OW) with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Cowpea yellow mosaic virus (CYMV) and Rhizobium IRc 284(RH-284) on nodulation was investigated. Also, the effect of inoculating the cowpea cultivars with RH-284 on the severity of infection caused by the viruses was studied. The interactive effects of inoculating cowpea with RH- 284 and each of CABMV, CYMV, Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) and Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BICMV) on nodulation, growth and yield of IF and OW were also investigated. The results showed that infection by CYMV and CABMV significantly reduced nodulation by about 20-30% and 40-45% in IF and OW, respectively. Inoculating with RH-284 alone significantly increased nodulation by about 20% in both cowpea cultivars. In the interactive study involving virus-RH 284 inocula, slight but non-significant increases of 22, 2 and 9% in nodule number were observed in IF inoculated with RH-284 and SBMV, CYMV and CABMV, respectively. The differences observed in the nodule, shoot and seed weights were not significantly different from those of the control. There was a negative correlation between nodule number and severity of symptom. BICMV caused the most severe effect on the two cowpea cultivars. It reduced the number of nodules by 55-66% with or without RH-284. It also caused significant reductions of over 80% in nodule and seed weights of OW. In conclusion, increase in nodulation reduced viral disease severity, the slight but non-significant increases observed in the growth and yield parameters suggest that improved nodulation can be advantageous to cowpea. Key words: Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus, cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus, cowpea yellow mosaic virus, southern bean mosaic virus. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/343D14043890 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB10.042 en Copyright © 2014 L. B. Taiwo, M. A. Taiwo, S. A. Shoyinka, S. E. Jegede, J. A. Okogun, O. S. Oyatokun and G. G. Adebayo
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:8F22FBD44792 2014-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2014
Antioxidant defence mechanisms in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under copper and arsenic toxicity Shashi Kumar, Surender Kumar, Pravin Prakash and Mahendra Singh Full Length Research Paper Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the oldest pulse crops cultivated from ancient time both in Asia and Europe. India is the largest producer of chickpea in the world, sharing 65 and 70% of production and total global area, respectively. The inhibition of plant growth and crop productivity by excess heavy metals is a global agricultural problem. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted at wire house of the Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi during Rabi season of 2009-10, using a complete randomized design with four replications and five treatments. Our experimental findings reveal that excessive amount of copper (Cu) (200 mg/kg) and arsenic (As) (200 mg/kg) in soil caused a mark reduction in nitrate reductase enzyme activity at both growth stages. However, a little increment was found in proline content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity under higher doses of Cu and As at both growth stages. The study aimed to get more information on physiological changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes under heavy metal toxicity. Key words: Antioxidant enzymes, chickpea, heavy metals, nitrate reductase, proline content. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/8F22FBD44792 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2014.0208 en Copyright © 2014 Shashi Kumar, Surender Kumar, Pravin Prakash and Mahendra Singh
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:8A13CBB45432 2014-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2014
The physiological and behavioural responses of argan seedlings (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels) to water stress in the semi-arid Western Algeria Benaouf Zohra, Miloudi Ali and Belkhodja Moulay Full Length Research Paper This paper presents the behavior, morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of argan seedlings to three water regimes at 30, 60 and 100% of field capacity. Based on the results of the growth parameters, we use the best result obtained from height growth. The increase in the number of leaves and thorns is obtained in seedlings subjected to water stress levels of about 60 and 100% against the application of a severe water stress of 30 and 0%. This led to reduction in the height of the stem, the number of leaves, and radial growth of biomass, and increased the length of the root portion. Regarding the water parameters, we noted a gradual decline in the relative water, the fresh and dry weight of leaves, stems and roots contents, with minimum values ​​in the most severe stress (30 and 0%). Regarding the biochemical parameters, a decline in the relative water content is followed by a significant accumulation of soluble sugars and protein. Regarding the physiological parameters, stomata density intensifies level maintained at low water contents where the number of stomata per unit area behaves greatly compared to that of the hydrated treatments. Sweating is greatly reduced by increased water deficit; it is even more pronounced in the most severe treatment (30 and 0%). Key words: Argania spinosa, germination, morphological, physiological, growth parameters, water, physiological water stress, biochemical water stress. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/8A13CBB45432 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2014.0203 en Copyright © 2014 Benaouf Zohra, Miloudi Ali and Belkhodja Moulay
