2021-07-31T15:51:00Z https://academicjournals.org/oai-pmh/handler
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:812841B5863 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2009
Prevalence and seasonality of fowl typhoid disease in Zaria-Kaduna State, Nigeria I. J. Mbuko, M. A. Raji, J. Ameh, L. Saidu, W. I. Musa and P. A. Abdul Full Length Research Paper A five years retrospective study (2003 - 2007) of the prevalence of fowl typhoid (FT) and other poultry diseases diagnosed at the avian unit of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Kaduna State, Nigeria was conducted. A prevalence rate of 18.4% (129 cases) was recorded for FT out of 700 cases of poultry disease. The highest number of outbreaks of FT was recorded during the rainy season (July - September). 48 cases (29.1%) of FT were recorded in birds 15 weeks and above, 124 cases (18.4%) in layers and only two cases (16.7%) in turkeys. Outbreaks of FT were closely associated with age, type and poultry species of birds (P lt; 0.05). The outbreaks of FT were also observed to be 3.1 times more likely to occur in December, 2.4 and 1.3 times more likely to occur in birds of 15 weeks and above and 1 - 5 weeks of age respectively. It was concluded from the study that FT is more commonly reported in the chicken than other poultry species and adult birds (gt;15 weeks) are more susceptible to the disease in Zaria, Nigeria. This study recommends that poultry farmers should be encouraged to practice prompt and regular vaccination of layers against fowl typhoid disease. Key words: Salmonella enterica serovars Gallinarium, chicken, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/812841B5863 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000036 en Copyright © 2009 I. J. Mbuko, M. A. Raji, J. Ameh, L. Saidu, W. I. Musa and P. A. Abdul
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:F9AB55B5879 2009-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2009
Global review of meningococcal disease. A shifting etiology J. Leimkugel, V. Racloz, L. Jacintho da Silva and G. Pluschke Review Despite expansive studies over the past century, the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) has remained elusive in some of its aspects. The following review attempts to summarize the past and current trends in the etiology of IMD. Data was collected through the analysis of peer-reviewed studies and surveillance data on national, sub-national and regional levels performed using various search engines such as pubmed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/), regional WHO homepages (www.who.int) and department of health websites. Despite the establishment of improved surveillance, the reasons for the differences in IMD epidemiology between endemic and epidemic settings are not fully understood. Factors influence the timing and distribution of epidemics including climatic, socio-economic and cultural factors involving changes in human lifestyle, natural growth of the human population, crowding and increased mobility. These have also strongly affected the global population structure of Neisseria meningitides and are still currently responsible for changing patterns in IMD epidemiology. In recent years, much interest has arisen on the subject due to both the development of conjugate vaccines and to the continuing occurrence of outbreaks, many of them in industrialized countries. With antimicrobial resistance on the rise, effective and affordable vaccines along with continued surveillance are needed to help combat this complex disease. Key words: Meningococcal meningitis, epidemiology, vaccines, antimicrobial resistance, surveillance. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/F9AB55B5879 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000024 en Copyright © 2009 J. Leimkugel, V. Racloz, L. Jacintho da Silva and G. Pluschke
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:ADD9F0C5945 2009-05-06T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2009
Skin diseases among preschool children Allma Koccedil;inaj, Dardan Koccedil;inaj and Merita Berisha Full Length Research Paper In developing countries skin diseases can affect more than 60% of the general population and usually are not well managed. Skin diseases are common in children. Epidemiologic studies of the general population, however, are still limited and missing for the region of Kosova. The aim of this study was to investigate disease prevalence in children under 6 years old of out- and in-patients at the department of Dermatological clinic - a tertiary health care center, a cross-sectional study was carried out during a period of one year. A total of 1,998 children 0 - 6 years old were examined. In the out-patients scabies presented in 18% of overall dermatoses, atopic dermatitis 7.9%, urticaria 7.9%, pyodermia 7.8%tinea superificialis 5.9%, staphylodermia 5.5%, dermatitis amoniacalis 4.7%, eczema infantum 4%, impetigo contagiosa 3.5% and exanthema toxo-allergica 2.7%. While in the in-patients, acute urticaria presented in 26.1% of the overall dermatoses, scabies 20.7% and atopic dermatitis 10.8%, epidemiologic data are necessary for the monitoring of skin changes in school children and provides the basis of training programs for medical professionals in primary health care with the aim to reduce long-term morbidity and socioeconomic impact. Key words: Skin disease, prevalence, children. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/ADD9F0C5945 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000039 en Copyright © 2009 Allma Koccedil;inaj, Dardan Koccedil;inaj and Merita Berisha
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:6722D475922 2009-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2009
Calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P significantly influence coronary flow rate in gene knockout mice Hongbao Ma, , Jenny Young and Shen Cherng Full Length Research Paper Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) which is potent vasodilator neuropeptides play a counter-regulatory role in several models of experimental hypertension. Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts (n = 328) were used to compare coronary flow rates among wild type (WT), a-CGRP gene knockout (KO) and NK1-KO mice under various pressure loading conditions (20, 30, 40 and 50 mmHg). The aorta of each heart was cannulated and all hearts were perfused with PBS at 37deg;C. Coronary flow rate was measured by pressure difference of both sides of a capillary. Perfusion was stopped 15 min for ischemia. Deletion of a-CGRP gene resulted in a significant reduction in coronary flow rate for both genders at all pressures. Deletion of NK1 gene resulted in a significant reduction in coronary flow rate for male mice at all pressures, but not for female mice. Coronary flow rate for both WT and a-CGRP-KO mice was consistently lower in female than in male mice, but not for NK1-KO mice. Coronary flow rate ina-CGRP mice was 19.2 and 15.4% lower than that of female and male WT mice, respectively. This effect seems to be gender related with less coronary flow noted in female WT and a-CGRP-KO mice, but not in NK1-KO mice. Key words: Calcitonin gene-related peptide, flow rate, gene knockout, heart, mouse, neurokinin 1, substance P. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/6722D475922 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000010 en Copyright © 2009 Hongbao Ma, , Jenny Young and Shen Cherng
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:3A235BF5966 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2009
Comparative efficacy of Rose Bengal plate test, standard tube agglutination test and Dot ELISA in immunological detection of antibodies to Brucella abortus in sera Deepti Chachra, Hari Mohan Saxena, Gurpreet Kaur and Mudit Chandra Full Length Research Paper Comparative efficacy of three serodiagnostic tests (RBPT, STAT and Dot ELISA) in detecting anti - Brucella antibodies in sera was evaluated on a total of twenty eight serum samples which included eighteen samples from brucellosis suspected and 10 from normal healthy (brucellosis unaffected) cattle. Out of eighteen sera from suspected cases, only one (5.55%) sample was found positive by STAT and 9 (50%) samples were positive by RBPT, whereas Dot ELISA could detect antibodies in all the eighteen (100%) samples. Interestingly, RBPT could detect antibodies in ten out of seventeen (58.82%) samples found negative by STAT. The entire nine samples positive by RBPT (100%) showed positive results with Dot ELISA also. Of the nine RBPT negative samples, 11.25% showed positive and 88.88% showed negative results by STAT while all the nine samples (100%) showed positive results with Dot ELISA. All the ten sera from normal healthy animals were negative by RBPT, STAT and ELISA. Thus, Dot ELISA was found to be the most sensitive of the three tests used. It is, however, suggested that in order to get a fool proof diagnosis of Brucella infection, a combination of RBPT and Dot ELISA should be used, especially in case of samples found negative by either RBPT or STAT used alone or in combination. Key words: Brucellosis, RBPT, STAT, Dot ELISA, Brucella. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/3A235BF5966 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000012 en Copyright © 2009 Deepti Chachra, Hari Mohan Saxena, Gurpreet Kaur and Mudit Chandra
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:94DB6775973 2009-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2009
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC): Prevalence among in and ambulatory patients and susceptibility to antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents O. J. Akinjogunla, N. O. Eghafona, and O. H. Ekoi Full Length Research Paper The prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli both in an ambulatory patients passing out loose stools with or without blood and/or mucus in Anua General Hospital, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital and University of Uyo Health Centre from June to September, 2008 were determined using standard microbiological techniques. Susceptibility to seven different conventional and commonly available chemotherapeutic drugs/antibiotics: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, tetracycline, cephalothin and ofloxacin were assessed using a disc diffusion technique (DDT). The macroscopic analysis of the stool samples showed that 31 of the 100 cases (31%) were diarrhea bloody and 33% mucoid. Sixty-nine diarrheagenic E. coli were isolated from 100 stool samples collected and were more prevalent in females (69.4%) than in males (30.6%). The observed percentage prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli among the age groups (in years) 1 -15, 16 - 30, 31 - 45, 46 - 60 and 61 and above were 95, 80, 55, 70 and 45%, respectively. The results of antibiotic susceptibility showed that the E. coli were highly resistant to ampicillin (73.9%), tetracycline (75.4%) and gentamycin (68.1%), and moderately resistant to chloramphenicol (46.4 %) and cephalothin (43.5%), but highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin (71.0%) and ofloxacin (66.7%). The findings of this study showed ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin to be drugs of choice for the treatment of diarrheagenic E. coli, while ampicillin, tetracycline and gentamycin should not be used without first performing culture and sensitivity tests. Key words: Diarrheagenic, Escherichia coli, prevalence, chemotherapy, susceptibility. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/94DB6775973 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000019 en Copyright © 2009 O. J. Akinjogunla, N. O. Eghafona, and O. H. Ekoi
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:F0553DD6024 2009-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2009
A microbiological technique for the separation of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. fibers Pilanee Vaithanomsat, Poom Phusanakom, Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat and Molnapat Songpim Full Length Research Paper This study is related to a process for the separation of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. fibers using living microorganisms. The selected fungal strains, Datronia sp. andOligoporous sp., were isolated from natural sources in Thailand and were previously shown to be capable of degrading lignin in pulp and paper industrial wastewater. The process described here is comprising the fungal-treated fibrous of H. sabdariffa L. barks in certain conditions. The fungal inoculum size, retting time and retting temperature were important in the experiments and the retting efficiency was based on the visual characteristics of resulting fibers. In addition, the pectinolytic enzymes released from the fungi in retting conditions were shown to correspond to the separation of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. fibers. Key words: Hibiscus sabdariffa L., fibers, separation, microbiological process. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/F0553DD6024 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000001 en Copyright © 2009 Pilanee Vaithanomsat, Poom Phusanakom, Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat and Molnapat Songpim
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:EC362086043 2009-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2009
Amidase from plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Sonia Chacko, Pramod W. Ramteke and Suchit A. John Full Length Research Paper Ninety three cultures of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolated from rhizosphere of Pisum sativum, among them one isolate identified asPseudomonas putida was found to be potential amidase producer. The organism exhibited a battery of PGPR traits including enhanced production of plant growth hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. P. putida MTCC 6809 exhibited both intracellular and extra-cellular amidase activity. The organism produced maximum extracellular amidase enzyme at 30deg;C and pH 7.5 in shaking state. The organism hydrolyzed a wide range of aliphatic amides that included acetamide, propionamide, acrylamide and butyramide. Acrylamide is a known carcinogen, teratogen and neurotoxicant and utilization of acrylamide by P. putida MTCC 6809 assume great importance. The organism is also tolerant to number of heavy metals at higher levels. These characteristics make P. putida MTCC 6809 an excellent candidate for field application in contaminated soil. Key words: PGPR, amidase, aliphatic amides, acrylamide, heavy metal tolerance. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/EC362086043 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000003 en Copyright © 2009 Sonia Chacko, Pramod W. Ramteke and Suchit A. John
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:DCB93FE8946 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2009
Comparison of Norwegian poultry, waterborne and clinical isolates of Campylobacter jejuni by ribotyping Olav Rosef, Algimantas Paulauskas, Nils Grude, Camilla Haslekaring;s and Andrew Jenkins Full Length Research Paper Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently occurring food and waterborne gastroenteritis in Norway and 90% of cases are caused by Campylobacter jejuni. Campylobacteriosis is epidemiologically associated with use of non-disinfected water and consumption of contaminated poultry. In order to provide molecular epidemiological support for this association isolates from local poultry and water were compared with human isolates from domestic and import infections using ribotyping. Automatic riboprints were performed with the PstI restriction enzyme and RiboPrinterreg; and compared with a library of recognised patterns (DUP-IDs). Patterns were further compared with each other using GelCompar software. The isolates from human clinical cases showed high heterogeneity. DUP-IDs found among human isolates were also found in 2 isolates from poultry, DUP-PSTI-1146 and DUP-PSTI-2061. Two human isolates were like isolates from water, DUP-PSTI-2073 and DUP-PSTI-1122, but these were from patients infected abroad. This study provides limited support for the importance of poultry as a source of infection and illustrates the need for studies of much larger scope to encompass the huge diversity of strains and sources of C. jejuni. Key words: Campylobacter, similarity, clustering, genotyping, riboprint. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/DCB93FE8946 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000014 en Copyright © 2009 Olav Rosef, Algimantas Paulauskas, Nils Grude, Camilla Haslekaring;s and Andrew Jenkins
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:E08F2128958 2009-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2009
Simple method to study the mechanism of thermal and non thermal bactericidal action of microwave radiations on different bacterial species Arifa Tahir, Bushra Mateen, Salih Univerdi, Ozer KaraGoban and Mehmet Zengin Full Length Research Paper The present study was based on the investigations to determine whether the bactericidal effect of microwave radiations on bacteria was either thermal or due to microwaves. It was also investigated which bacterial sp is more sensitive to microwave. Five bacterial species, Proteus vulgaris PP25D, Staphylococcus aureus bgh010, Bacillu subtilis ase98, Escherchia coli TRE04 andCorynebacterium spN33 were exposed to microwave radiation. These cultures were selected as test organisms due to their importance in food industry as human pathogens. Bacterial suspensions were exposed to microwave radiations (2450 MHz and 800W) for 60, 120 and 180 s to study the effect of heat generated by microwaves. The second experiment was designed to study the effect of microwaves only by maintaining temperature below 40deg;C. The degree of inactivation at uncontrolled and controlled temperature was compared quantitavely. The viable counts of all cell suspensions were found to reduce greatly with an increase in microwave heating time and temperature. B. subtilis ase98 showed highest reduction at uncontrolled temperature. No significant reduction of cell density was observed in either cell suspension. The effect of microwave radiations was also studied in terms of morphological changes. No detectable change was observed in cell shape and morphology of colonies except S. aureus bgh010. Results indicated that the effect of microwave radiations on bacteria was purely thermal and no detectable change occurred in non-thermal treatment. B. subtilis ase98 were the most sensitive species for microwave radiations. B. subtilis ase98can be used as an indicator bacterium to assess microwaves for sterilization. Key words: Microwave radiation, thermal and non thermal effect, sensitive bacterial sp.. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/E08F2128958 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000038 en Copyright © 2009 Arifa Tahir, Bushra Mateen, Salih Univerdi, Ozer KaraGoban and Mehmet Zengin
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:EDC25D78969 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2009
Evaluation of in-vitro inhibitory effect of honey on some microbial isolate Raied Taha Al- Naama Full Length Research Paper The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of honey sample from Basrah region against certain microbial isolate. Different concentrations (25.0, 50.0, 75.0 and 100.0%) of honey sample where checked for their antimicrobial activities, using some medically important micro-organisms includingEscherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the honey sample were determined on the selected micro-organisms by using broth dilution technique. The sample of honey show inhibitory effect in vitro at 50, 75 and 100% concentration on the various investigated micro-organism except at 50% concentration where there was no inhibition zone on S. aureus. However, no effect was observed at 25% concentration. The MIC for E. coli, Pseudomonas spp. and S. aureus were 6.25, 1.5 and 12.5 mg/ml respectively. The study shows that honey, like antibiotics, has certain organisms sensitive to it, and provides alternative therapy against certain bacteria and is also shown to have antimicrobial action against a broad spectrum of bacteria (both gram-positive and -negative bacteria). Key words: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, honey, antibiotics, sensitivity, antimicrobial. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/EDC25D78969 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000020 en Copyright © 2009 Raied Taha Al- Naama
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:AE435498976 2009-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2009
Structural organization of co-regulated genes in Escherichia coli Ali Azam Talukder-, , Saidul Alam, Md Ershaduzzaman, Sam Khairul Bashar and Mamoru Yamada Full Length Research Paper A promoter-protein fusion library was constructed and analyzed previously which covered about 8% promoter-proximal genes from Escherichia coli in respect to their reading frames, protein productivity as well as expressional regulations under normal and various environmental stress conditions (Talukder et al., 1994, Bioscience Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 58:117-120). In this study, we further analyzed 13 significantly responsive genes. beta;-galactosidase expression levels were varied among the examined clones, indicating that the library having different ranges of promoters from stronger to weaker. DNA database analysis revealed that out of 13 genes studied here, 11 and 2 genes were found to known and unknown or new genes, respectively. Moreover, new findings in case of three genes having interesting structural organizations were recorded this time. The present study supports all previous data to conclude that about 5 - 10% E. coli genes are co-regulated under the control of complex regulatory circuits. Key words: Gene expression, RNA-polymerase, gene organization. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/AE435498976 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000041 en Copyright © 2009 Ali Azam Talukder-, , Saidul Alam, Md Ershaduzzaman, Sam Khairul Bashar and Mamoru Yamada
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:838568D8984 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2009
Conjugational transfer and survival of plasmid encoding silver and antibiotic resistance genes of Acinetobacter baumannii BL54, E. coli K12 J53.2 transconjugants and pseudomonas transformants in different soil microcosms Mohammad Reza Shakibaie, Pershant Dhakephalker, Balu Parnab Kapadnis and Balu Ananda Chopade Full Length Research Paper In this investigation we tried to transfer plasmid encoded silver and antibiotic resistance genes from Acinetobacter baumannii BL54 to E. coli k12 J53.2 and Pseudomonas (a soil microflora) by conjugation and transformation in different soil microcosms and study the survival of the isolated bacterium in each soil. Clay loam, fine clay, sandy and clay soils were collected from different area of mahrashtra in India. Microcosm was developed for each type of soil in the glass tube (150 x 25 mm) with 2 g soil moistened with 1 ml 0.5% sterile saline. The conjugation frequency was lowest in sterile clay soil with frequency of 0.2 x 10-6, while, it was maximum in clay loam soil with frequency of 0.6 x 10-6. Similarly, in non-sterile soil microcosms, the rate of conjugation was highest in clay loam soil with frequency of 0.09 x 10-6 while was lowest in sandy soil (0.03 x 10-6). Rapid death of the organisms was observed within 9 days of incubation in presence of selection in sandy soil, while in fine clay, survival of the organisms was extended beyond 11 days. The Pseudomonas transformant survived for more than 40 days in presence of selection. From above results it can be concluded that plasmid mediated silver and antibiotic resistant genes were transferred in different soil by conjugation process. However, the rate of conjugation was affected by soil type. Soil transformant considerably survived in fine clay containing high amount of organic carbon and neutral pH as compared to sandy soil. Key words: Conjugation, soil type, survival, plasmid, Acinetobacter baumannii. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/838568D8984 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000015 en Copyright © 2009 Mohammad Reza Shakibaie, Pershant Dhakephalker, Balu Parnab Kapadnis and Balu Ananda Chopade
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:594AFF48992 2009-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2009
Isolation of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. from raw fish sold in fish market in Khartoum state Sanaa O. Yagoub Full Length Research Paper Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from gills, skin, muscles and the intestine of 83 out of 150 (55%) randomly collected fishes, the most dominants isolates were E. coli, Citrobacter spp, Enteriobacter spp and Klebsiella spp. This together with the highly pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae including Salmonella spp and Shigella spp.Proteus spp, and Alklegens spp. Potential pathogenic organisms were also among the isolates. On the other hand Pseudomonas spp was isolated from 62% of randomly collected fishes. The number and percentages of the isolated bacteria were compared according to seasons. The total bacterial count, coliform count and E. coli count were estimated from all parts of collected samples. The negative impacts of the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp in fishes were discussed based on their potential pathogenic effect toward public health and their role to enhance rapid spoilage of fishes. Key words: Enterobacteriaceae, fisheries, public health, Pseudomonas. Academic Journals 2009 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/594AFF48992 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000032 en Copyright © 2009 Sanaa O. Yagoub
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:70CC1C59015 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2010
Some new results on affinity hemodialysis and T cell recovery R. O. Ayeni, A. O. Popoola and J. K. Ogunmoyela Full Length Research Paper We provide criteria under which affinity hemodialysis could provide a stable infected equilibrium. Key words: Affinity hemodialysis, HIV/AIDS envelope protein, stability criteria. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/70CC1C59015 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000040 en Copyright © 2010 R. O. Ayeni, A. O. Popoola and J. K. Ogunmoyela
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:1861B809028 2010-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2010
Utility of IS1245-IS1311 based PCR typing system for Mycobacterium avium isolates obtained from clinical and environmental sources G. P. S. Jadaun, Prashant Upadhyay, Zafar Ahmed, Ram Das, Deepti Parashar, D. S. Chauhan, V. D. Sharma and V. M. Katoch Full Length Research Paper In the present study, twenty four Mycobacterium avium isolates obtained from clinical (sputum) and environmental (water and soil) samples were analyzed by a PCR typing method. Gel electrophoresis patterns showed that a single PCR reaction generated 21 profiles. Based on the relatedness of the PCR band patterns six isolates could be grouped in three clusters. Results have the implication that the PCR based system could be used as a simple and rapid method for molecular typing of M. avium isolates with high discriminatory index. Key words: IS1245, IS1311, Mycobacterium avium, PCR typing. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/1861B809028 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000043 en Copyright © 2010 G. P. S. Jadaun, Prashant Upadhyay, Zafar Ahmed, Ram Das, Deepti Parashar, D. S. Chauhan, V. D. Sharma and V. M. Katoch
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:73DFC4C9048 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2010
Intestinal helminth infection and anaemia during pregnancy: A community based study in Ghana S. E. Baidoo, , S. C. K. Tay, K. Obiri-Danso and H. H. Abruquah Full Length Research Paper Intestinal helminths are among the most common and widespread of human infections, contributing to poor nutritional status, anaemia and impaired growth. Anaemia and iron deficiency in pregnancy is a major public health problem in developing countries, but their causes are not always known. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of anaemia and iron deficiencyand their association with helminths, among pregnant women in the Ashanti region of Ghana. A cohort study was carried out in the Sekyere, East district of the Ashanti region of Ghana. One hundred and eight (108) pregnant women were followed until 5-10 weeks postpartum, during the period of (December 2005 - November 2006). Haemoglobin and total serum iron concentrations were evaluated in venous blood samples, and helminths infections evaluated in stool samples in each trimester using standard methods. Most of the 108 pregnant women, 54.9% were found to be anaemic. The highest prevalence of anaemia and low iron stores (57.4 and 32.4%, respectively) were found in the second trimester. Only 17.6% had evidence of helminths infection, with Necator americanus(hookworm) being the commonest (13.9%). There was a significant association between hookworm infection and low iron stores. The study concluded that hookworm infection is a strong predictor of iron status. These findings reinforce the need to provide anthelminthic therapy to infected women before conception as a public health strategy in reducing the prevalence of hookworm infection, and in addition to providing nutritional and iron supplements to effectively control anaemia in pregnancy. Key words: Intestinal helminth, anaemia, paragravids, primigravids. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/73DFC4C9048 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000030 en Copyright © 2010 S. E. Baidoo, , S. C. K. Tay, K. Obiri-Danso and H. H. Abruquah
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:8A9F6D29061 2010-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2010
Asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus E. A. Ophori, P. Imade and E. J. Johnny Full Length Research Paper This study was to investigate the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in patients clinically diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial isolates. One hundred and thirty type 2 diabetics comprising 56 males and 74 females (aged between 30 - 59 years) attending the Central Hospital, Benin- City, Nigeria were studied. Mid-stream urines were collected from patients who gave informed consent aseptically into sterile McCartney bottles and examined microscopically, culturally using standard techniques and tested for glucose, post-prandial glucose, protein and ketone using a dipstick. Samples were cultured on blood agar, McConkey agar and cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient (CLED) media and incubated at 37deg;C aerobically for 24 h. Isolates were tested against antibiotics which included tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole by the disc diffusion method. White blood cells (WBC) and red blood cells (RBC) were detected in 87 and 6% of samples while ketones and proteins were 6% and 96% respectively present in the samples. Significant bacteriuria (ge;105 cfu /ml) was observed in some samples. Bacteria isolated included Escherichia coli with a prevalence of 56.9%, followed byKlebsiella pneumoniae (12.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (8.5%) and Proteus sp. (6.3%). E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus and Proteus sp. were most sensitive to cotrimazaxole, amoxicillin, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin but a large number of bacteria were resistant to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ampicillin. The misuse of some antibiotics is a major factor responsible for bacterial resistance. Therefore, treatment of ASB in diabetics must be by drugs prescribed by physicians after proper laboratory analysis. Key words: Bacteriuria, type 2 diabetes mellitus, antibiotics, Nigeria, white blood cell, red blood cell. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/8A9F6D29061 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000006 en Copyright © 2010 E. A. Ophori, P. Imade and E. J. Johnny
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:AEA343C9075 2010-08-23T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2010
Extended spectrum beta lactamases among multi drug resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species causing urinary tract infections in Khartoum Akram Hassan Mekki, Abdullahi Nur Hassan and Dya Eldin M. Elsayed Full Length Research Paper This is a descriptive laboratory based case study carried out in Khartoum state hospitals during the period of June, 2007 to April, 2008. The study aimed to evaluate emergence of ESBL among multi drug resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species causing nosocomial UTI. Hundred strains of multi drug resistant (MDR) E. coli and Klebsiella species causing nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs) from two main hospitals from Khartoum (Omdurman teaching hospital and Fedail Hospital) were included in this study. Susceptibility testing was performed against antibiotics commonly used in treatment of urinary tract infections. E. coli,Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca (49, 38 and 13% respectively) were among the studied isolates. beta;-Lactamase was produced by all isolates; high resistance level for 3rd generation cephalosporin was noticed. ESBLs were detected in high prevalence among all multi drug resistant E. coli and Klebsiellaspecies isolates 53%. All isolates were found sensitive to Imipenem and Meropenem. In this study itrsquo;s recommended that developing guidelines for the early phenotypic detection of ESBL in microbiology laboratories and seeking knowledge of antibiotic susceptibility pattern for empirical antibiotic therapy. Further studies about ESBL occurrence among UTIs are also recommended. Key words: ESBL in Sudan, multi-drug resistant, MDR Escherichia coli, MDRKlebsiella spp, urinary tract infection, beta lactamase. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/AEA343C9075 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000021 en Copyright © 2010 Akram Hassan Mekki, Abdullahi Nur Hassan and Dya Eldin M. Elsayed
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:A41F7BB9085 2010-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2010
Isolation and molecular characterization of Flavobacterium columnare strains from fish in Brazil F. A. Sebastiatilde;o, F. Pilarski and M. V. F. Lemos Full Length Research Paper Flavobacterium columnare, the etiologic agent of columnaris disease, has a broad geographical distribution and accounts for a large number of mortalities in fish species. This study aimed to generate a faster method for diagnosis of columnaris through isolation and characterization of the F. columnare 16S rDNA gene from bacteria isolated from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and matrinxatilde; (Brycon amazonicus). The bacteria were characterized biochemically and by PCR-RFLP. For isolation, rasping with ldquo;swabrdquo; was performed directly on the characteristic lesions and the cephalic kidney of the fish then transferred to culture medium suitable for Flavobacterium. DNA was extracted for PCR and digestion with restriction enzymes. Altogether, 37 isolates were obtained. Biochemical assays included testing of absorption of Congo red, production of flexirrubin, production of H2S, nitrate reduction and motility. The results indicated that the isolates can be classified as F. columnare. The phylogram generated by the PCR-RFLP technique showed three main branches among of the F. columnare isolates. Therefore, the use of PCR-RFLP for identification of the bacteria was shown to be a more efficient and rapid tool than current biochemical techniques, which are time consuming and often inconclusive. Key words: Fish, Flavobacterium columnare, PCR-RFLP, 16S rDNA. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/A41F7BB9085 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000031 en Copyright © 2010 F. A. Sebastiatilde;o, F. Pilarski and M. V. F. Lemos
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:517E9899109 2010-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2010
Factors influencing multi-drug resistant and plasmid DNA harbouring Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Lake Manzala, Egypt Mahmoud M. M. Zaky, Fathy A. Mansour and Kenneth M. Persson Full Length Research Paper Lake Manzala is considered one of the most important coastal Lakes in Egypt. This study revealed the highly polluted condition of water and fish samples taken from three of the more important sites (Kapoty, Bashtier and Mataryia areas), representative to human activity and different ecosystems in the Lake water environment. Total suspended solids (TSS), ammonia and nitrates, of the samples taken showed figures exceeding the national and international standards. The samples from the study yielded high levels of bacterial content, which were found through plate counts and by using different growth media such as agar and endo agar. Total viable bacteria (TVB) reached more than 104 cfu/ml in water samples and 105 cfu/g in fish samples, particularly in Kapoty and Mataryia areas. Faecal coliform counts reached 102 cfu/ml in water samples and 103 cfu/g in fish samples. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between Aeromonasspp. counts and some minerals, such as chlorides, calcium and magnesium (r = 0.9, 0.8, and 0.6 respectively; p gt; 0.001), which revealed the interactions and adaptability of such organisms to environmental factors. A total of 88 isolates fromAeromonas differential agar were identified using the API 20E system; 17% of these isolates were Aeromnas hydrophila, and most of these strains were resistant to three or more antibiotics including pencillinG, ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Isolation of plasmid DNA from these strains of A. hydrophila, showed that most harboured plasmids ranging from less than 2.2 - 4 KbP. Such findings could explain the adaptability and multi-drug resistance of such bacterial pathogens, which may have an impact on the course of infection and active causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases in this important coastal area of Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea. Key words: Aeromonas hydrophila, multi-drug resistance, plasmid DNA, Lake Manzala. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/517E9899109 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000022 en Copyright © 2010 Mahmoud M. M. Zaky, Fathy A. Mansour and Kenneth M. Persson
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:1FAC3319123 2010-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2010
Antibiotics susceptibility of bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media Ihsan E. Alsaimary, Ahmed M. Alabbasi and Jassim M. Najim Full Length Research Paper One hundred twenty patients with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in Basrah, 65(54.2%) males and 55(45.8%) Females, with male: females ratio (1.2:1) and 60 individual without ontological problems as control group were included in this study, which was done during the period of March, 2009 to January, 2010. This Include collection of aural swab samples, culturing of samples, identification of causative agents species and antibiotic sensitivity. Gram#39;s negative bacteria were the commonest microorganisms; it comprises (60%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was common causative agent (19.04%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (16.7%) and Klebsiella spp. (14.3%). Mixed infection was found in high percent (74%), in which P. aeruginosa and other microorganisms were more common. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern showed that P. aeruginosa was sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin +clavulanic acid and gentamicin, while other is appeared resistant, S. aureus was sensitive to ciprofloxacin, moxicillin+clavulanic acid, erthomycin, cephalexine and it is resistant to pencillin and ampicillin, klebsiella species were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin +clavulanic acid ,gentamicin,while resistant to tetracycline. Key words: Antibiotics, bacteria, otitis media. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/1FAC3319123 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000005 en Copyright © 2010 Ihsan E. Alsaimary, Ahmed M. Alabbasi and Jassim M. Najim
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:DB842AD9135 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2010
Comparison of in vitro activity of imipenem productions on bacterial isolates from Hashemi Nezhad Tehran hospitalized patients Amirmorteza Ebrahimzadeh Namvar, Babak Asghari, Shoshtari Zadeh and Abdolaziz Rastegar Lari, Full Length Research Paper Carbapenams are one of the szlig;-lactamase antibiotic resistances to penicillin that were introduced in 1980 to the medical world. Imipenem- a semi-synthetic derivative of thienamycin- is one of the most important broad spectrum szlig;-lactamase in carbapenems. The irregular usage of drugs, especially in these types of gram-negative bacteria will lead to a serious problem in the treatment of pathogenic bacteria. Comparison of in vitro activity of imipenem productions is the aim of this study. 135 strains of various gram positive and gram negative bacteria collected from Hashemi Nejad Hospital in Tehran were studied. Initially strains were identified by phenotypic methods; then Disk Diffusion and MIC methods based on instructions of Forum France Microbiology were used. From 135 samples, urine samples (36%) were the most and trachea (4%) was the lowest. Among gram-negative bacteria isolated, both E. coli and Pseudomonas (37%) had most common and Enterobacter (1%) was the lowest. By disk diffusion method, Supranem, Taynam and Mast pharmaceutical products, showed similar result, but the results related to internal company disks were different. 20% of the total bacteria studied had MIC over 8 mg (resistant). Due to results of this study using standard dicks and antibiotic powder (Imipenem/Cilastatin sodium) (Supranem) or (Tienam) is recommended. Key words: szlig;-lactamase, antibiogram, imipenem. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/DB842AD9135 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000013 en Copyright © 2010 Amirmorteza Ebrahimzadeh Namvar, Babak Asghari, Shoshtari Zadeh and Abdolaziz Rastegar Lari,