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:AC9F57E45433 2014-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2014
Comparative changes in metabolism of Vigna radiata by foliar and root application of brassinolide at different concentrations Sana Riaz, Neelofer Hamid and Afshan Rahman Full Length Research Paper The present study shows the effect of the foliar and root application of brassinolide on growth and metabolism of Vigna radiata. For this purpose, three concentrations of brassinolide (1, 0.01 and 0.0001 ppm) were applied on the plant. Brassinolide (BL) solutions were applied as foliar and root treatments for 21 days after sowing (DAS). Samples were collected after two and four weeks of treatments. Content of total sugars, reducing sugars, chlorophyll and proteins, activity of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1x), leaf area and height of plants were estimated. All these parameters increased significantly by 1 ppm foliar spray of BL as compared to the other concentrations. It was concluded that BL enhanced growth of V. radiata. L. under both root and foliar applications, but foliar treatment was more effective. Key words: Vigna radiata, foliar spray, root irrigation, brassinolide, concentrations. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/AC9F57E45433 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2014.0207 en Copyright © 2014 Sana Riaz, Neelofer Hamid and Afshan Rahman
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:53002E346634 2014-07-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2014
The determination of vitamin C, total phenol and antioxidant activity of some commonly cooking spices crops used in West Bengal Manas Denre Full Length Research Paper In the present study, vitamin C, total phenols and antioxidant activity of some common cooking spices crops used in West Bengal were analyzed. Ten (10) spices (onion, chilli, garlic, ginger, turmeric, mustard seed, cumin seed, clove, cardamom and cassia leaf) were selected in order to determine the concentration of ascorbic acid (AA), total phenol (TP) and antioxidant activity as DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPHRAC). The results obtained show that the values of different variables varied from 5.55 to 0.08 mg g-1 (AA), 21.55 to 7.67 GAE mg g-1 (TP) and 0.18 to 5.99 IC50 value: mg ml-1 (DPPHRAC), respectively. There were negative correlations between TPC and IC50 value of DPPHRAC. Key words: Vitamin C, total phenols, antioxidant, spices crops. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/53002E346634 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2014.0210 en Copyright © 2014 Manas Denre
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:E7C7D8949397 2014-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2014
Bio-physiological response of biofilter algal candidate Ulva sp. to different nitrogen forms and fluxes Yasser T. A. Moustafa, G. Bougaran, M. Callier and J. P. Blancheton, Full Length Research Paper The present study was carried out to study the long term effect of different nitrogen forms and concentrations (14.3, 28.6 and 57.1 M N-NH4 and 214, 2360 and 3700 M N-NO3) on the photosynthesis and relative growth rate (RGR) of Ulva sp. for five weeks. Nutrient-enriched seawater was supplied at an exchange rate of between 12.6 and 14.4 volumes per day. Relative growth rate was determined weekly. Photosynthetic oxygen evolution response was measured using 20 - 25 mg fresh weight seaweed incubated in a DW3 measuring chamber for 56 min under different irradiances with light and dark periods alternating every seven minutes. Photosynthetic light-response curves were drawn using 15 photosynthetic oxygen evolution readings normalized to dry weight. Experimental data were fitted with a Haldane model to calculate photosynthetic rate (Pmax), saturation irradiance (Is) and compensation irradiance (Ic). At the experiment termination, the RGR following nitrate addition were higher, but not significantly, than those with the ammonium supplied. The highest RGR was determined at the medium nitrate concentration. The photosynthetic activity of Ulva sp. showed a positive relationship with nitrogen concentrations from both nitrogen forms. The highest significant Pmax was found at the highest nitrate concentration. The lowest ammonium concentration corresponded to the lowest significant Pmax value. No significant differences were found for Is and Ic irrespective of treatment, although, in general, ammonium treatments yielded higher Is values than nitrate treatments. The discrepancy between the growth rate results and photosynthetic oxygen evolution is discussed in light of the reproduction activity and temperature effect. Key words: Ulva sp., photosynthetic oxygen evolution, relative growth rate, nitrogen forms, nutrients uptake. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/E7C7D8949397 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2014.0218 en Copyright © 2014 Yasser T. A. Moustafa, G. Bougaran, M. Callier and J. P. Blancheton,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:171271651716 2015-03-26T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2015