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:4BB68D99146 2010-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2010
Microbiology and semen indices of sexually-active males in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria S. O. Onemu, A. O. Ogbimi and E. A. Ophori Full Length Research Paper This study was designed to examine the microbiological quality and semen indices of seminal fluids of sexually active males in Benin City, Nigeria, and to determine the relationship between the presence of pathogenic micro-organisms and semen parameters. Semen was collected from 229 volunteer sexually-active men, aged 19 - 33 years (mean 24.73 plusmn; 3.4) in Benin City, Nigeria. Volunteers were advised to abstain from sex for 3 days before semen collection and also from alcohol (including other factors that may affect semen quality). A ten-fold serial dilution of well mixed semen in physiological saline (NaCl 0.15 M) was inoculated onto blood agar, heated blood agar, MacConkey agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar slants and mycoplasmal agar enriched with 30% serum and supplemented with 100 g/ml ceftazidine for the isolation of Mycoplasma species. All inoculated culture media were incubated at 37deg;C for 24 - 48 h. Isolates were characterized and identified by standard microbiological methods and antimicrobial sensitivity test was carried out by the disc diffusion method. The determination of spermatozoa concentration, motility characteristics and other accompanying cells was carried out adopting standard procedures. Micro-organisms (ge; 3 times; 106 cfu/ml) were isolated from 80/229 (34.9%) of participantsrsquo; semen. The isolates were Staphylococcus aureus47/80 (58.8%). Escherichia coli 10/80 (12.5%) Klebsiella spp. 6/80 (7.5%),Candida albicans 5/80 (6.3%) and Mycoplasma species 12/80 (15.0%). Sensitivity to antimicrobial agents was highest among isolates to ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin. No activity was demonstrated with amoxicillin and tetracycline. Spermatozoa concentration was zero in 10.4% of the study population, 28.4% had concentrations below World Health Organization threshold for spontaneous male fertility. Semen with pathogenic micro-organisms had significantly lower (p lt; 0.001) spermatozoa concentrations and motility parameters. Therefore, the study suggests that the presence of pathogenic micro-organisms in semen is a marker of deterioration in semen parameters and development of male infertility. Key words: Microbiology, pathogenic microorganisms, semen, sexually active males, antimicrobial, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2010 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/4BB68D99146 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000033 en Copyright © 2010 S. O. Onemu, A. O. Ogbimi and E. A. Ophori
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:DA7B9A49170 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
Correlation of plasmid with drug resistance of clinical isolates of Escherichia coli Mohammad Shahriar and Nishat Zareen Khair Full Length Research Paper According to the latest data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the six ESKAPE bacteria are responsible for two thirds of all health care-associated infections (HAIs) including Escherichia coli. Klebsiella species and their gram-negative cousin E. coli together accounted for 18 percent of all HAIs in 2006 to 2007, and a growing proportion of these two bad bugs carry resistance to a remarkable spectrum of antibiotics. Of the very few drugs in late-stage development, none works by a novel mechanism. The aim of our study is to correlate the plasmids with drug resistance of clinical isolates of E. coli. Twenty two clinical isolates of E. coli were collected from different diagnostic centers of Dhaka and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was tested. Seven multidrug resistant isolates of E. coli were selected and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern was tested before and after curing. Our study revealed that 100% of the isolates (22 isolates) were resistant to cephalexin, cephradine, oxacillin, penicillin and vancomycin. 95.45% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, cloxacillin and imipenem. 90.91% isolates (21 isolates) were resistant to erythromycin. 81% of the isolates (18 isolates) were resistant to amoxicillin. 72.72% (16 isolates) were resistant to co-trimoxazole, 63.64% (14 isolates) were resistant to tetracycline. 31.81% (7 isolates) were resistant to ceftriaxone and neomycin. 22.73% (5 isolates) were resistant to gentamicin and only 13.64% of the isolates (3 isolates) were resistant to chloramphenicol. There was no significant difference in the antibiotic susceptibility pattern before and after curing indicating no correlation between plasmid and drug resistance in the 7 isolates of E. coli. However, isolate number 5 which was resistant to gentamicin, neomycin and imipenem became sensitive after curing. Similarly sample number 1 became sensitive to rifampicin and imipenem and sample number 7 became sensitive to imipenem after curing. Key words: Multi-drug resistant, Escherichia coli, antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid, curing. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/DA7B9A49170 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000017 en Copyright © 2011 Mohammad Shahriar and Nishat Zareen Khair
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:86F9D3C9177 2011-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
Genetic variability and correlation analysis for quantitative traits in chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum L.) Qurban Ali, Muhammad Hammad Nadeem Tahir, Hafeez Ahmad Sadaqat, Saeed Arshad, Jahenzeb Farooq, Muhammad Ahsan, Muhammad Waseemand Amjad Iqbal Full Length Research Paper The present studies were conducted to the estimation of correlation for quantitative traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in the field of the department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, during the crop season 2009 to 2010. Correlation studies showed that biomass per plant, number of pods per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of seeds per pod and 100-seed weight were positive and significant at genotypic level but positive and highly significant at phenotypic level. Whereas number of days taken to flowering, number of days taken to maturity, primary branches per plant, secondary branches per plant were positively correlated with the grain yield per plant at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Plant height was negative and non-significantly correlated with grain yield per plant at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. Key words: Cicer arietinum, correlation, genotypic, phenotypic, chickpea, Pakistan. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/86F9D3C9177 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000023 en Copyright © 2011 Qurban Ali, Muhammad Hammad Nadeem Tahir, Hafeez Ahmad Sadaqat, Saeed Arshad, Jahenzeb Farooq, Muhammad Ahsan, Muhammad Waseemand Amjad Iqbal
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:36B0DB29611 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
Influence of seedling treatment of calcium on some enzyme activity in walnut under salinity Mohammad Ali Sheikh Beig Goharrizi, Mohammad Ziaee, Mohammad Reza Mohammadpoor and Jafar Abdollahi Full Length Research Paper Levels of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activity were determined in 2 years-old walnut plants which were grown in environmental conditions characterized by high temperatures. Itrsquo;s also high photosynthetic photon flux density levels and subjected to a different salinity levels for 60 days period. The present study, through an experimental campaign, was carried out on both normally irrigated and salt-stressed plants with CaCl2 in order to comprehend the plant response to salt stress and its ability to recover. Leaf samples were collected and analyzed for POD and CAT enzymes activities before the experimental period. The levels of CAT and POD activity increased in parallel with the severity of salt levels in leaves of tolerant genotypes walnut especially the plants which treated by Ca+2. This increase extended, after 6 days of salt stress usage. However, in all the treatments, POD and CAT activity was reduced significantly from 6 to 10 days after beginning the salt stress. The increase of antioxidant enzymes activity indicates its potential role in salt tolerant salt in promising walnut genotypes. The amount of antioxidant compounds increases in plant during the salt stress. Key words: Enzyme activity, peroxidase, catalase, salinity, walnut. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/36B0DB29611 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000029 en Copyright © 2011 Mohammad Ali Sheikh Beig Goharrizi, Mohammad Ziaee, Mohammad Reza Mohammadpoor and Jafar Abdollahi
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:02817459616 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
Induction of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in bacterial spot disease resistance of tomato S. Umesha and R. Kavitha Full Length Research Paper Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) is known to be involved in the defense related responses in many host-pathogen systems. Induction of CAD enzyme in bacterial spot disease resistance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) was investigated in the present studies. Twenty different tomato cultivars were screened for resistance against bacterial spot disease incited by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv.vesicatoria under field conditions. Field screening was performed by artificially inoculating X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria suspension to four-week-old tomato seedlings and observed for the typical symptoms of bacterial spot disease. They were categorized into highly resistant, resistant, susceptible and highly susceptible cultivars on the basis of disease incidence under field conditions. Tomato cultivars were subjected for estimating CAD - a defense-related enzyme. Temporal pattern of the enzyme was estimated using four cultivars representing each category of tomato cultivars by inoculating with six isolates of X. a. vesicatoria. Native PAGE analysis of CAD was carried out for the time course of enzyme activity and also by selecting three different tomato cultivars, after infecting with the pathogen. Based on the inducible amounts of the enzyme upon pathogen infection, the tomato cultivars were correlated with that of disease incidence under field conditions. A significant (Ple;0.05) correlation was observed between the degree of host resistance and the enzyme level. In highly resistant tomato cultivar the enzymatic level was increased in comparison with highly susceptible tomato cultivars. Isoform analysis of CAD enzyme indicated a clear difference between the number of isoforms and also the intensity of each isoform after pathogen infection with the resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. A possible regulation of CAD in imparting host resistance is discussed here. Key words: Tomato, Solanum lycopersicum, bacterial spot, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, resistance, susceptibility. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/02817459616 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000028 en Copyright © 2011 S. Umesha and R. Kavitha
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:82D6DC09647 2011-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
The protective effect of beta glucan against Escherichia coli infected mice via intraperitonial administration Elufisan T. O., Oyelade Busayo and Oloke J. K. Full Length Research Paper Mice infected with Escherichia coli were protected against lethal peritonitis by the intra peritoneal administration 0.2 ml of 10 mg of poly-1,3,1,6-glucotriosyl-1,3,1,3-glucopyranose (PGG) glucan per gram body weight of animal 24 h prior to bacterial infection. This procedure employed in this study, is similar to that employ in a previous studies where rat model were protected with beta;-glucan against intra-abdominal sepsis, where the intramuscular doses of 10 ml to 10 g per animal 24 h and 4 h prior to surgical implantation of the bacterial inoculums reduced the early mortality associated with the peritonitis phase of this experimental disease process. In this study mice were protected with beta;-glucan against peritonist 24 h prior to intraperitoneal administration of bacteria inoculums. Quantitative cultures of the liver obtained from mice infected with E.coli showed significantly the liver of PGG glucan-treated infected animal has a reduced microbial load as compare to those infected and were not treated. The transient increase in survival rate of mice infected withE.coli that have been treated with PGG glucan- as compare with that of those not treated shows the significant effect of beta; glucan on E.coli infection. Key words: Beta-glucan, Escherichia coli, poly-131-6-glucotriosyl-j31-3-glucopyranose (PGG) glucan, peritonitis, inoculums, intra-peritoneal, intramuscular. . Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/82D6DC09647 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000042 en Copyright © 2011 Elufisan T. O., Oyelade Busayo and Oloke J. K.
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:210A5A19660 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
Bacterial contamination: A comparison between rural and urban areas of Panipat District in Haryana (India) Tyagi Shruti, Tyagi Pankaj K., Panday Chandra Shekhar and Kumar Ruchica Full Length Research Paper A randomized sampling from open air of the kitchens in rural vs urban households to determine bacterial contamination of Haryana (India) were carried out by taking 80 samples between July to September 2009. 40 samples of each in rural and urban area were collected in culture plates. The inoculation procedures were varied from direct inoculation of the kitchen air into the nutrient agar medium. Identification by bacterial taxonomy key, different morphological and biochemical tests in rural households, numbers of bacteria revealed Salmonella spp., Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp.and Paenibacillus spp. with 9 different strains and in urban households, numbers of bacteria revealed Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Micrococcus spp., Paenibacillusspp. and Acinetobacter spp. with 27 strains. Among the isolates, Salmonella spp. (80%) followed by Acinetobacter (63%), Pseudomonas putida (38%) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (30%) were observed in rural areas. In urban areas Bacillus spp. (88%),Pseudomonas spp. (75%), Micrococcus spp. (70%), Paenibacillus spp. (38%) andAcinetobacter spp. (30%) were observed. The bacteriological quality of air of kitchens in rural households was found to be more pathogenic and virulent as compared to that of kitchen in urban households. These opportunistic pathogens may be harmful, especially in immunocompromised host. In this setting, there is a constant risk of contamination and transfer to willing host. Hence, better quality of air can be achieved by manipulating sanitation and hygiene within houses, kitchens and surrounding areas. Key words: Air of kitchens, households, bacteriological quality, sanitation and hygiene. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/210A5A19660 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000007 en Copyright © 2011 Tyagi Shruti, Tyagi Pankaj K., Panday Chandra Shekhar and Kumar Ruchica
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:95851079668 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
Biodegradation model on effect of some physicochemical parameters on aromatic compounds in fresh water medium C. P. Ukpaka Full Length Research Paper Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/95851079668 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000009 en Copyright © 2011 C. P. Ukpaka
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:72E7BF89672 2011-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Salmonella enterica serovars in shrimps in 4 h K. Thirumalai Raj, G. Jeyasekaran, R. Jeya Shakila, A. Jemila Thangarani and D. Sukumar Full Length Research Paper A rapid and sensitive multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) based assay was developed for the detection of Salmonella enterica serovars such as Typhi (ATCC 122235), Paratyphi A (MTCC 735), Typhimurium (MTCC 98), Enteritidis (ATCC 13065), Weltevreden (MTCC 1169) Bovismorbificians (MTCC 1162), Brunei (MTCC 1168), Arizonae (MTCC 660) and Infantis (MTCC 1167) in shrimps within 4 h of pre-enrichment. The Salmonella genus specific gene of himA gene was selected and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region was used as an internal amplification control (IAC). The genomic DNA was extracted by using boiling and centrifugation method. Sensitivity of the assay was tested by artificially inoculating the shrimp homogenate with viable cells of Salmonella. The MPCR assay could detect up to 5 cells within 4 h of pre-enrichment. Amplification of DNA extracted from other bacterial pathogens viz. Vibrio cholerae (NICED 16582), Escherichia coli (ATCC 9637) andStaphylococcus aureus (ATCC 12598) yielded negative results. This MPCR assay provides specific, rapid and reliable results and allows for the cost effective detection of serovars of S. enterica in one reaction tube in mixed bacterial communities that are prevalent in shrimp products. Key words: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR), Salmonella enteric, himA,16S-23S spacer region, 4 h assay. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/72E7BF89672 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000035 en Copyright © 2011 K. Thirumalai Raj, G. Jeyasekaran, R. Jeya Shakila, A. Jemila Thangarani and D. Sukumar
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:6E59EF69690 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
Colonization and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among farm animals in Saudi Arabia Mohammad A. Alzohairy Full Length Research Paper Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/6E59EF69690 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000011 en Copyright © 2011 Mohammad A. Alzohairy
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:4D194DE9702 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
Development of Ascochyta blight [Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab.] resistant chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes Qurban Ali, Nazir Javed, Arbab Ahmad, Muhammad Hammad Nadeem Tahir, Muhammad Ahsan, Muhammad Iqbal and Jehanzeb Farooq Full Length Research Paper The present studies were conducted to estimate correlation and combining ability analysis among quantitative traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) during 2008 to 2010. Ten chickpea varieties/lines (08-AG-004, CH-70/02, CH-76/02, NOOR-91, K-70005, K-70008, K-70022, CM-2008, YN-08004 and K-70009) were evaluated for the source of resistance against Ascochyta rabiei but none was found highly resistant. However four lines (08-AG-004, CH-70/02, CH-76/02 and NOOR-91) were moderately resistant and five lines (K-70005, K-70008, K-70022, CM-2008 and YN-08004) exhibited moderately susceptible reaction. Among twenty varieties/lines were evaluated for the source of resistance but none was found highly resistant and two lines 101 and 620 were resistant. However four lines viz. Paidar-91, Pb-2000, 818 and 870 were found to be moderately resistant. Nine lines viz. AUG-27, M-98, 114, 115, 117, 781, 1049, 4025, and 5006 exhibited moderately susceptible reaction and three lines 205, 1205, and 1288 exhibited susceptible reaction. The genotypes Paidar-91, 620, PB-2000, 101 and 870 were crossed in 5 x 5 diallel fashion. The GCA and SCA effects for various quantitative traits like days taken to flowering, days taken to maturity, plant height, primary branches per plant, secondary branches per plant, number of pods per plant, seeds per pod, plant biomass, 100-seed weight, number of grains per plant and seed yield per plant were ascertained. Key words: Ascochyta rabiei, Cicer arietinum, blight, chickpea, germplasm, diallel. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/4D194DE9702 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000018 en Copyright © 2011 Qurban Ali, Nazir Javed, Arbab Ahmad, Muhammad Hammad Nadeem Tahir, Muhammad Ahsan, Muhammad Iqbal and Jehanzeb Farooq