Effect of different seed priming treatments and priming duration on biochemical parameters and agronomic characters of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Hardeep Kaur, Neena Chawla and Mamta Pathak Full Length Research Paper Maintaining optimum plant population is an important factor in maximizing crop production and productivity. Establishment of okra in the field could be improved by applying suitable priming treatment to seeds. The present investigation was undertaken to find out the effect of seed priming treatments and soaking durations on biochemical parameters and agronomic characters of okra seeds. Okra seeds primed with three priming treatments T1, T2 and T3 (hydropriming, osmopriming with 5% PEG and 10% PEG solution) with soaking durations from 24 to 48 h at 6 h interval, that is, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 48 h were used. Dry okra seeds were considered control treatment. Priming treatments and soaking durations significantly increased biochemical components such as crude protein, total minerals, dry matter, iodine, phosphorus and mucilage content compared to control. Priming with T2 treatment for 24 h soaking duration gave the best results, followed by T1 and T3. Agronomic characters such as number of days taken to 50% flowering, maximum number of nodes and fruiting nodes on main stem, fruit length, fruit width, plant height at first picking, plant height at final harvest, marketable yield per plant, total yield per plant and average fruit weight were improved with priming while control seeds proved to be the poorest. Primed seeds showed better performance of okra than control treatment in aspects of studied criteria. Key words: Okra, priming duration, biochemical parameters, yield. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/171271651716 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2015.0224 en Copyright © 2015 Hardeep Kaur, Neena Chawla and Mamta Pathak
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:48E45A552094 2015-04-29T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2015
Effect of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root storage components, starch quantities and starch quality properties Nuwamanya Ephraim, Baguma Yona, Atwijukire Evans, Acheng Sharon and Alicai Titus Full Length Research Paper Effect of cassava brown streak disease on cassava root storage components were studied on four Ugandan varieties with varying levels of tolerance. Significant differences (Plt;0.05) were observed with reductions of 30% in amylose content and 50% in amylopectin content of diseased compared to healthy plots. Average dry matter content of diseased plots was 25% higher as much as starch yield and starch content reduced by 40 and 15% respectively in diseased plots compared to healthy plots. Susceptible varieties had lower protein and higher cyanide contents in diseased state compared to tolerant varieties. On pasting, mixed reactions were observed but importantly there were significant differences (Plt;0.05) in the starch pasting properties of starch from diseased compared to healthy plots. Plants with similar reactions to viral attack at the phenotypic level had different reactions when the levels of particular metabolite components (especially cyanide and starch constituents) were quantified. The results point to hijacking of plant carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolic processes for viral metabolic gains. In turn, this affects the use of cassava for food and other applications but also points to possible use of metabolite based selections for tolerant varieties rather than mere root and stem phenotypic observations. Key words: Brown streak disease, Cassava, metabolism, starch, plant virus. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/48E45A552094 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2015.0227 en Copyright © 2015 Nuwamanya Ephraim, Baguma Yona, Atwijukire Evans, Acheng Sharon and Alicai Titus
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:7229F0F52098 2015-04-29T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2015
The physiological and chemical response of stone fruit rootstocks (Prunus L.) to sulphur application under two different soil textures M. Mirabdulbaghi Full Length Research Paper A pot experiment was conducted during 2014 seasons at the field of Seed and Plant Institute, Karaj, Iran, to study the effect of sulphur application (with and without thiobacillus) on the physiological and chemical response of stone fruit rootstocks (Prunus L.) including quot;Myrobalanquot;,quot;GF 677quot;, quot;Pentaquot; and peach seedling rootstock (native) grown on two selected calcareous and alkaline (with pH values greater than 7) soil series of Karaj province. The experiment was laid out in a split- split plot experiment in the randomized complete blocks design with three replications. The main plot treatments included twodifferent soil textures (silty clay loam and loam with pH 8 and 7.3, respectively) while the sub plot treatments were four stone fruit rootstocks (Prunus L.) including quot;Myrobalanquot;,quot;GF 677quot;, quot;Pentaquot; and peach seedling rootstock (native) and finally six different levels of sulphur application (sulphur application of 0, 500 and 1000 g/pot with and without thiobacillus of 10 g/pot) as sub-sub factor. Statistical analysis of data indicated that the factors alone and together had a significant effect on leaf mineral content, shoot number/rootstock and shoot length of studied rootstocks. The effects of two-fold and three-fold interactions were also significant in these attributes (except for the interactive effects of soil texture times; sulphur application and rootstock times; sulphur application for shoot number/rootstock). Mean comparisons of the three-fold interaction effects between factors showed that these attributes had higher average value than the control treatment (without any sulphur and thiobacillus application). Also, the results of the project showed that application of 500 g sulphur/pot and/ or 10 g thiobacillus/pot would increase the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, leaf surface, and leaf SPAF-value. Key words: Sulphur application, stone fruit rootstocks (Prunus L.), physiological and chemical response. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/7229F0F52098 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2015.0223 en Copyright © 2015 M. Mirabdulbaghi
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:450B7C053525 2015-05-15T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2015
Alteration in photosynthetic pigments, osmolytes and antioxidants in imparting copper stress tolerance by exogenous jasmonic acid treatment in Cajanus cajan Geetika Sirhindi, Poonam Sharma, Anil Singh, Harpreet Kaur and Mudaser Mir Full Length Research Paper Jasmonic acid regulates various abiotic stress responses but its role in regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis has been poorly studied. This present study was conducted to explore the potential of jasmonic acid (JA) to enhance copper (Cu) tolerance in Cajanus cajan seedlings in terms of photosynthetic pigments, osmolytes and antioxidants. Seeds treated with different concentration (0, 1 M, 1 nM and 1 pM) of JA raised in toxic concentration of Cu for 15 days were taken for investigation. Results indicate that Cu stress led to the decreased growth in terms of shoot length, fresh and dry weight. Cu stress also increased Cu accumulation, lipid peroxidation, deteriorated chlorophyll b as well as carotenoids. Cu stress also diminished total proteins, vitamins A, C and B2, and peroxidase activity which led to the deteriorated plant growth and metabolism. Seed priming treatment of JA on the other hand improved the protein content, sugar content and vitamins indicating the potential of JA for Cu stress tolerance. The JA supplementation to Cu stressed seedlings improved Cu tolerance of C. cajan to significant level. Key words: Oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, osmolyte, pigeon pea. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/450B7C053525 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2015.0228 en Copyright © 2015 Geetika Sirhindi, Poonam Sharma, Anil Singh, Harpreet Kaur and Mudaser Mir
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:0B633A656519 2015-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2015
Effect of production sites and seed age on seed quality parameters of malt barley (Hordium vulgare L.) varieties Tefera Regasa, Firew Mekbib and Firdissa Eticha Full Length Research Paper Quality malt barley production, processing and marketing had paid a greater degree of attention among farmers, traders, malting and brewing factories in Ethiopia. there is no quantified research information available on effect of production sites, seed ageing and potential varietal differences in meet up basic seed and grain quality standards for malt. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of production sites and seed age on seed quality of malt barley varieties. The experiment was conducted under laboratory condition using 12 treatments consisting 3 barley sample collections obtained from DARC, ESE and OES,2 seed ages (year 1and year 2) and 2 malt barley varieties (Beka and Holker). Seed quality analyses were performed using standard laboratory procedures. All measured seed quality parameters were subjected to ANOVA using SAS version 9.1. Highly significant (P lt; 0.01) variation was observed among the tested quality traits. Two years aged seed samples gave the highest percentage of abnormal seedlings and dead seeds before accelerated ageing under standard germination test. Similarly, artificially accelerated aged