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:653EA549715 2011-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
Correlation and path coefficient studies in maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes under 40% soil moisture contents Qurban Ali, Muhammad Hammad, Nadeem Tahir, Muhammad Ahsan, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed Basra, Jehanzeb Farooq and Muhammad waseem and Mehboob Elahi Full Length Research Paper The present study pertaining to the estimation of genetic parameters and characters association in forty maize genotypes was conducted in the glasshouse of the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, during the crop season in February 2009 at 40% moisture level. The data for various quantitative characters were recorded, statistically analyzed. The path-coefficients were computed to estimate the contribution of individual characters to the fresh shoot length. Investigations regarding path coefficient showed that fresh root length had maximum direct effect on fresh shoot length at 40% moisture level followed by dry root weight, root density, leaf temperature and dry shoot weight. It was concluded that fresh root length, dry root weight, root density, leaf temperature and dry shoot weight are the characters which contribute largely to fresh shoot length of maize seedlings and selection can be made on the basis of these characters. Key words: Zea mays, correlation, path coefficient, genotypic, phenotypic, Pakistan.a Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/653EA549715 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000016 en Copyright © 2011 Qurban Ali, Muhammad Hammad, Nadeem Tahir, Muhammad Ahsan, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed Basra, Jehanzeb Farooq and Muhammad waseem and Mehboob Elahi
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:0BF8CCC9731 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
Antibacterial activity: A comparison of ripe and unripe fruit extracts of Cissus multistriata (Vitaceae) plant Enemuor, Simeon Chukwuemeka, Omale, James and Joseph, Ekpa Matthew Full Length Research Paper The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts of the ripe and unripe fruit of Cissus multistriata against Escherichia coli (Swine) ISB492, E. coli (Swine) ISB440, Serratia marcescens FD5/64, S. marcescens FD1/62, Staphylococcus aureus FD1/62 andBacillus cereus ISB517 were determined using agar ditch diffusion and tube dilution methods. The crude methanol extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against some of the tested bacterial isolates. Both ripe and unripe fruit extracts were inhibitory to S.marcescens (FD5/64). The unripe fruit extract also was inhibitory to S. marcescensFD1/62 and S. aureus FD1/62. The unripe fruit extract exhibited more antibacterial activity than the ripe fruit extract with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 50 mg/ml. The present findings have added to the fact that C. multistriata has some medicinal values which the traditional medical practitioners have been tapping in their treatment of ailments in their localities. Further studies are required to identify the phytochemicals involved and to know the component that is lost during ripening that contributed to loss of some antibacterial activity of the ripe fruit extract of the plant. When these facts are harnessed, it will surely be useful in the development of some new drugs with broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Key words: Cissus multistriata, antibacterial activity, ripe and unripe fruit, bacterial isolates, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Kogi State, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/0BF8CCC9731 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000004 en Copyright © 2011 Enemuor, Simeon Chukwuemeka, Omale, James and Joseph, Ekpa Matthew
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:4EBF71D9745 2011-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
Monitoring of enteric fever and diarrhea causing bacteria in a rural setting in Nigeria Paulinus Osarodion Uyigue and Kingsley Anukam Full Length Research Paper Blood and stool samples of patients attending the General Hospital Abudu, Edo State, Nigeria were analyzed to know the prevalence of enteric fever and diarrhea causing bacteria in the area in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Blood sample was collected in Robertson cooked medium and glucose broth; then subcultured on blood agar, macConkey agar,salmonella/shigella agar and nutrient agar. Widal agglutination test was also carried out on the blood samples. Stool sample was inoculated into thiosulfate bile sucrose medium, seleniteF medium and later subcultured on macConkey agar and salmonella/shigella agar. Of the patients screened, the percentage incidence of Salmonella typhi was between 17.5 and 56.5% in 2007;Salmonella paratyphi C was between 2.0 and 26.7%; Salmonella paratyphi A was between 0 and 9.4% and Salmonella paratyphi B was between 0 and 0.7%; enteropathogenic Escherichia coli was between 0 and 0.6%; neither shigella norVibrio cholera was isolated. In 2008 of the salmonella organisms, the incidence of S. typhi was highest with frequency of 19.7 to 54.5%, followed by S. paratyphi C: 1.0 to 12.6%; S. paratyphi A: 0 to 3.9%, and enteropathogenic E. coli was 0 to 0.8%, and in 2009, the incidence or Salmonella typhi was highest with a frequency of 2.7 to 68.3%. There was no significant difference (pgt;o.05) between S. typhi incidence throughout the study period. However, there was a significant difference (plt;.05) between the incidence of S. typhi and other isolates. This project revealed a high rate of typhoid fever (enteric fever) caused by S. typhi in Abudu (study area). Further work should be done to identify the source or sources of infection especially their water supply as typhoid fever is a water-borne disease. Key words: Enteric fever, incidence, prevalence, subcultured, typhoid fever. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/4EBF71D9745 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000034 en Copyright © 2011 Paulinus Osarodion Uyigue and Kingsley Anukam
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:BF4EF5E9762 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
Impact of Bacillus thuringiensis β – exotoxin to some biochemical aspects of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) Faten, F. Abuldahab, Najlaa, Y. Abozinadah and Nawal, S. Al- Haiqi Full Length Research Paper The present investigation aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis beta; ndash; exotoxin as a biological agent to control Musca domestica and to study its impact on some biochemical parameters of 2nd larval instar. Laboratory studies are carried by applying topically the bacterium B. thuringiensis beta; ndash; exotoxin at LC30 under laboratory conditions (27 plusmn; 2deg;C and 60plusmn;5% RH). The total protein contents of the total body, the total lipids, total carbohydrate, enzymatic activities of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, alkaline and acid phosphatases and non-specific esterases were estimated. Our data revealed that, the total soluble protein contents in supernatant of the homogenated larvae post-treatment was generally decreased, as affected by the tested material at different time intervals as compared to control. As well as a significant reduction in the total lipid content was observed, this may be due to production of enzymes that utilize lipids to remove the invading agent. The total carbohydrate contents was significantly reduced and the reduction was (-14.989, -43.33, 63.93 and -51.69%) with respect to control at the four different time intervals. While the activities of alpha; ndash; and beta; ndash; esterases were decreased in larvae treated withLC30 of B. thuringiensis israelensis and the reduction of enzymatic activity was highly significant. Alkaline and acid phosphatase showed a significant reduction in its activities. Bacterial treatments induced inhibition in the enzyme activity of invertase where the values of inhibition were (-27.85 , -5.92 , -19.46 and -39.96% ) at different time intervals. Also, a similar reduction of trehalase enzyme activity of treated larvae was observed at different time intervals (-32.81 , 12. 95 , -18.20 and -5.16%). It may be possible in this instance to control flies by the use of this bacterium which incorporate spores and crystals of the appropriate strain of B. thuringiensisisraelensis, by affecting the biochemical systems of the target insect. So, it is quite clear from our results that B. thuringiensis israelensis at concentration of LC30 significantly decreased the activities of all biochemical parameters, we investigated. The general disturbance in metabolism could originate primarily from inhibition of chitin synthesis. Key words: Housefly, bacteria, biocides, sublethal effects, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, enzymes. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/BF4EF5E9762 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000026 en Copyright © 2011 Faten, F. Abuldahab, Najlaa, Y. Abozinadah and Nawal, S. Al- Haiqi
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:42ABC709776 2011-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
In vitro susceptibility of some uropathogens and a comparative assessment of antibacterial activities of local and imported multodiscs Olajuyigbe Olufunmiso O., and Adeoye Oluwaseun Full Length Research Paper The in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of recently isolated uropathogens was investigated using two locally produced brands of antibiotics and one imported brand, in a comparative study to determine their degree of effectiveness and the susceptibility profiles of these uropathogens. Seventy eight (78) bacterial strains containing 12 different species of both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria were isolated and investigated. Escherichia coli was identified as the leading cause of urinary tract infections being the most isolated uropathogen. The activity of FD was comparable with that of AB (imported) which had the most effective antibacterial activities while those contained in JD were the least effective. Of the 18 different antibiotics employed, fluoroquinolones were the most effective antibiotics against all the bacterial isolates, followed by gentamicin gt; augmentin gt; nalidixic acid gt; nitrofurantoin gt; chloramphenicol while other antibiotics exhibited varying degree of activities on the bacterial isolates. It was therefore concluded that some locally manufactured antibiotics are as effective as imported brands while fluoroquinolones, augumentin, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin and nalidixic acid could be considered for first-line therapy in UTIs. Key words: Uropathogens, UTIs, susceptibility, antibiotics, multodiscs. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/42ABC709776 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000027 en Copyright © 2011 Olajuyigbe Olufunmiso O., and Adeoye Oluwaseun
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:F36C2EB9785 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
Prevalence of bacteremia in patients with diabetes mellitus in Karbala, Iraq Mohammed A. K. Al-Saadi, Alaa H. Al-Charrakh and Salim H. H. Al-Greti Full Length Research Paper The present study is designed to study bacteremia and to measure some immunological parameters of diabetic patients in Kerbala City, Iraq during the period from November 2006 until May 2007. This study included a total of 125 patients with diabetes mellitus (30 type I and 95 type II), and 55 healthy persons as Control subjects. Blood samples were collected from both patients and Controls, blood culture was done for bacterial isolation and identification, virulence factors as well as antibiotic susceptibility tests were assessed for each isolate. This study also included the estimation of T-cells count, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma;) concentration, interleukin-4 concentration, IgG, and IgM concentration. The obtained results showed that bacteremia was observed in 24% of the diabetic patients. Gram-positive bacterial isolates were more predominant; 21:30 (70%); than Gram-negative isolates; 9:30 (30%). Cefotaxime, tetracycline and trimethoprime-sulphamethazole antibiotics were the most effective drugs on both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Immunological tests showed decrease in T-cells count significantly (plt;0.05) in type I and II diabetic patients (9.1%, 10.63%, respectively). Concentration of IFN-gamma; also decreased significantly (plt;0.05) in same patients (0.285 and 0.313 I.U/ml, respectively) as compared with control subjects (0.860 I.U/ml). Levels of IL-4 decreased non-significantly (pgt;0.05) in patients with type I and II diabetes (7.050 and 7.703 pg/ml, respectively). The levels of IgG were increased significantly (plt;0.05) in both types I and II (1674.45 and 2095.86 mg/dL) respectively, but the levels of IgM were increased significantly (plt;0.05) in type II (177.64 mg/dL) and non-significantly (pgt;0.05) in type I. Key words: Bacteremia, diabetes mellitus, antibiotics, IL-4, IFN-gamma;, Iraq. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/F36C2EB9785 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000037 en Copyright © 2011 Mohammed A. K. Al-Saadi, Alaa H. Al-Charrakh and Salim H. H. Al-Greti
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:8BC71929803 2011-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
Biochemical and molecular characterization of Haemophilus influenza isolated from Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Afaf I. Shehata, Amal Abdulaziz Alndash;Hazani, Hesham Al-Aglaan and Hanan O. Al- Shammari Full Length Research Paper The objective of this study focused on the prevalence of Haemophilus influenza to confirm the colonies of H. influenza on the basis of their growth requirements and serotype distribution. This study prepared 80 isolates of H. influenze isolated from five different sources (eye, ear, sputum (SP), lower genital tract (TA), and nasopharyngeal (NPA)) with different ages for infants and elderly persons. The phenotypic characteristics, which included the biotype, serotype, antibiogram and beta;-lactamase production, were applied by using APINH and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Also, the study focused on the identification of selected serotype using PFGE analysis. The discussion of this study differentiates the age groups occurrence in the isolates, alongside with non-typeable strain versus the typeable ones and their percentages in the sample of isolates. This clustering of most strains in one PFGE pattern might be explained with the colonel population structure of the encapsulated H. influenza. Key words: Haemophilus influenza, biotype, serotype, antibiogram, beta;-lactamase Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/8BC71929803 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000008 en Copyright © 2011 Afaf I. Shehata, Amal Abdulaziz Alndash;Hazani, Hesham Al-Aglaan and Hanan O. Al- Shammari
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:4E7C0499813 2011-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
A potential new isolate for the production of a thermostable extracellular α- amylase Ahmed, A. Alkando, Hanan Moawia Ibrahim Full Length Research Paper Two hundred and seventy Bacillus species were isolated from soil samples in Khartoum State and tested for alpha;- amylase production. 20 potential isolates of alpha;- amylase producer were obtained during primary screening. Secondary screening of these isolates yielded a high thermostable alkaline alpha;- amylase producing isolate. Of all the species tested, Bacillus licheniformis gave maximum alpha;-amylase activity of 0.7947 U/mg/ml at pH of 8 in iodine method, and (0.024 U/mg/ml) in 3.5.dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. Characterization of the extra-cellular crude alpha;- amylase was further evaluated for its biochemical properties as an enzyme for industrial use. The production of alpha;- amylase following growth of the microorganism was found to be at optimum temperature and pH of 70deg;C and 9.0, respectively. Key words: Thermostable alpha;- amylase, alkaline alpha;- amylase, Bacillus licheniformis. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/4E7C0499813 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000002 en Copyright © 2011 Ahmed, A. Alkando, Hanan Moawia Ibrahim
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:B7FE8EF9825 2011-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2011
Identification of single chain Fv antibody fragment against Helicobacter pylori Cesar Pedroza-Roldan, , Oscar Zavala-Tapia, Leny J. Alvarez-Araujo, Claudia Charles-Nintilde;o, Angel G. Diaz-Sanchez and Raymundo Rivas-Caceres Full Length Research Paper Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of infectious diseases around the world. Although combined antibiotic treatment for the infection exist, the development of therapies such as immunotherapy or an effective vaccine can be helpful for containment and prevention of the infection. Phage display technologies offer a simple way for selecting specific antibody fragments against a specific target. In this work, we report the construction of a phage display antibody library against H. pylori strain N2. The library is constituted of 2.4 times; 104 transformants. A total of 94 clones were randomly selected and screened against the N2 strain, where 22% of them recognized whole-cell extracts of H. pylori. Moreover, other 94 clones were screened against the J99 strain, where 12% of the clones recognized this strain. The scFv-E1N2 was selected and it showed high reactivity in ELISA experiments. Furthermore, it reacted with an antigen of 27 kDa in both strains of H. pylori tested in our study. In conclusion, this scFv library may be used for the selection of antibodies for the development of an immunodiagnostic test. Also, it may provide insights in the identification of antigens for the development of a new vaccine or immunotherapy. Key words: Phage display libraries, scFv antibodies, Helicobacter pylori. Academic Journals 2011 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/B7FE8EF9825 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR.9000025 en Copyright © 2011 Cesar Pedroza-Roldan, , Oscar Zavala-Tapia, Leny J. Alvarez-Araujo, Claudia Charles-Nintilde;o, Angel G. Diaz-Sanchez and Raymundo Rivas-Caceres
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:7E6E41E9849 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2012
Identification and pathogenicity of phytopathogenic bacteria associated with soft rot disease of girasole tuber in Egypt Ismail M. E., Abdel-Monaim M. F. and Mostafa Y. M. Full Length Research Paper Six bacterial isolates were isolated from naturally infected tubers of girasole plants (Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. Balady) showing soft rot, which were collected from the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, El-Minia University, during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Pathogenicity tests showed the virulence of the isolated bacteria in girasole tubers which harbored the pathogen; the bacteria were characterized as rod-shaped, Gram negative, alpha;-methyl-d-glucoside medium, reducing substances from sucrose, phosphatase activity and deep cavities on pectate medium. Otherwise, diagnostic tests suggested that the pathogen wasErwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora. The isolated bacteria caused soft rot of wounded tubers when inoculated into tissues. The bacterial isolates were compared for their degree of pathogenicity as well as for differences in the specific symptoms induced in the different hosts. The tested isolates could infect several host range such as fruits of apricot, apple, olive, lemon, squash, eggplant, potato tubers, cloves of bulbs, garlic and onion; root of radish, carrot, sweet potato and rape, were infected by the tested isolates. On the other hand, no symptoms were exhibited on pods of bean and cowpea, faba bean, fruits of pepper and tomato. The extracts of experimentally diseased girasole tubers were active in pectinase at pH 6 and also caboxymethyl cellulose on pH 6 compared to enzyme activities in healthy tissues. The bacterial isolates also increased the total and reducing sugars in infected than healthy tissues. Key words: Girasole, Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora, pectinase andcaboxymethyl cellulose, total and reducing sugars. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/7E6E41E9849 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR11.015 en Copyright © 2012 Ismail M. E., Abdel-Monaim M. F. and Mostafa Y. M.
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:1C2B36E9857 2012-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2012
Brevibacillus parabrevis, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas citronellolis - Potential candidates for biodegradation of low density polyethylene (LDPE) R. Pramila, Kesavaram Padmavathy, K. Vijaya Ramesh and Krishnan Mahalakshmi Full Length Research Paper Low density polyethylene is one of the polymers that is up till date nearly impossible to be degraded safely. Biodegradation is the safest method of breakdown that possibly leaves behind less toxic residue and shows potentials of bio-geo chemical cycling of the substrate. Considerable amount of work has been carried out in this area, but most of them are associated with blended low density polyethylene (LDPE). Previous reports also rely on host consortia for degradation. Various techniques have been implicated in designing this kind of study. BATH test, to evaluate the hydrophobicity of the isolates was performed apart from the calculation of generation time of the isolates in LDPE incorporated growth medium. Biofilm formation was also quantified by using protein estimation technique. Our findings corroborated previous findings in most of the techniques, but in Sturm test, a technique to evaluate concentration of carbon dioxide, a final product of biodegradation of LDPE, we have taken dissolved CO2 (that is, CO2 present in the soluble form in the growth medium, apart from the gaseous CO2 collected in the KOH tube) also in consideration which is not reported by any of the previous workers. The current article investigated the biodegradation ability of bacteria isolated from a municipal landfill area near Pallikaranai, Chennai, South India. The bacteria were subjected to growth in a medium containing LDPE as the sole carbon source with and without a nitrogen source. Four bacterial species were isolated. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequences they were identified as Brevibacillus parabrevis (PL-1), Acinetobacter baumannii (PL-2, PL-3) and Pseudomonas citronellolis (PL-4). Bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbon (BATH test) was done to determine the bacterial hydrophobicity. Bacterial biomass was quantified to estimate the population density of the biofilm. This work clearly identifies with our objective to find a right microbe to degrade the resistant LDPE by giving out promising results from the present study. Key words: Biodegradation, low density polyethylene (LDPE), bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbon (BATH test), sturm test, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Brevibacillus. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/1C2B36E9857 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR12.003 en Copyright © 2012 R. Pramila, Kesavaram Padmavathy, K. Vijaya Ramesh and Krishnan Mahalakshmi
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:E34FD1C9880 2012-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2012
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying mecA and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes isolated from the holy shrine in Najaf, Iraq Ali M. Al-Mohana, Alaa H. Al-Charrakh, Fadhil H. Nasir, and Miaad K. Al-Kudhairy Full Length Research Paper Two hundred and eighty six Staphylococcus aureus isolates were collected from separate places of the holy shrine in Najaf city, Iraq. Phenotypic and genotypic examination for community associated methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) isolates was carried out. Antibiotic and plasmid profiles of these isolates were also done. The CA-MRSA isolates were examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene. 54 (18.8%) of all of the S. aureus examined were identified as community associated methicillin resistant S. aureus, of which 11 isolates were CA-MRSA. CA-MRSA isolates were examined and subdivided into two groups according to their antibiotic profiles. Eight of the 11 MDR CA-MRSA isolates were alike in their plasmid profiles. Results of PCR revealed that 3 (27.2%) of CA-MRSA isolates carried PVL genes and 9 (72.8%) carried none. The study also revealed that CA-MRSA isolates were resistant to all szlig;-lactam and many of the non szlig;-lactam antibiotics and the frequency of resistance was higher among CA-MRSA isolates than methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), with low ratio of carrying PVL gene among CA-MRSA isolates. Surveillance and researches on CA-MRSA that carry PVL gene should continue to provide a significant insight into the prevalence and epidemiology of these important resistant pathogens. Key words: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, community associated methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA), Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, Iraq. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/E34FD1C9880 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR12.005 en Copyright © 2012 Ali M. Al-Mohana, Alaa H. Al-Charrakh, Fadhil H. Nasir, and Miaad K. Al-Kudhairy
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:06696179889 2012-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2012
Bacillus megaterium, a new pathogen on lupine plants in Egypt Abdel-Monaim M. F., Gabr M. R., El-Gantiry S. M., Shaat M. N. and El-Bana A. A. Full Length Research Paper The causal agents of bacterial blight in lupine (Lupinis termis) were isolated from leaves displaying symptoms in Minia governorate, Egypt. The pathogens were characterized by biochemical and physiological tests, and identified as Bacillus megaterium. Tissue extracts prepared from experimentally diseased shoot systems showed great pectolytic and cellulolytic activities while healthy tissue extracts of both organs showed slight activities of the enzymes. In varietal response test, four lupine cultivars that is, Australian, Balady, Giza 1 and Giza 2 were tested for their susceptibility to all tested B. megaterium isolates and the cultivar Balady was most sensitive to all isolates. However, isolates B2 and B6 were more virulent than the others. Two isolates of B. megaterium isolates that caused blight on lupine plants were subsequently tested on other foliar plants representatives of 17 plant species. Both B. megaterium isolates could not infect any of the tested plants but produced small necrotic spots on faba bean leaves. These results indicate the host specificity of this bacterium towards its host plant and accordingly justify the suggested forma specials lupini to be given to the lupine bacterial pathogen B. megaterium. According to the literature review, this is the first report on the occurrence of B. megaterium as a causal agent of leaf blight of lupine plants in Egypt. Key words: Bacillus megaterium, lupine, pectolytic and cellulolytic activities, cultivars. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/06696179889 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR12.022 en Copyright © 2012 Abdel-Monaim M. F., Gabr M. R., El-Gantiry S. M., Shaat M. N. and El-Bana A. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:7C120379905 2012-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2012
Brucellosis: Prevalence and retrospective evaluation of risk factors in western cities of Tehran province, Iran Abas Bahador, Noormohamad Mansoori, Davood Esmaeili, Reza Amini Sabri Full Length Research Paper Brucellosis is the commonest zoonotic disease that is spread worldwide. In this study, we aimed to compare 40 brucellosis cases with other big series in the literature in view of epidemiological and laboratory findings. A total of 40 brucellosis cases referred to Shahriar Health Center over a 3-year period were included in our study and patient files were reviewed for history and laboratory findings. Of the 40 patients, 19 (47.5%) were females and 21 (52.5%) were males. The mean age of patients was 40 plusmn; 32 years, and 22.5% of cases were aged 24 to 32 years. 19 cases (47.5%) had a history of raising livestock and 52.5% of the cases were found to have no occupational risk for brucellosis. All cases had a history of raw milk and dairy products consumption. The standard tube agglutination (STA) test, Coombs STA test and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) test was positive in all cases (100%). Brucellosis is a major health problem in Iran and the world. Pasteurization of milk and dairy products and education on eating habits must be pursued for eradication of human brucellosis; thus, detection of precise brucella and report to WHO is essential. Key words: Brucellosis, Iran, risk factor. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/7C120379905 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR12.010 en Copyright © 2012 Abas Bahador, Noormohamad Mansoori, Davood Esmaeili, Reza Amini Sabri
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:A82DDA79910 2012-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2012
Antibiotic resistance pattern in bacterial isolates obtained from frozen food samples of animal origin in Sanandaj and Ahvaz Kalantar Enayat, Amin Mansour, Bahmani Nasrin, Tamimi Mohammad, Hashemzadeh Mohammad and Narenji Hanar Full Length Research Paper One of the major public health challenges nowadays is the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens. This study investigated the antibiotic resistance pattern in bacterial isolates obtained from frozen food samples of animal origin in Sanandaj and Ahvaz Iran. A total of 250 packages of food of animal origin were purchased from different separate grocery stores in Sanandaj and Ahvaz during one year. Bacteria were isolated and identified based on national procedures. Antibiogram was done according CLSI guideline. From a total of 250 samples collected from Sanandaj and Ahvaz, 68 (54.4%) and 71 (56.8%) were positive for bacteria respectively. In Sanandaj Prevalence of Escherichia coli, Citrobacter Spp, Enterobacter Spp, Staphylococcocus Spp, and Bacillus cereus was 40, 18, 05, 03 and 2% respectively. The most contaminated food was chicken nuggets (80%). Antibiogram results clearly showed that resistance to Tetracycline and Ampicillin was 55 and 50% respectively. Similarly, in Ahvaz also prevalence of E. coli, SalmonellaSpp, and Proteus Spp, were 52, 03.2 and 02.4% respectively. The above bacteria were 39 and 26% resistance to Ampicillin and Tetracycline respectively. The frozen food samples are perhaps the potential vehicles for transmitting food-borne diseases. Antimicrobial resistance among enteric organisms in food animals was generally low; however, the significance of this study lies in the detection overall resistance of bacterial isolates from the frozen food samples of animal origin in Ahvaz and Sanandaj against different antibiotics. Key words: Frozen food, antimicrobial resistance, Escherichia coli. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/A82DDA79910 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR12.012 en Copyright © 2012 Kalantar Enayat, Amin Mansour, Bahmani Nasrin, Tamimi Mohammad, Hashemzadeh Mohammad and Narenji Hanar
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:D84726D9927 2012-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2012
Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis among gynecological patients attending Khartoum Teaching Hospital Mohammed A. Mohammed and Al Fadhil A. Omer Full Length Research Paper To perform moleular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis among gynecological patients attending Khartoum Teaching Hospital. 200 endocerical smears were collected randomly from out-patient infertile women attending the Department of Obsetrcs and Gyencology, Khartoum Teaching Hospital (Sudan). Detection of C. trachomatis was performed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. About 191 out of 200 patients having vaginal discharge were investigated, 43 (22.5%) of them were found positive for C. trachomatis by PCR test. Most positive cases were in the age range 26-40 years, whereas negative cases were in the age range 61 years and above. The age range (20-40) years, is a risk factor that exposes sexually-active women to C. trachomatis infection. Also, C. trachomatis infection in pregnant women may be associated with abortion and pelvic inflammatory disease.C. trachomatis infection is becoming a public health problem in Khartoum due to its highest frequency among infertile Sudanese women. Key words: Chlamydia trachomatis, polymerase chain reaction, Sudanese women. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/D84726D9927 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR12.004 en Copyright © 2012 Mohammed A. Mohammed and Al Fadhil A. Omer
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:A6730829937 2012-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2012
Characterization of antibiotic resistance in environmental enteric pathogens from Kibera slum in Nairobi-Kenya Muhonja Christabel, Nancy Budambula, John Kiiru and Samuel Kariuki Full Length Research Paper Kibera slum is characterized by poor sanitation hence the frequent outbreaks of diarrheal diseases. Emergence of antibiotic resistance by diarrhoea-causing bacteria is an inevitable challenge in the area. Diarrhea-causing bacteria were isolated from water, soil, vegetables, meat and dry foods samples and their antibiotic susceptibility was characterized. 237 samples were aseptically collected and analyzed. Morphological and biochemical characterization was done using Bergeyrsquo;s manual of determinative bacteriology as a reference. 174 Escherichia coli, 8 Salmonella and 6Shigella isolates were identified. Drug susceptibility of the isolates was done using disk diffusion method where 9 antibiotics from 5 classes of antibiotics were used. The frequencies of resistant isolates to antibiotics were as follows: ampicillin (56.79%), trimethoprim+ sulphamethoxazole (29.63%), augmentin (27.16%), tetracycline (18.52%), streptomycin (13.57%), chloramphenicol (7.41%), nalidixic acid (4.94%), gentamycin (2.47%) and ciprofloxacin (0%). Polymerase chain reaction was done to amplify the antibiotic determinants tet-A, sul 1 and dfrb1. Gel electrophoresis revealed presence of tet-A gene and sul 1 genes but absence ofdfrb1 in 15 isolates that were resistant to tetracycline and SXT. Plasmid extraction and profiling was done and plasmid sizes compared to plasmids of E. coli V517 and 39R861. Large and small plasmids were present in the isolates with tet-A and sul 1genes. Plasmid of 63 bp was present in all isolates. Conjugation experiments confirmed 100% transfer of 63 bp plasmid and 90% complete phenotype in all cases. This study showed presence of contamination of the area by antibiotic resistant diarrhea-causing pathogens, hence proper hygiene procedures and adherence to correct drug prescriptions need to be reinforced. Key words: Characterization, antibiotic resistance, susceptibility, polymerase chain reaction, transconjugants, phenotype, plasmids. Academic Journals 2012 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/A6730829937 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR12.008 en Copyright © 2012 Muhonja Christabel, Nancy Budambula, John Kiiru and Samuel Kariuki
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:F476D9B9957 2013-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2013
Spatial and temporal variation of Escherichia coli in water and soil with relation to water parameters at the estuary of Karnafuly River, Bangladesh Md. Wahidul Alam and Mohammad Zafar Full Length Research Paper This study examined the concentrations of Escherichia coli in soil and water samples, and some physicochemical properties of water collected from the Karnafuly River estuary, Bangladesh during March-June 2012. Among the water parameters, temperature was in the range 26.5 to 32deg;C, salinity varied between 0 and 5 ppt, pH values ranged from 7.5 to 7.9 and dissolved oxygen (DO) was recorded at concentrations of 2.28 to 2.91 mg/l. The average total E. coli were 26 cells/ml in water, but the sediment contained 96.42 cells/g of E. coli. The population of E. coli was always higher in sediment than those that occurred in water among all sampling stations. The growth of E. coli were positively correlated (P lt; 0.01) with water temperature and negatively correlated with salinity, pH and DO. The data on water quality parameters and occurrence of E. coli indicated that water of the Karnafuly estuary is polluted and unhygienic for drinking, even impossible to use for washing purposes without any treatment. Key words: Karnafuly, Escherichia coli, physicochemical, estuary. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/F476D9B9957 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR12.026 en Copyright © 2013 Md. Wahidul Alam and Mohammad Zafar
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:A2AD1AE9967 2013-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2013
Effects of Mn2+ levels on the resistance properties of Bacillus cereus spores Lawrence A. Klobutcher, Elena Gaidamakova, Michael J. Daly, Barbara Setlow, and Peter Setlow Full Length Research Paper In some Bacillus species, manganese levels influence the resistance properties of spores. To determine if this was true for Bacillus cereus, bacteria were sporulated with different MnCl2 concentrations resulting in spores with 30-fold differences in core Mn2+ levels. Spores with different Mn2+ levels displayed no differences in resistance to dry heat, UV radiation, g-radiation, or hydrogen peroxide. However, spores with the lowest Mn2+ level were less resistant to wet heat. Overall, Mn2+levels were not a major factor in B. cereus spore resistance, and this suggests that this will also be true for the closely related B. anthracis spores. Key words: Manganese (Mn2+), spores, spore resistance, g-radiation, Bacillus,Deinococcus. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/A2AD1AE9967 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR12.031 en Copyright © 2013 Lawrence A. Klobutcher, Elena Gaidamakova, Michael J. Daly, Barbara Setlow, and Peter Setlow
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:6BCD9E39981 2013-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2013
Retrospective and clinical studies of Marek’s disease in Zaria, Nigeria Musa I. W., Bisalla M., Mohammed B., Sarsquo;idu L. and Abdu P. A. Full Length Research Paper A ten year retrospective study (2000-2009) of Marekrsquo;s disease (MD) was conducted in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 3,039 different poultry diseases were recorded, MD represents 4.9%. 63% of MD was recorded in birds 10 to 20 weeks old, 9.3% in birds above 30 weeks and 2.0% in birds below ten weeks. MD occurred mainly during the pre-rainy to rainy seasons with a progressive yearly increase. Strong association existed between season and MD (p lt; 0.05), risk estimate was also relevant (OR-2.4). A clinical analysis of birds affected with MD over the years revealed uneven growth and progressive weight loss as major complaints; ruffled feathers and whitish-yellow diarrhea were the major observable signs. Major gross lesions were severe emaciation, thickened proventriculus and flabby heart with loss of coronary fats. Histopathology revealed focal to diffuse neoplastic lesions in the affected organs. MD mainly affected chickens aged 10 to 20 weeks. The disease is endemic and on the increase in Zaria and its environs. We recommend that an effective MD vaccination technique and schedule be established for this region, purchase of point of lay chickens for production should be discouraged and standard biosecurity measures must be enhanced in hatcheries and farms to prevent primary exposure. Key words: Marekrsquo;s disease, occurrence, diagnosis, Zaria. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/6BCD9E39981 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR12.027 en Copyright © 2013 Musa I. W., Bisalla M., Mohammed B., Sarsquo;idu L. and Abdu P. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:2DA6A219996 2013-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2013
Isolation and identification of a pathogen, Providencia rettgeri, in Bombyx mori Jiao Zhang, Zhong-yuan Shen,, Xu-dong Tang, Li Xu, and Feng Zhu Full Length Research Paper A Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, SY-1 strain, was isolated from a naturally infected silkworm Bombyx mori that was suffering from the common infection septicemia. The colony was round, slightly convex, smooth, moist, translucent, regular-edged and milky white on nutrient agar medium. The SY-1 was identified as a putative strain of Providencia rettgeri through its physiological and biochemical properties, and phylogenetic analyses performed using the 16S rRNA gene sequence. The SY-1 was identified as a putative strain of P. rettgeri. This is the first report demonstrating that P. rettgeri is pathogenic to B. mori. The identification of this strain adds to known kinds of pathogens that cause bacterial septicemia in the silkworm. This study aids the understanding of the prevention and control of the bacterial septicemia pathogens of B. mori. Key words: Bombyx mori, bacterial septicemia, pathogen, Providencia. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/2DA6A219996 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2012.0109 en Copyright © 2013 Jiao Zhang, Zhong-yuan Shen,, Xu-dong Tang, Li Xu, and Feng Zhu
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:0ED31FE10009 2013-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2013
Antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolated from five major geopolitical zones of Nigeria Chijioke A. Nsofor and Christian U. Iroegbu Full Length Research Paper Information on the resistance profiles of clinical and non clinical human bacteria isolates in the developing countries can serve as important means of understanding the human pathogens drug resistance interactions in the zone. Escherichia coliisolated from five geopolitical zones of Nigeria were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 14 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. Overall, the 89 isolates tested were 94.4% that showed resistance to Ampicillin; 85.5% to Cotrimoxazole, 92.1% to Cephalothin; 78.7% to Streptomycin, 70.8% to Nitrofurantoin; 79.8 to Tetracycline; 67.4% to Chloramphenicol; 74.2% to Amoxicillin clavulanic acid; 61.8 to Cefpirome; 52.8% to Cefpodoxime; 46.1% to Cefotaxine; 46.1% to Ceftriaxone; 31.5% to Cefoxitin; 38.2% to Nalidixic acid and 24.7% to Gentamycin. These isolates showed a total of 42 different antibiotics resistance profiles, with all the isolates showing resistance to at least four or more of the drugs tested. Statistical analysis showed there was no statistical difference in the proportion of isolates that were resistant to ge;1 antibiotic for human clinical (84.6%) and non-clinical (91.7%) isolates. This result indicates that antimicrobial use in humans has driven the emergence of multi-drug resistant clones in developing countries such as Nigeria that has resulted in an increasingly high prevalence of multiple resistance. Key words: Escherichia coli, resistance profiles, antibiotics, isolates. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/0ED31FE10009 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2012.035 en Copyright © 2013 Chijioke A. Nsofor and Christian U. Iroegbu