seeds of malt barley displayed a marked decline in germination % as compared to newly harvested one. Highly significant differences (P lt;0.01) were observed between one and two years aged seeds after accelerated ageing. The highest percent of normal seedlings (37.1%) was recorded in one year aged seeds compared to two years aged (19.8%) samples. With increased age of seeds in storage there was proportional increase in seed deterioration rates. This might indicate how natural and artificial seed ageing affect seed and other end use quality in malting barley. In general, natural as well as artificially seed aged under prolonged storage were perceived to be a leading yield and quality reducing factor by decreasing rate of seedling emergence and stress survival ability of malt barley in the field. Therefore, it is necessary to use freshly harvested seeds in order to ensure satisfactory yield attainment in the field and have better quality barley grain for malting industry. Key words: Production site, seed age, artificial seed ageing, malt barley. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/0B633A656519 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2015.0234 en Copyright © 2015 Tefera Regasa, Firew Mekbib and Firdissa Eticha
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:B3DE36859685 2016-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2016
Evaluating postharvest characteristics of Apantu (Local False Horn) plantain for harvest indices determination Dzomeku B. M., Sarkordie-Addo J., Darkey S. K. Bam R.K and Wuensche J Full Length Research Paper Plantain (Musa sp., genome AAB) is a major locally grown starchy staple food highly consumed by Ghanaians with a per capita consumption of 84.4 kg. However, the maturity index of the fruit has been dependent on various characteristics including angularity, fruit tip drying, etc. A physiological study was conducted on the fruit characteristics of Apantu at harvest to determine the appropriate maturity index to be used by smallholders. The results were subjected to correlative analysis and revealed a strong positive correlation between age at harvest and pulp to peel ratio. The number of leaves declined with age while pulp to peel ratio, bunch weight, peel weight and fruit weight showed positive correlation with age. The low correlations observed between the age at harvest and peel thickness, peel weight, density of fruit and pulp thickness makes them unreliable indices, possibly due to the difference in environmental conditions. Generally this is true since smallholders rely upon rainfed irrigation and physiological characteristics are greatly influenced by the watering component of the environmental. It is therefore recommended that farmers use bunch ages to determine harvest maturity. This could be done through tagging of plants at flower emergence due to the strong correlation it had with pulp:peel ratio. Further testing on each variety is needed to make tangible conclusions on some of the maturity indices to be adopted or must be backed with other variables. Key words: Musa, Apantu, physiology, postharvest, maturity indices. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/B3DE36859685 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2015.0235 en Copyright © 2016 Dzomeku B. M., Sarkordie-Addo J., Darkey S. K. Bam R.K and Wuensche J
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:E5201EB60025 2016-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2016
Influence of the position of flowers buds on the tree on somatic embryogenesis of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Rodrigue Pouengue Boutchouang, Olive Flore Zebaze Akitio, Audrey Germaine Ngouambe Tchouatcheu, and Nicolas Niemenak Full Length Research Paper The recalcitrance of Theobroma cacao L. to somatic embryogenesis, due to non-adapted physiological and metabolical responses to environmental stress, limits its propagation. The present work aims to ameliorate somatic embryogenesis in T. cacao throughout a physiological approach. For this purpose, the influence of the position of flowers buds used as explants was evaluated. Flowers buds were collected from different parts of the tree: orthotropic main stem (OS), primary plagiotropic fan branch (FI) and secondary plagiotropic fan branch (FII). Evolution of some biochemical parameters such as phenolic compounds, soluble sugars, proteins contents and peroxidase activity was followed at different steps of somatic embryogenesis, considering the origin of the explants used. Results obtained show that callogenesis is induced on all explants independently of their origin, with an 80% average frequency. Embryogenesis frequencies were ca 2 fold higher in staminodes-derived calluses from FII and FI than OS. Meanwhile petals of FII do not differentiate embryos. Biochemical analysis shows that the content of phenol is low in calluses during somatic embryo establishment. Explants from FII present the lowest values (after 49th days of culture). Sugars content decrease during callogenesis. When embryos are established the sugars content decrease in explants from OS. During the same period, proteinsrsquo; and phenols contents increased in staminodes-derived calluses from all origin; while there was decrease in petals from FI and FII. Buds from fan branch are suitable for somatic embryogenesis process and this capacity correlate with peroxidase activity which decrease during embryos dedifferentiation phase. Key words: Theobroma cacao L., somatic embryogenesis, proteins, phenols compounds, soluble sugars, peroxidase activity, microclimate. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/E5201EB60025 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2016.0247 en Copyright © 2016 Rodrigue Pouengue Boutchouang, Olive Flore Zebaze Akitio, Audrey Germaine Ngouambe Tchouatcheu, and Nicolas Niemenak