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:EC9348810012 2013-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2013
Antibiotic resistance patterns of strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients in three hospitals in Kumasi, Ghana Sixtus Bieranye Bayaa Martin Saana, Francis Adu, Christian Agyare, Stephen Yao Gbedema, Vivian Etsiapa Boamah and Duredoh Freeman George Full Length Research Paper Staphylococcus aureus continues to offer challenges to medical science in the area of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents leading to treatment failures using common antibiotics. In this study, S. aureus isolated from patients from three hospitals in Kumasi, Ghana were tested for their sensitivity to some reference antibiotics using the Kirby-Bauer agar disc diffusion method. A total of 109 S. aureusisolates were obtained from wound and nose swabs of 300 patients. S. aureus was isolated from 44% female and 56.0% male patients. Majority of the S. aureus isolates were identified in patients aged between 20 and 29 years, while those within the age group of 60 to 69 years recorded the least number of S. aureus isolates. Vancomycin had the highest susceptibility of 74.1% followed by ceftriaxone with 67.6%, erythromycin with 49.0%, ampicillin with 47.0% and gentamicin with 44.4%. Out of the 109 S. aureus isolated from the three hospitals, 32.1% exhibited multiple drug resistance. Key words: Antibiotics, bacterial resistance, Staphylococcus aureus, sensitivity. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/EC9348810012 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2012.0081 en Copyright © 2013 Sixtus Bieranye Bayaa Martin Saana, Francis Adu, Christian Agyare, Stephen Yao Gbedema, Vivian Etsiapa Boamah and Duredoh Freeman George
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:A92402F10020 2013-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2013
Biodiversity of molecular profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis cases in West Algeria Nadjia BENHAMED and Mebrouk Kihal Full Length Research Paper Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland with local and or symptoms that occasionally result in a systemic infection. This disease has a profound impact on animal welfare and milk quality, and the most costly disease affecting dairy cows. The bacteria Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently isolated pathogens from both subclinical and clinical infections. This study was conducted to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of S. aureus involved in dairy cow mastitis in West Algeria. A total of 141 isolates of S. aureus isolated from quarter milk samples were collected from dairy cows. All retained S. aureus species contained gyr gene and were identified by molecular typing. The presence of resistance was evaluated in S. aureus. Staphylococci antimicrobial resistance was performed by detection of mecA gene. Several virulence factors including toxin of the Pantin Valentine leukocidin coding gene (pvl) were also investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Only one strain of S. aureus was mecA - and pvl+ gene. Key words: Mastitis, S. aureus, Gyr A, PCR, mecA, pvl. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/A92402F10020 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2012.0079 en Copyright © 2013 Nadjia BENHAMED and Mebrouk Kihal
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:62D5ACB10024 2013-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2013
The presence of cagA genome in blood of infected patient with Helicobacter pylori as new marker Hatami saeideh, Esmaeili Davoud, Fallah Jali l. and Rezaee Jafar Full Length Research Paper Helicobacter pylori is a motile and gram negative bacterium, that has been associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric adenocarcinoma. The strains ofHelicobacter pylori contain CagA associated with severe infections. To investigate the presence of cagA gene in Helicobacter pylori strains among patientsrsquo; sera, about 100 serum specimens that had positive antibody against H. pylori were collected. Serum samples were studied using designed primers. The scale of triglyceride and cholestrol serum samples was measured. PCR method was done on sera of H. pylori samples that had antibody titers against H. pylori .The results indicated that 18% from all the serum samples contain cagA DNA. This study indicates that 12 serum samples contain triglyceride and cholesterol (TG amp; Chol) titers higher than normal scale. According to the findings, it is suggested that the presence of CagA DNA in strains of Helicobacter pylori may play an important role in aggravating disorders. In this investigation we were able to detect H. pylori cagA DNA in patientsrsquo; sera. H. pylori probably attaches to red blood cell and causes bacteremia, but is also able to secrete CagA protein and cagA DNA to host cells by T4 secretory system. Thus, there is risk of integrating cagA DNA in host cell chromosome and inducting antibodies against it. Between the presence of cagA DNA and increase of triglyceride and cholesterol, there exists rational relation. Key words: Detection, cagA genome, blood, marker. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/62D5ACB10024 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2012.0110 en Copyright © 2013 Hatami saeideh, Esmaeili Davoud, Fallah Jali l. and Rezaee Jafar
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:4FF028910027 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2013
Characterization of bacterial strains associated with sheath rot complex and grain discoloration of rice in North of Iran (Mazandaran province) Esmaeil Saberi, Naser Safaie, Heshmatollah Rahimian Full Length Research Paper In recent years, similar symptoms to sheath rot complex (SH C) and grain discoloration (GD) has been observed in paddy fields in the north of Iran. To survey the etiology of this complex disease, 207 samples of rice plants showing wide range of sheath and grain discoloration were collected during 2002-2005 at booting and ripening stages from various geographical locations in Mazandaran province. Pathogenic strains were often isolated from samples with the symptom of longitudinal brown to reddish brown necrosis 5 mm wide extending the entire length of flag leaf sheath. Over 800 strains were isolated from collected samples and tested for pathogenicity on rice and/or hypersensitivity on tobacco or pelargonium. Pathogenic strains were isolated from 20.28% samples which contained only 5.3%of total strains. Eighty two strains comprising 72 strains from plants showing symptoms of sheath rot and grain discoloration, five strains from diseased seedling and fivestandard strains were analyzed for phenotypic studies. Pseudomonas-specific primers were used to confirm identification of the genus.On the basis of phenotypic characters and genus specific primers, the strains belonged to genera Acidovoraxand Pseudomonas. Cluster analysis of 67 biochemical characters grouped 70 selected strains into seven distinct cluster and six groups with one member. The results confirmed that pathogenic strains associated with SH C and GD in Iran (Mazandaran province) belong to Acidovorax avenae subsp avenae (2.32%),Pseudomonas putida (2.32%), Pseudomonas marginalis (6.65%), Pseudomonas syringae (76.7%) and two unidentified species of Pseudomonas (13.95%). Accordingly, the P. syringae was revealed that is the major causal agent of SH C and GD in north of Iran. Key words: Oryza sativa L., bacterial flag leaf sheath rot, Pseudomonas. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/4FF028910027 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2013.0115 en Copyright © 2013 Esmaeil Saberi, Naser Safaie, Heshmatollah Rahimian
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:1FFF82F10029 2013-05-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2013
Carriage of multi-drug resistant bacteria among medical staff of the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon Gonsu K. H., Ndongo G. A., Adiogo D., Toukam M., Ndze V. N., Kechia A. F. and Nkam M, Full Length Research Paper Multidrug-resistant bacteria remain a serious worldwide public health problem. Health care workers are particularly implicated in dissemination of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria (MRB) carriage by health care workers in high risk units of the Yaoundeacute; University Teaching Hospital (YUTH). Nasal, rectal and hand swabs were collected from a sampled staff involved in patient care in the targeted units. The different bacteria were isolated on the appropriate selective culture media. The susceptibility of the different species isolated was done to confirm their different resistance phenotypes. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were isolated in 18.4% of the specimens and distributed in the different collection sites as follows: nose (60%), rectum (24%) and hands (16%). Methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureusrepresented 76% of these multidrug-resistant bacteria, extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing enterobacteracae (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Esherichia coli andEnterobacter cloacae) represented 22%, and highly productive cephalorinase enterobacteracae (E. coli) represented 2%. 62% of the staff included in the study carried at least a resistant bacterium. Health care worker in the Yaoundeacute; University Teaching Hospital serve as an important reservoir for multidrug-resistant bacteria. Key words: Multidrug-resistant bacteria, nosocomial infections, carriage, hospital staff. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/1FFF82F10029 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR12.028 en Copyright © 2013 Gonsu K. H., Ndongo G. A., Adiogo D., Toukam M., Ndze V. N., Kechia A. F. and Nkam M,
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:E6F5F6C10030 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2013
DNA microarray-based detection of antibiotic resistance genes of human isolates of Escherichia coli in Nigeria Chijioke A. Nsofor, Christian U. Iroegbu, Douglas R. Call and Margaret A. Davies Full Length Research Paper Molecular epidemiology of human ecovariants of Escherichia coli from different regions of Nigeria were studied using their antibiotic susceptibility patterns, plasmid profile and DNA microarray techniques. E. coli was isolated using Eosin Methylene Blue agar (EMB) and identified by conventional microbiological technique. The isolates were tested against 14 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. Genotyping was done using DNA microarray. Overall, 42 different antibiotics resistance clusters were observed, with each isolate showing resistance to at least four or more drugs tested. Of the 60 isolates genotyped with DNA microarray, 57 were identified as having, at least, one antimicrobial resistance gene. Among the 90 antibiotic resistance genes detected, bla-CMY-2 was the most prevalent occurring in 38 (63.3%) of the isolates. Other highly prevalent genes occurring in the human isolates, include strA 28(70%) aadE 28(70%); TEM1 11(27.5%); Sul2 14(35%); andTetA 21(52.5%). The microarray genotyping corresponded with the phenotype of the strains. Presence of drug-resistance genes/plasmids in commensal strains isolated from apparently healthy individuals is of great public health importance. Key words: DNA microarray, E. coli, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/E6F5F6C10030 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2013.0120 en Copyright © 2013 Chijioke A. Nsofor, Christian U. Iroegbu, Douglas R. Call and Margaret A. Davies
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:5DF605C10032 2013-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2013
Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract isolated Esherichia coli from Omdurman Teaching Hospital in Sudan Khalid A Abdelhalim and Abdelrahim M Ibrahim Short Communication nfections caused by Escherichia coli have become a significant worldwide public health problem. The antibiotic resistance of E. coli isolated from the urine of patients of Omdurman Teaching Hospital, Sudan was investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial sensitivity of all the non serotyped urinary isolated E. coli. The antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out using antibiotic impregnated multi disc containing eight different antibiotics (Amikacin, Ciproflaxacin, Ceftriaxone, Co-amoxiclav, Imipenem, Norfloxacin and Cotrimoxazole). A total of eighty-six E. coliisolates were tested during the investigation. The E. coli isolated exhibited variations in their resistance pattern to the various antibiotics. Generally, no E. coli was resistant to all tested antibiotics, no E. coli isolate was also resistant to only one or a single antibiotic and only two isolates were completely sensitive to all the antibiotics used. The E. coli showed the highest resistance to Cotrimoxazole, Co-amoxiclav, Cipro-floxacin and Norfloxacin. Antimicrobial resistance is a local as well as a global problem and the emergence of multidrug resistance will hinder the therapeutic options, hence monitoring resistance is of paramount importance. The indiscriminate use and misuse of antibiotics should therefore be discouraged. The future usefulness of these drugs will however depend on effective interventions to halt the selection and spread of resistance among enteric organisms. Key words: Escherichia coli, antimicrobial sensitivity, emergence of resistant strains. Academic Journals 2013 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/5DF605C10032 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2012.0111 en Copyright © 2013 Khalid A Abdelhalim and Abdelrahim M Ibrahim
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:5274DA143259 2014-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2014
Detection of biofilm formation of a collection of fifty strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Algeria at the University Hospital of Tlemcen GHELLAI Lotfi, HASSAINE Hafida, KLOUCHE Nihel, KHADIR Abdelmonaim, AISSAOUI Nadia, NAS Fatima and ZINGG Walter Full Length Research Paper The burden of disease caused by Staphylococcus aureus continues to grow; this organism has the ability to form biofilm and it is also a frequent cause of medical device and implant-related infections. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biofilm-forming ability of a collection of clinical isolates of S. aureus. In a total of 240 Staphylococcus spp. isolated from catheters, retrieved at five services (neonatology, internal medicine, pneumology, pediatric and neurology), only 50 (20.83%) strains were identified by conventional microbiological methods as S. aureus species; these strains were screened by microtiter plate assay for detection of biofilm formation. Of the 50 clinical isolates, 16 (32%) were non adherent, 20(40%) weakly, 10 (20%) moderately and 4(8%) strongly adherent. The quantitative method of microtiter plate can be involved as a simple, rapid, inexpensive and reproducible assay to assess biofilm formation which is further an important feature of pathogenecity of S. aureus in the clinical setting. Key words: Microbial biofilm, Staphylococcus aureus, catheter, microtiter plate assay. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/5274DA143259 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2013.0122 en Copyright © 2014 GHELLAI Lotfi, HASSAINE Hafida, KLOUCHE Nihel, KHADIR Abdelmonaim, AISSAOUI Nadia, NAS Fatima and ZINGG Walter
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:3737B8643264 2014-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2014
Antibiotic resistance and plasmid profile of Leuconostoc spp. isolated from carrot Mohit Agarwal, F. C. Garg and Y. K. Negi, Full Length Research Paper In the present study, a total of 56 isolates were isolated from different root vegetables. Out of these, 17 isolates were identified as Leuconostoc spp. All the 17 isolates were checked for antibiotic sensitivity against different antibiotics. Results revealed that majority of the isolates were resistant to Penicillin G, Vancomycin, Oxacillin and Ceftazidime. Four isolates (S-9, S-13, S-37 and S-42) were resistant to methicillin. However, all the isolates were highly sensitive to Imipenum. Carbenicillin and Amoxicillin sublactam showed antibacterial sensitivity against all the isolates except S-13 and S-B2C2, respectively. Electrophorogram revealed that among the different 17 Leuconostoc isolates, S-B2C2 showed the presence of multiple plasmids (six) corresponding to the molecular weights of 1.5, 1.9, 2.0, 2.6, 3.2 and 10 kb, respectively. Endonuclease restriction analysis study was carried out with purified plasmid using four endonucleases (Alu I, Bam HI, Hae III and Hind III). Treatment with Alu I resulted in the disappearance of all the 6 plasmid bands, indicating complete digestion of the plasmids. Restriction analysis of plasmid DNA of isolate S-B2C2 revealed complete digestion of two plasmids (2.6 and 1.5 kb) when treated with Hind III. However, a new band of molecular weight equivalent to 1.7 kb did appear. Data presented in the paper indicates the multiple plasmid availability in bacteria and their diversity in response to restriction sites available on them. Key words: Antibiotic resistance, plasmid, restriction digestion, root vegetables. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/3737B8643264 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2013.0124 en Copyright © 2014 Mohit Agarwal, F. C. Garg and Y. K. Negi,
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:A23926143880 2014-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2014
Incidence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Vibrio species isolated from sea foods sold in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria Chijioke A. Nsofor, Samuel T. Kemajou and Chibuzor M. Nsofor Full Length Research Paper Most Vibrio infections are associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked sea foods or exposure of wounds to warm seawater. In this study, 63 samples of a variety of sea foods viz: shrimps, periwinkle, prawn, crayfish collected from two major household markets in Port-Harcourt were cultivated using standard bacteriological method on Thiosulphate Citrate Bile Sucrose (TCBS) agar. A total of 63 Vibrios belonging to seven different species were isolated with Vibrio fluvialis recorded as the highest percentage frequency occurrence and the most predominant species, 30 (47.6%), followed by Vibrio paraheamolyticus with 19 (30.2%), Vibrio vulnificus with 4 (6.34%), Vibrio metschnikovi with 4 (6.34%), Photobacterium spp. with 3 (4.76%), Vibrio cholerae with 2 (3.17%) and the least was Vibrio mimicus with 1 (1.60%). Statistically, there was a significant different (Plt; 0.05) in prawn sold in Mile 1 market as compared to prawn sold in Mile 3 markets. These isolates were subjected to their susceptibility patterns using agar diffusion method, which recorded susceptible to most antibiotics used. The presence of these pathogenic strains of Vibrios in commonly consumed sea foods is of public concern. Key words: Vibrios, sea foods, Nigeria. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/A23926143880 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2013.0121 en Copyright © 2014 Chijioke A. Nsofor, Samuel T. Kemajou and Chibuzor M. Nsofor
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:F651AE645721 2014-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2014
Antibiogram of Escherichia coli strains isolated from food of bovine origin in selected Woredas of Tigray, Ethiopia Abebe M., Hailelule A., Abrha B., Nigus A., Birhanu M., Adane H., Genene T., Daniel H. , Getachew G., Merga G. and Haftay A. Full Length Research Paper Escherichia coli is a food borne pathogen causing a major public health problems. The use of antimicrobials in food animals produces resistant bacteria. To determine antimicrobial resistance of E. coli species isolated from food of bovine origin, a total of 384 of milk samples (n=192) and meat samples (n=192) were collected from different sources in 1:1 ratio in selected Woredas of Tigray, Ethiopia. Samples were cultured on sheep blood agar and sub-cultured on Eosin Methylene and further sub-cultured on Biolog Universal Growth Agar (BUG media). Pure colonies were taken and suspension was made and inoculated into micro plates. The bacteria were identified by BiOLOG Identification system. Antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates was done by disk diffusion method using twenty antimicrobials and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for resistant isolates. The study revealed that out of 384 samples of milk and meat, E. coli 0157:H7 (10.4%), E. coli, Non 157 STEC (2.6%) and E. coli enterotoxigenic (10.7%) were isolated. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of E. coli isolates (n=91) revealed high resistance against cephalothin (84.6%), chloroamphenicol (83.3%), tetracycline (88.9%), gentamicin (65.9%), but low resistance for sulphoxazole-trimethoprim (16.5%), neomycin (15.4%), streptomycin (29.7%), kanamycin (30.8%), ciprofloxacin (10%), nitrofurantoine (3.3%), norfloxon (3.3%) and ciftriaxone (9.9%). Multidrug resistance was observed in 82 (93.2%) of species. The high prevalence of 0157:H7 and enterotoxigenic and high rates of multiple drug resistance indicate there is a need for timely designing prevention and control strategies. Key words: Antimicrobial, Escherichia coli, meat, milk, resistance, zoonoses. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/F651AE645721 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2014.0126 en Copyright © 2014 Abebe M., Hailelule A., Abrha B., Nigus A., Birhanu M., Adane H., Genene T., Daniel H. , Getachew G., Merga G. and Haftay A.
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:47D681D46804 2014-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2014
Production of biosurfactants by bacteria isolated from a mine tailing zone in Southern Mexico and their resistance to heavy metals Jeiry Toribio-Jimeacute;nez, Miguel Aacute;ngel Rodriacute;guez-Barrera, Monserrat Valdez Lucena, Ashanti Barrera Flores, Daniel Segura, Viacute;ctor Wilson-Corral, Eugenia Flores Alfaro and Yanet Romero Full Length Research Paper Tailings generated through mining processes often create leachates containing high concentrations of heavy metals such as As, Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb. These high concentrations of heavy metals result in environ-mental damage such as contamination of soil, groundwater and air, which represents a huge problem for individuals living near mining areas. An alternative for soil metal removal is microbiological processes including the production of biosurfactants, possibly a survival mechanism for adverse conditions of mine tailings and leachates. Moreover, mine tailings are materials that have attracted interest among researchers, because they can be exploited by innovative techniques like phytomining. In this study, we sampled the leachates of the ldquo;El frailerdquo; mine tailings and identified 103 bacteria capable of growth on these leachates. We observed that 11 bacteria produce a high amount of biosurfactants and developed the multi-metal tolerance with higher concentration gradient of Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Zn and As. We showed that the bacteria tolerate 853 nM of As and up to 12 nM of Pb, 17 nM of Cd, 10.6 nM of Cu, 22 nM of Fe and 10.5 nM of Zn. We determined that the bacterial isolates clustered within five phylogenetic groups that were very close: Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Artherobacter, Pantoea and Solibacillus groups. A bank of strains resistant to heavy metals and producers of biosurfactants was obtained for future studies on the mechanism of absorption or assimilation of heavy metals and light was shed on the alternative use of these bacteria in bioremediation of metal pollution. Key words: Bacteria, metals, biosurfactants, mine tailings. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/47D681D46804 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2014.0128 en Copyright © 2014 Jeiry Toribio-Jimeacute;nez, Miguel Aacute;ngel Rodriacute;guez-Barrera, Monserrat Valdez Lucena, Ashanti Barrera Flores, Daniel Segura, Viacute;ctor Wilson-Corral, Eugenia Flores Alfaro and Yanet Romero
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:0D4F06949165 2014-12-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2014
Isolation and identification of Mannhemia and Pasturella species from pneumonic and apparently healthy cattle and their antibiogram susceptibility pattern in Bedelle District, Western Ethiopia Dereje Abera, Tesfaye Sisay and Tadesse Birhanu Full Length Research Paper The study was conducted from October 2012 to April 2013 at Bedelle district, Western Ethiopia. The aim was to isolate Mannheimia and Pasteurella species, and to assess the associated risk factors from pneumonic and apparently healthy cattle, and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the isolates. Out of 329 samples from animals (185 nasal swabs from clinic and 144 lung tissues abattoir) examined, 50.2% was found to be positive to the disease. The bacteriological examination revealed 28 (8.51%) overall isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica (46.4%), Pasteurella multocida (39.3%) and Bibersteina trehalosi (14.3%) were recovered respectively in which 17 (9.19%) and 11 (7.63%) bacterial isolates were obtained from nasal swabs and pneumonic lungs, respectively. The higher isolation rate of M. haemolytica indicated it as the major cause in the study area. Age was found to be the potential risk factor in which young animals were highly affected. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolates were carried out using disc diffusion method. The isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotic disks used: amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, cephalexin, polymyxin-B, kanamycin and florifenicol. However, moderate resistance was observed to Tetracycline, Erythromycin and Penicillin-G. Thus, an integrated application of overall management and vaccination should be implemented as prevention and control measures. Key words: Bedelle, cattle, Mannheimia, Pasteurella, pneumonic pasteurellosis, antimicrobial susceptibility test. Academic Journals 2014 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/0D4F06949165 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2014.0143 en Copyright © 2014 Dereje Abera, Tesfaye Sisay and Tadesse Birhanu
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:1BB9B0549781 2015-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2015
Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli infection in Dhaka, Bangladesh M. Saiful Islam, M. Abdullah Yusuf, Shaheen Ara Begum, AFM Arshedi Sattar, Afzal Hossain and Sushmita Roy Full Length Research Paper Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli that cause urinary tract infection (UTI) is a burning issue. This study was carried out to detect extended spectrum beta lactamase producing E. coli isolated from patients presented with UTI. This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology at Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from January to December 2005, a period of one year. Clinically diagnosed cases of infected (UTI) patients were included in this study. The clean catch midstream (CCMU) technique was employed to collect urine sample. Microscopical examination of urine was done and pus cell ge;5/HPF was included in the study. Urine samples were inoculated into blood agar and MacConkey agar media. All the organisms were identified by their colony morphology, staining character, pigments production, haemolysis, motility and other relevant biochemical tests as per standard methods. Antibiogram for all bacterial isolates were done by disc diffusion method of modified KirbyBauer technique using Muellershy; Hinton agar plates. Detection of ESBL producers was performed by double disc diffusion test. Phenotypic confirmatory test was done by E test. A total of 250 samples of urine were collected and within this, 103 (41.2%) samples were shown in positive culture. Out of 103 positive urine samples, majority were E. coli (67.0%) followed by Klebsiella species (19.4%), Pseudomonas species (7.8%) and Proteus species (5.8%). Out of 69 E. coli isolates, ESBL producers were found in 22 (31.9%) urine samples. The difference between the rate of isolation of E. coli with ESBL and other than E. coli with ESBL is statistically significant (p=0.0001). E. coli strains showed 100.0% resistance to amoxicillin, aztreonam, cefotaxim, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and cephradine. However, more than 80.0% resistant was observed in cotrimoxazole, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Nitrofurasntoin and mecillinam were more than 50.0% resistant. All strains were sensitive to imipenem. A considerable number of ESBL producing E. coli was detected from UTI cases, indicating it as the major challenge for future antibiotic therapy. Key words: Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL), bacterial agents, urinary tract infection, antimicrobial susceptibility. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/1BB9B0549781 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2014.0125 en Copyright © 2015 M. Saiful Islam, M. Abdullah Yusuf, Shaheen Ara Begum, AFM Arshedi Sattar, Afzal Hossain and Sushmita Roy
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:1FACF3C49785 2015-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2015
Use of real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and histopathological changes for detection of the Toxoplasma gondii parasite in male rats (experimental study) Ghiadaa Abass Jassem Full Length Research Paper Toxoplasma gondii infection is wide spread in Iraq that is why this study was carried out to detect its presence in semen samples of infected male rats experimentally. Impression smears, real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and histopathological changes were used for detection of T. gondii. The current study included the isolation of local strains of T. gondii from placenta of women that experienced abortion that had toxoplasmosis history, 0.3 ml of suspension contained 100 tissue cyst per rat injected interperetonially in 40 rats. Eight weeks post inoculation, rats were sacrificed then dissected and epididymis was immediately removed. Impression smear were made from semen stained with eosin-nigrosin as initial diagnosis of infection confirmed by the presence of cysts of parasite. This confirmation is dependent on the molecular diagnosis by real time PCR which successfully detected the parasite in 90.3% of rats inoculated with aborted placenta suspension. Some histological changes in testicular tissue were collapse and shrinkage in somniferous tubules with multinucleated giant cells with vacuolar degeneration of lydig cell. These finding suggest that T. gondii infection cause a temporary impairment and insufficiency in male reproductive activity with probability of transmission of the parasite in semen to females or to other animals such as cats. Key words: Testes, placenta, semen, real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), impression, interperitonially, reproductive, male. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/1FACF3C49785 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2014.0141 en Copyright © 2015 Ghiadaa Abass Jassem
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:B54925251516 2015-03-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2015
Antibacterial activities of two medicinal herbs on Salmonella typhi isolates in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Improvement to herbal medicine Odikamnoro O. O. , Uhuo C. A., Ikeh I. M., Ogiji E. D., Ibiam, G.A., Azi, S.o., Akpam L. J. and Okoh N. F. Full Length Research Paper The study on the antibacterial activities of some medicinal plants on Salmonella typhi isolates in Abakaliki Ebonyi State was conducted using agar diffusion method. The study shows that there is high level yield in the dried leaves than in the wet leaves of the experimental plants (W/D). The investigation reveals that phenol yield is 296% W and 67% D in bitter leaf while oil yield in Utazi is 1.900 W and 1.034 D; phenol is 276.00 W and 38.480 D. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, phenolic compounds, oil, proteins, terpenoids, fructose, glucose and essential oils. Antimicrobial test screening showed that the extract had a strong inhibitory effect against; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumonia. The observation tends to confirm the medicinal value of these plant leaves and justify the claim of its local use in health remedies for diarrhea and kidney failure caused by E. coli, skin infection caused by S. aureus and pneumonia which is caused by K. pneumonia. However, this had proved inhibitory on S. typhi which could be synergistic or antagnostic in action and therefore suggest to be effective herbally when orally administered. Key words: Antibacterial, medicinal herbs, Salmonella species, Ebonyi State. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/B54925251516 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2014.0130 en Copyright © 2015 Odikamnoro O. O. , Uhuo C. A., Ikeh I. M., Ogiji E. D., Ibiam, G.A., Azi, S.o., Akpam L. J. and Okoh N. F.
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:EA21EF551708 2015-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2015
Acinetobacter spp. in the patients and environment of University Hospital of Yopougon, Côte d’Ivoire, from 2007 to 2011 S. Meacute;iteacute;, Boni-Cisseacute; C., Mlan Tanoa A. P., Zaba F. S., Faye-Ketteacute; H., and Dosso M., Full Length Research Paper The objective of this work was to study the epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of strains of Acinetobacter spp. in the University Hospital of Yopougon Abidjan. This work studied the Acinetobacter strains isolated from humans and environment of the hospital; they were preserved in the culture collection of the Laboratory of Bacteriology from January 2007 to December 2011. Isolation and identification were made by conventional bacteriological methods, and antibiotic susceptibility was studied by the method of agar diffusion. Interpretation was made according to the standards of the CA-SFM. 110 strains of Acinetobacter spp. have been studied (61% of human strains and 39% of strains isolated from the hospital environment). Acinetobacter baumannii was the most isolated in 66% of cases. 52. 8% of strains were resistant to ceftazidime; 5.6% to imipenem; 21.2% to gentamicin and 35.2% to ciprofloxacin. 12.5% of human strains of A. baumannii were multi-resistant bacteria. Acinetobacters spp. are present in the hospital environment and patients with a predominance of A. baumannii species. The presence of imipenem-resistant strains is a major public health problem because their disclosure could lead to therapeutic impasse in hospital. Key words: Acinetobacter spp., epidemiology, antibiotic resistance. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/EA21EF551708 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2014.0137 en Copyright © 2015 S. Meacute;iteacute;, Boni-Cisseacute; C., Mlan Tanoa A. P., Zaba F. S., Faye-Ketteacute; H., and Dosso M.,
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:278D96951714 2015-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2015
Potential biodegradation of low density polyethylene (LDPE) by Acinetobacter baumannii R. Pramila and K. Vijaya Ramesh Full Length Research Paper Acinetobacter baumannii was isolated from municipal landfill area, Pallikaranai, Chennai, Tamilnadu. The degradation ability of the bacteria was determined by performing Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The by-products of polyethylene degradation were monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis. The toxicity of degradation by-products of low density polyethylene (LDPE) was tested on the plant Vigna radiata by determining the morphological parameters such as root length, shoot length and chlorophyll content. After 30 days of degradation process, the FTIR results revealed an increase in carbonyl index and formation of peaks and occurrence of stretches. Alkane compounds were analyzed in GC-MS analysis. Determination of toxicity level of intermediate degraded products showed no changes in morphological characters. Key words: Biodegradation, Low density polyethylene (LDPE), Acinetobacter baumannii, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), Vigna radiata. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/278D96951714 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2015.0152 en Copyright © 2015 R. Pramila and K. Vijaya Ramesh
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:D622AAA51725 2015-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2015
Effect of high temperature on viability of Lactobacillus casei and analysis of secreted and GroEL proteins profiles Najla Haddaji, Boubaker Krifi, Rihab Lagha, Sadok Khouadja and Amina Bakhrouf Full Length Research Paper The bacterial heat shock response is characterized by the elevated expression of a number of chaperone complexes including the GroEL and the rate change of synthesis of certain proteins (total and secreted). In this work, after incubation at 45deg;C, total and secreted proteins profiles of stressed bacteria were found to be altered when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In addition, the level expression of GroEL was evaluated with Western blot. Our results show a marked increase in both GroEL expression and protein synthesis at 45deg;C. These modifications were manifested by the appearance and/or disappearance of bands as well as in the level of expression of certain proteins. Key words: Lactobacillus casei, heat shock, GroEL, secreted and total proteins, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blotting. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/D622AAA51725 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2015.0155 en Copyright © 2015 Najla Haddaji, Boubaker Krifi, Rihab Lagha, Sadok Khouadja and Amina Bakhrouf
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:522D1BC52594 2015-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2015
Molecular and biochemical study of Anaplasma marginale in cattle in Wassit Province of Iraq Ghaidaa Abbas Jassem and Olaa A. Agaar Full Length Research Paper This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of bovine anaplasmosis among cattle from various areas in Wassit governorate; the investigation was performed on 184 blood samples collected from suspected cattle suffering from fever (41deg;C), severe anemia, pale mucus membrane, progressive emaciation and drop in milk yield, including 85 male and 99 female cattle, aged from lt; 1 year to gt; 2 years, the samples were collected during the period of October 2012 - April 2013 from AL-Kut, AL-hayy, AL-Bashair, AL-Moufaqia and AL-Noamania areas to investigate antibodies against Anaplasma parasite by using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test and to determine the species of genus Anaplasma by using RFLP-PCR technique and by also measuring some biochemical parameters to indicate the effect of the disease on liver function. The results of ELISA test showed that the rate of infection was 13.04%, the rate of infection was different between age groups and were 8, 11.25 and 16.45% in ages lt; 1, 1-2 and 2 - 3 years, respectively. The study revealed that females were given higher percent of infection 14.14% than males 11.7%, there is no significant differences under p gt; 0.05 according to age groups and sex. The highest rate of infection was recorded in AL-Kut, 17.14% followed by AL-hayy, 14% and AL-Bashair, 10% and the lowest rate was recorded in AL-Noamania, 8.33% and AL-Moufaqia, 5%; the study showed significant differences in incidence of disease between study districts and area in Wassit governorate at p gt; 0.05. The most sensitive method for the diagnosis of anaplasmosis is the method of polymerase chain reaction, DNA extraction was performed only on 24 blood samples which were positive for Anaplasma spp. by ELISA test, the extracted DNA from blood cells were analyzed by PCR and PCR-RFLP technique using primers derived from 16S rRNA gene and restriction endonuclease Bst1107I enzyme which can recognize the sequence (GTATAC) in corresponding PCR product of Anaplasma marginale and cut it in the position 68 and 509, whereas the used restriction enzyme cannot cut the corresponding PCR product of other Aanaplasma spp. and the result was 20 from 24 which were positive for Aanaplasma spp. by PCR and 18 from 20 was positive for A. marginale. The results of liver enzymes activity showed significant increase in serum AST, ALT, CK and TBIL level in infected cattle (96.8plusmn;0.97, 42plusmn;0.52, 406plusmn;2.06 and 0.95plusmn;0.24, respectively) as compared to the control (65.5plusmn;1.26, 21.4plusmn;0.45, 142plusmn;14.17 and 0.27plusmn;0.05, respectively). Key words: Anaplasma marginale, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), RFLP-PCR, biochemical parameters. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/522D1BC52594 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2014.0142 en Copyright © 2015 Ghaidaa Abbas Jassem and Olaa A. Agaar
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:7E6A5BE52596 2015-05-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2015
Purification and characterization of tryptophan and indole-3-acetic acid produced by Serratia marcescens strain MCB associated with Oscheius sp. MCB (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) obtained from South African soil Mahloro H. Serepa, Nikita T. Tavengwa and Vincent M. Gray Full Length Research Paper Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are lethal to insect pests that attack plants. These EPNs are associated symbiotically with the two enterobacteria Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus sp., respectively. The bacteria synthesize a range of insecticidal and antimicrobial metabolites which may be useful as agricultural pest control and medical disease control. Recently, EPNs characterization and explanation have been expanded to include genera, Oscheius. We isolated, characterized and identified a symbiotic bacterium and the metabolites it produces. The symbiotic bacterium was isolated from a South African nematode, Oscheius sp. MCB (GenBank accession number: KF684370). The symbiotic bacterium was identified to be a Serratia marcescens strain MCB (GenBank accession number: KF793930). Two metabolites it produces are indole-3-acetic acid and tryptophan, with tryptophan as an aromatic amino acid assumed to be a precursor for indole-3-acetic acid production. From this study it is evident that S. marcescens strain MCB isolated from Oscheius sp. MCB shares similar attributes with Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus sp., thus its host can be accepted as an EPN. Key words: Entomopathogenic nematodes, Serratia, Oscheius, Xenorhabdus, Photorhabdus. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/7E6A5BE52596 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2015.0153 en Copyright © 2015 Mahloro H. Serepa, Nikita T. Tavengwa and Vincent M. Gray