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:D7C1CE064193 2017-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2017
Biochemical and physiological constituents and their correlation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under high temperature at different development stages H. R. Ramani, M. K. Mandavia, R. A. Dave, R. P. Bambharolia, H. Silungwe and N. H. Garaniya Full Length Research Paper Wheat is the most popular and staple food for millions of people. It is severely affected by heat stress in many countries. Vegetative growth and reproductive phases in wheat differ in their sensitivity to temperature. Heat tolerant (GW-190) and Heat susceptible (J-2010-11) genotypes grown up to tillering and grain filling stages and Heat treatments (40deg;C and 45deg;C for 2h and 4h) were given using Heating House. After heat treatment samples were collected, the biochemical and physiological analysis such as Protein, Proline, Glycine betaine, Membrane stability, Relative water content, Germination percent, Seed vigour and Heat tolerant index were performed. Protein, proline and glycine betaine were found significantly highest 34.06 mg/g Fr. Wt., 13.70 mg% and 902.24 g/F. wt respectively in heat tolerant genotype GW-190 at 45deg;C for 4 h at tillering stage. Membrane stability and relative water content were found significantly highest 56.83% and 86.15 % respectively in heat tolerant genotype GW-190 at tillering stage. Germination percent, Seed vigor and Heat tolerance index were found higher in control group of Heat tolerant GW-190 genotypes. Where, all the biochemical and physiological contents were found lower in heat susceptible J-2010-11 genotype. From the above results it was concluded that GW-190 was heat tolerant genotypes which is suitable for grown in area of high temperature and J-2010-11 was found heat susceptible. Key words: Relative water content, membrane stability, seed index, heat tolerant index, correlation. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/D7C1CE064193 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2015.0240 en Copyright © 2017 H. R. Ramani, M. K. Mandavia, R. A. Dave, R. P. Bambharolia, H. Silungwe and N. H. Garaniya
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:4AE124764618 2017-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2017
Breeding of parental and tolerant hybrids of Theobroma cacao L. to Phytophthora megakarya Bras. and Griff. Martine Louise Ondobo, Pierre Onomo Effa, Jude Ndjaga Manga, Jules Christian Kouam Djoko, and Pierre Franccedil;ois Djocgoue, Full Length Research Paper The development of resistant varieties can be done according to a genetic approach. Estimation of genetic parameters for the quantitative traits of cocoa genotypes (Theobroma cacao L.) was made from a 5 times; 5 diallel mating design. The objective of this study was to identify tolerant genotypes to black pod disease (BPD) through genetic analyzes. The inoculation of the leaves of parental cocoa genotypes and their offsprings with Phytophthora megakarya was performed in the nursery for two seasons (dry and rainy). Percentage success for crosses made using hand pollination was low (31.22%) and fair for grafting (60.68%). Observations made on necrosis length on the 2nd, 4th and 6th days after inoculation showed increasing sensibility of the clones to BPD in the order SNK 413˂T 79/467˂T 79/501˂SNK 16˂SCA 12. 84.37 and 76.04% of hybrid genotypes exhibited positive heterosis (hybrid vigor) in dry and rainy seasons respectively. Narrow sense (hsup2;) and broad-sense (Hsup2;) heritabilities was high in two reciprocal crosses [F30 (hsup2;= 0.699 and Hsup2;=0.624) and F70 (hsup2;= 0.601 and Hsup2;=0.643)]. Key words: Theobroma cacao, Phytophthora megakarya, tolerant, heterosis, heritability. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/4AE124764618 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2017.0262 en Copyright © 2017 Martine Louise Ondobo, Pierre Onomo Effa, Jude Ndjaga Manga, Jules Christian Kouam Djoko, and Pierre Franccedil;ois Djocgoue,
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:EE2C33E64910 2017-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2017
Identification of Pisum sativum L. cytokinin and auxin metabolic and signaling genes, and an analysis of their role in symbiotic nodule development Dolgikh, E. A., Shaposhnikov, A. I., Dolgikh, A. V., Gribchenko, E. S., Bodyagina, K. B., Yuzhikhin, O. S. and Tikhonovich, I. A. Full Length Research Paper The present work was designed to study the role of the phytohormones, cytokinin and auxin, in the symbiosis development between pea Pisum sativum L. and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. To achieve this aim, the temporal expression patterns of the genes related to the cytokinin and auxin biosynthesis, perception, and response were studied. It was found that most of these genes showed specific transcriptional regulations upon nodulation at various stages following inoculation. Once they were purified using chromatographic methods, the endogenous cytokinins were detected by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC[+]ESndash;MS). Our findings showed that cytokinin and auxin accumulation is tightly regulated during nodulation in order to control nodule organogenesis, infection events, and nodule function. Key words: Legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, cytokinin, auxin, gene expression. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/EE2C33E64910 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2017.0266 en Copyright © 2017 Dolgikh, E. A., Shaposhnikov, A. I., Dolgikh, A. V., Gribchenko, E. S., Bodyagina, K. B., Yuzhikhin, O. S. and Tikhonovich, I. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:D265EAB65969 2017-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2017
Effect of jasmonic acid on some biochemical and physiological parameters in salt-stressed Brassica napus seedlings Harpreet Kaur, Geetika Sirhindi and Poonam Sharma Full Length Research Paper The present study demonstrated the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) on pigments and vitamins involved in photosynthesis or other metabolic activities during salt stress in Brassica napus L. Exposure to different concentrations of NaCl decreased pigments such as total chlorophyll, beta;-carotene, and lycopene to significant low levels but interestingly salinity increased total protein of B. napus L. seedlings, which was further ameliorated via JA supplementation. Importantly, JA alone and in combination with different concentrations of NaCl enhanced growth, pigments, vitamins over control and salt-alone treatment groups. The observations suggested that JA induced salinity tolerance in B. napus L. seedlings by improving the biosynthetic level of various pigments and vitamins. Key words: Jasmonic acid, Brassica napus, Chlorophyll, Carotenoides, beta; ndash;carotene. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/D265EAB65969 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2016.0245 en Copyright © 2017 Harpreet Kaur, Geetika Sirhindi and Poonam Sharma
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:B3D854156255 2018-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2018
Allelopathic effects of alkaloid fraction of Crotalaria retusa Linn on growth and some biochemical parameters of bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris Ogunsusi M., Akinlalu A. O., Komolafe I. J. and Oyedapo O. O. Full Length Research Paper The study investigated the potentials of alkaloidal fraction of leaf and stem of Crotalaria retusa with a view to understanding its mechanism of allelopathy in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seedlings. The study involved collection of C. retusa (leaves and stems), identification, dried, pulverized and extracted with methanol to yield methanolic extract (MECR). Crude alkaloid fraction was prepared from MECR by a procedure that consisted of acidification, basification and extraction with chloroform. Brown beans were grown in varying concentrations (0, 50 and 100 g/ml) of crude alkaloid fraction with strychnine (10 g/ml) as reference alkaloid. Leaves and stems of the seedlings were collected for biochemical analyses which included determination of percentage germination and evaluation of biochemical parameters. The results showed that percentage germination of bean seeds reduced with increasing concentrations of alkaloid fraction. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) increased with alkaloid concentration in the leaves and stems of bean seedlings. The levels of metabolites (proline, reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid) increased significantly (p le; 0.05) in the stems and leaves of treated bean seedlings. However, there was reduction in the total protein and sugar contents of the leaves and stems of bean seedlings which implied stress. Alkaloidal fractions of C. retusa elicit significant allelopathic effects on germination of bean seedlings by reducing its germination rate. The alkaloid also affected some metabolites in bean seedlings which are markers of environmental stress. The study revealed that the mechanisms of action of the alkaloid fraction of C. retusa involved the induction of oxidative stress that resulted in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that caused metabolic derangement in the bean seedlings. Key words: Alkaloidal fraction, allelopathy, strychnine, basification, extract, antioxidant enzymes. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/B3D854156255 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2017.0261 en Copyright © 2018 Ogunsusi M., Akinlalu A. O., Komolafe I. J. and Oyedapo O. O.
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:3D5364F56565 2018-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2018
Estimation of auxins and cytokinins requirements in sugarcane soma clones for effective in vitro regeneration procedure Sardar Khatoon Solangi, Sadaf Tabasum Qureshi, Mukhtiar Khatoon Solangi, Nusrat Solangi, Altaf Hussain Solangi and Mehnaz Qamar Full Length Research Paper Three sugarcane varieties were used in this experiment to optimize specific plant hormones. The present work was conducted in 2014 at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA), Tando jam. The experiment was designated with three sugarcane varieties (NIA-2012, NIA-105 and GULABI-95) obtained from Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) Tando jam. Regeneration of plantlets was compared under different concentration of auxins and cytokinin (IAA, IBA and kinetin (2.0, 3.0 mg1-1), highly significant (plt;0.05) variations were observed for all parameters of regeneration and root formation. Interactive effect of variety x treatment x concentration was non-significant for number of regenerated plantlets. Auxins and cytokinins at 3.0 + 3.0 mg1-1 concentration were most optimized and effective for regenerated plantlets and number of shoots. These concentrations should be used in the future for in vitro culture of sugarcane. Key words: In vitro, regeneration, cytokinins, sugarcane, growth regulators. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/3D5364F56565 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2016.0255 en Copyright © 2018 Sardar Khatoon Solangi, Sadaf Tabasum Qureshi, Mukhtiar Khatoon Solangi, Nusrat Solangi, Altaf Hussain Solangi and Mehnaz Qamar
oai:academicjournals.org:IJPPB:F3A2AAD58459 2018-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals IJPPB IJPPB:2018
Effects of salinity stress on growth in relation to gas exchanges parameters and water status in amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) Christophe Bernard Gandonou, Hermann Prodjinoto, Seacute;raphin Ahissou Zanklan, Agapit Dossou Wouyou, Stanley Lutts, David Hambada Montcho, Franccedil;oise Assogba Komlan and Armel Cleacute;ment Goudjo Mensah Full Length Research Paper Salinity is a major detrimental abiotic factor for plant growth. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of different NaCl concentrations on growth and some physiological parameters related to gas exchanges and water relations in amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) plants. Three weeks old amaranth plants from the cultivar lsquo;Localersquo; were exposed in nutrient solution to 0, 30 or 90 mM NaCl (electrical conductivities of 1.915; 4.815 and 11.70 dS.m-1 respectively) in phytotron conditions. Shoot elongation as well as fresh and dry masses of shoot and root were determined after two weeks of stress exposure. Net photosynthesis (A), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), instantaneous transpiration (E), stomatal conductance (gs), osmotic potential (Psi;s) as well as the efficiency of the instantaneous carboxylation (A/Ci), intrinsic (A/gs) and instantaneous (A/E) water use efficiency were estimated. Results reveal that salt stress induced a significant reduction in growth of aerial part as well as net photosynthesis, instantaneous transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf and root osmotic potentials. In contrast, no significant reductions were recorded for root growth, shoot water content, intercellular CO2 concentration and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency. However, a significant increase was observed for intrinsic (A/gs) and instantaneous (A/E) water use efficiency. The plant growth reduction observed hinges upon a drop in photosynthetic activity due mainly to stomatal closure. These data suggest that photosynthetic activity may be used as a reliable criterion for physiological estimation of salt-tolerance in A. cruentus cultivars. Key words: Saline stress, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, osmotic potential, water use efficiency. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJPPB/article-abstract/F3A2AAD58459 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB2018.0280 en Copyright © 2018 Christophe Bernard Gandonou, Hermann Prodjinoto, Seacute;raphin Ahissou Zanklan, Agapit Dossou Wouyou, Stanley Lutts, David Hambada Montcho, Franccedil;oise Assogba Komlan and Armel Cleacute;ment Goudjo Mensah
2020-06-06T13:02:13Z|100|oai_dc|ijppb