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:525587D53511 2015-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2015
Polymicrobial ventilator associated pneumonia and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates in a university hospital, Tabriz, Iran Mohammad Esmaeil Hejazi, Masoud Nazemiyeh, Fatemeh Seifar and Fatemeh Beheshti Short Communication Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common infection, developed in intensive care units (ICU). Early diagnosis and appropriate selection of antimicrobial therapy is important to reduce the mortality rate of these patients. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was obtained from 27 patients, who fulfilled the criteria for ventilator-associated pneumonia. Samples underwent cytological and bacteriological analysis. Pathogens identified from culture of BAL and related antibiotic susceptibility was determined. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was determined in 39.70% of patients in the ICU. Out of enrolled patients, 92.59% had a polymicrobial infection. The most common form of poly microbial infection was with two different bacterial species which were isolated in 81.48% of patients. These isolates revealed a prominent susceptibility to Imipenem, Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin and Ceftazidime. According to the increasing rate of polymicrobial infections and bacterial drug resistance pattern, monotherapy in the treatment of VAP should be avoided. Based on our study, combination therapy with Imipenem or Ceftazidime accompanied by Amikacin or Ciprofloxacin can be recommended. Key words: Ventilator-associated pneumonia, polymicrobial, infection, bacterial-resistance, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/525587D53511 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2015.0150 en Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Esmaeil Hejazi, Masoud Nazemiyeh, Fatemeh Seifar and Fatemeh Beheshti
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:51ADB7E53534 2015-06-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2015
Comparison between the Widal test and culturing technique in the diagnosis of enteric fever in Khartoum State, Sudan Yagoub Hamadt Allah Elhaj Abd Elseed, Short Communication Salmonella infection is a common bacteria disease that causes enteric fever in humans. Presently, Widal test, stool, blood and urine cultures are the most diagnostic means of confirming Salmonella infection in humans since they are based on the isolation, identification and demonstration of the presence of antibodies in the serum. However, the stool and serum sample of an infected patient against the (O) and (H) antigens of the bacteria requires thorough laboratory analysis. The aim of this study was to assess the comparison between the Widal test and culturing technique in diagnosis of salmonellosis. Both tests were done in this study in different age and sex group. Samples (blood, urine and feces) were collected from 60 patients suspected to have enteric fever with Widal test results. Among those patients, the Widal test results were positive while the culture results provided mostly no growth, n=37 (92.5%); whereby 3 (7.5%) of cultures provided positive growth of Salmonella. The bacteria isolated were identified by Gramrsquo;s reaction and biochemical characteristics including triple sugar iron agar, urease, citrate utilization test, indole and oxidase test. Most patients, 70% (n:32) suspected to have enteric fever were female, however only 30% (n:15) of total cases were males. Also, there were 55% cases in the range of age 20-40 years old and 27% of cases in the range of age 15-20 years old with 18% in the range of age 40-60 years. Key words: Widal test, culture technique, Salmonella, enteric fever. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/51ADB7E53534 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2015.0151 en Copyright © 2015 Yagoub Hamadt Allah Elhaj Abd Elseed,
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:52715DF55835 2015-10-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2015
Prevalence and characterization of NDM-1 and OXA-48 carbapenemase gene harboring Enterobacteriaceae in a tertiary care hospital, South India Radha Srinivasan, Kalaiarasan Ellappan and Harish Belgode Narasimha Full Length Research Paper The occurrence of carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae has reached critical levels worldwide. The present study was carried out to screen for carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae isolates from blood, surgical wound and tracheal samples in different wards and intensive care units between the period of 2010 through 2012 in a teaching hospital attached to JIPMER, south India. A total number of 425 meropenem-resistant isolates belonging to Enterobacteriaceae were included. Genes encoding beta;-lactamases (blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-48) and influx of beta;-lactams through the major porin OmpK36 were characterized. Multiplex PCR amplification assays indicated that out of 425 meropenem- resistant isolates, 75 and 187 isolates harbored blaNDM-1 with and without OmpK36, respectively. One and five Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates harbored blaOXA-48 with presence and absence of OmpK36, respectively. Transferability of the plasmids was tested by conjugation assays and it was found that 110 transconjugants carried blaNDM-1. blaOXA-48 gene was not transferable by conjugation analysis. The study highlights the emergence of blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-48 genes in this center. Key words: Enterobacteriaceae; blaNDM-1; blaOXA-48; OmpK36; conjugation. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/52715DF55835 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2015.0174 en Copyright © 2015 Radha Srinivasan, Kalaiarasan Ellappan and Harish Belgode Narasimha
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:37CB90A56517 2015-12-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2015
In vitro efficacy of certain botanicals and their effect on some biochemical properties of Pectobacterium carotovora susp. carotovora inoculated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) Sabiu Hussaini Adamu and Abhilasha A. Lal Full Length Research Paper Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is a member of family Solanaceae. It is herbaceous, annual to perennial, prostrate and sexually propagated plant with bisexual flower. Tomatoes are attacked by many kinds of pathogens such as fungi, insects, nematodes, bacteria, viruses and viroid. Among bacterial diseases, bacterial soft rot devastates this important crop causing a huge decrease in yield and a greater loss in produce than any bacterial disease known. Yield losses due to post-harvest diseases of fruits and vegetables range from 20-30% but losses due to soft rot bacteria may reach up to 100% under insufficient conditions of storage facility, this have huge impacts on famers and vendors. In vitro efficacy of certain botanicals against bacterial soft rot of tomato were tested in the months of February to March, 2015 in the Department of Plant Pathology and Department of Biochemistry, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (Deemed University)ndash; Allahabad, UP, India. Four botanicals were evaluated against the bacterial soft rot of storage tomato at 2 and 8 days after inoculation. After evaluation of botanicals efficacy, their effect on some biochemical properties of the treated tomato such as reducing sugars, vitamin C and pH were also evaluated. Turmeric 30% (T4) proved to be the best botanical to inhibit the bacterial growth while turmeric 20% (T3) and neem 30% (T6) appeared as superior in preserving biochemical properties of the tomato respectively. Key words: Tomato, pathogens, bacterial disease. Academic Journals 2015 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/37CB90A56517 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2015.0172 en Copyright © 2015 Sabiu Hussaini Adamu and Abhilasha A. Lal
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:DC96A4257033 2016-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2016
Morphometric and quantitative analysis of the intestine of Rattus rattus infected by Strongyloides spp. Adriana Valeacute;ria Batista, Ranulfo Piau Jr., Daniela Dib Gonccedil;alves, Gabriel Coelho Gimenes, Fabiane Antiquera Ferreira, Edson Gerocirc;nimo, Wellington Henrique Bessi, Brenda Romite, Eduardo Herrera Dias and Valdeci Messa Full Length Research Paper Strongyloidiasis is caused by Strogyloides spp., which occurs when the parasite reaches the intestines. It is estimated that more than 370 million people throughout the world are infected with this disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphometric alterations and variation in the count of goblet cells of the jejunum of sinantropic rodents infected by Strongyloides spp., and to compare with non-infected rodents. 157 rodents of the species of Rattus rattus were captured. After identifying the intestinal parasite, 20 rodents were selected. The criteria used were: animals between 20 and 25 cm (n=10), 5 females and 5 males infected by Strongyloides spp. and 5 females and 5 males (n=10) without the parasite. Sedimentation technique was used to identify the parasite. Morphometric and quantitative analysis of the intestinal wall was done through histological processing. In male and female infected rats, the followings were observed: smaller villus height, crypt depth increased, smaller villus area and a larger number of goblet cells in the crypts of the jejunum. The morphologic alterations of the jejunum wall may impair nutrient absorption process. Key words: Goblet cells, crypts, jejunum, sinantropic rodents, villi. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/DC96A4257033 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2015.0183 en Copyright © 2016 Adriana Valeacute;ria Batista, Ranulfo Piau Jr., Daniela Dib Gonccedil;alves, Gabriel Coelho Gimenes, Fabiane Antiquera Ferreira, Edson Gerocirc;nimo, Wellington Henrique Bessi, Brenda Romite, Eduardo Herrera Dias and Valdeci Messa
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:9C967B357963 2016-02-29T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2016
Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci strains isolated from different water sources Jie Zhang, Yan-Qiu Wang, Jian Li, Yu-Fang Ma, Jin Lin, Zhen-Run Xiao and Dao-Jin Yu Full Length Research Paper The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenotype, genotype and relationships of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcib (VRE) strains isolated from Minjiang River of Fujian province, residence district pond, university fish farm, cesspool and sewer. PCR was used to confirm Enterococci and amplify antibiotic resistance genes. Relationships between different strains were determined by repetitive extragenic palindromic elements-PCR (REP-PCR). A total of 17 VRE strains were isolated from water environment, among which 9 strains were isolated from cesspool, 6 strains were isolated from sewer and 2 strains were isolated from university fish farm. VRE was not isolated from Minjiang River or residence district pond. Analysis on the antibiotic resistance gene showed that 3 strains belong to genotype VanB, 9 strains belong to VanC1 and 5 strains belong to genotype VanC2/3. Genotype VanA was not detected. REP-PCR analysis showed that 17 strains were divided into type A1 (n=6), type A2 (n=1), type A3 (n=2), type B (n=3), type C (n=1), type D (n=3) and type E (n=1). These results demonstrated that the antibiotic resistant phenotype was consistent with the genotype of 17 VRE strains. VRE strains isolated from water sources were resistant to multiple antibiotics. The majority of the strains isolated in this study shared high similarity. Key words: Enterococci, antibiotic resistance, vancomycin, repetitive extragenic palindromic elements-PCR Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/9C967B357963 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2015.0162 en Copyright © 2016 Jie Zhang, Yan-Qiu Wang, Jian Li, Yu-Fang Ma, Jin Lin, Zhen-Run Xiao and Dao-Jin Yu
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:84EE56961085 2016-10-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2016
Isolation and characterization of feather degrading bacteria from poultry waste Manirujjaman M., Amin R., Nahid A. A. and Alam M. S. Full Length Research Paper This study was conducted to isolate, partially purify and characterize keratinolytic microbes and their enzymes for commercial exploitation. A feather degrading bacterial strain was isolated from soil where poultry feathers were dumped by the poultry farms as a waste product. The isolated bacteria grew well at 37deg;C and the pH of 7.5. This isolate showed maximum feather degrading activity at 37deg;C. The enzyme activity could be detected in the temperature range of 30 to 37deg;C. Keratinolytic activity was detected during growth of microbes and complete degradation of keratin was achieved. The proteolytic character of crude enzymes was assessed using azo-casein as substrate. Crude keratinase was extracted and purified by salt precipitation and dialysis. The organism was pigment producing, rod-shaped, endospore forming, catalase positive and Gram negative bacteria. Fermentation of sugars, SIM test, indole production test, citrate test, nitrate reduction test, MR test, VP test, starch and gelatin hydrolysis test were also done. The isolated bacteria produced green pigment during its growth and the media turned greenish. Phenotypic characterization carried out in laboratory showed that this Gram negative bacterium might belonged to Bacillus or Alteromonas genus. The cell free supernatant had feather hydrolyzing activity. Therefore, it can be said that it was an extracellular protease, that is, keratinase enzyme. This keratinolytic isolate could be a potential candidate for degradation and utilization of feathers. It might also be an efficient method for the production of microbial enzymes and metabolites. Key words: Alteromonas, Bacillus, Keratin, poultry waste, feather. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/84EE56961085 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2016.0204 en Copyright © 2016 Manirujjaman M., Amin R., Nahid A. A. and Alam M. S.
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:58BA6DC61451 2016-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2016
Antibiogram and the efficacy of leaf extract of Chromolena odorota (L.) R. M. King and H. Robinson on bacteria isolated from some swimming pools within Akure metropolis Omoya, F. O. and Olukitibi, T. A. Full Length Research Paper Microorganisms being cosmopolitan are widely distributed in nature and can as well be found in swimming pools. These microorganisms contaminate swimming pools and other recreational water through indiscriminate defecation, contamination from rodents and birds etc. making these sources of water threat to human life. Concurrently, the resistant to conventional antibiotics has also increased the danger on people that are exposed to swimming pools, thus there is the need for alternative therapy. In view of this, study revealed the antibiogram of microorganisms isolated from swimming pools within Akure metropolis and the efficacy of Chromolena odorata as an alternative therapy to conventional antibiotics. The isolation, identification and antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria from selected swimming pools in Akure was carried out. Ethanol extract of the leaf of C. odorata was further tested on the isolates for comparative purpose with the commercial antibiotics using standard methods. The results of the experiment showed that the highest bacterial load of 7.10times;103 cfu/ml was obtained for Swan hotel, while the least bacterial load was recorded for Sun view hotel with a bacterial load of 2.83times;103 cfu/ml. Bacteria that were isolated and identified are Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates showed that ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were able to exert inhibitory effect on all the isolates. Most of the antibiotics were however resisted by P. aeruginosa, except ofloxacin. The inhibitory evaluation of ethanol extract of C. odorata on the bacterial isolates showed that the extract had its highest inhibitory effect on Proteus vulgaris with a zone diameter of 7.9 mm. The extract was however resisted by P. aeruginosa. These results showed that these swimming pools house a variety of microorganisms, some of which are pathogenic and should therefore be disinfected on regular basis to prevent dissemination of these bacteria by swimmers. C. odorata is also is a good alternative antimicrobial agent especially to P. vulgaris. Key words: Chromolena odorata, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, swimming pools. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/58BA6DC61451 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2016.0218 en Copyright © 2016 Omoya, F. O. and Olukitibi, T. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:58B746261695 2016-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2016
Screening of bacteria isolated from the environment for the capability to control mosquito larva Josiah Asime Lennox, Onyinyechi Kalu and John Godwin Egbe Full Length Research Paper Malaria fever is a major disease that has killed millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Mosquitoes are vectors of this debilitating and fatal disease. Therefore, mosquito control becomes paramount using environmentally friendly biological agents instead of chemicals. Water samples obtained from the gutters and water logged areas and soil samples analyzed resulted in 18 different bacteria isolates identified as Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Shigella sp., Salmonella sp., Kiebsiella sp., Micrococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Proteus vulgaris, Proteus penneri, Bacillus sp., Serratia sp., Sporolactobacillus sp., Listeria sp., Clostridium sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp and Citrobacter sp. The activities of these bacteria against 8 day old mosquito larva at different concentrations and volumes were determined. At the end of the screening period of 7 days with bacteria concentration of 3.0 x 108 cfu/ml, Bacillus sp. showed 80% activity, Clostridium sp. 50% activity, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus penneri 20% activity each against the mosquito larva. At bacteria concentration of 3.0 x 109 cfu/10 ml, the activities of the bacteria against the mosquito larva were Bacillus sp. 100%, Clostridium sp. 85%, Sporolactobacillus sp. 60%, while Proteus vulgari and Proteus penneri 40% each. Lactobacillus sp had 35% activity. The rest of the bacteria isolates had no activity or insignificant activities. Other than Bacillus sp which is a known bioinsecticide, Clostridium sp. and Sporolactobacillus sp. can be genetically modified to be used as bioinsectides as man continues to search for alternative means of combating mosquito borne diseases. Key words: Larvicide, larva, gutters, mosquito, vectors, activity. Academic Journals 2016 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/58B746261695 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2016.0203 en Copyright © 2016 Josiah Asime Lennox, Onyinyechi Kalu and John Godwin Egbe
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:14A127962796 2017-01-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2017
Antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial isolates from different clinical specimens in Southern Ethiopia: A three year retrospective study Anteneh Amsalu, Zeleke Geto, Demissie Asegu and Setegn Eshetie Full Length Research Paper Emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a major public health problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The effectiveness of currently available antibiotics is decreasing as a result of increasing resistant strains among clinical isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial isolate from different clinical specimens at Hawassa University Referral Hospital. A retrospective data (from January 2012 to December 2014) of patients registered at microbiology record book were reviewed. Age, sex, type of clinical specimen, type of bacterial isolate and antimicrobial resistance pattern were extracted using data extraction format. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. A total of 143 bacterial isolates were collected from clinical specimens such as: urine (63; 44%), ear discharge (26; 18.2%), pus (25; 17.5%), stool (12; 8.4%), nasal swab (12; 8.4%), genital swab (3; 2.1%) and cerebrospinal fluid (2; 1.4%). The predominant bacterial isolates were E. coli (35; 24.5%) followed by S. aureus (31; 21.7%) and Klebsiella species (21; 14.7%). Greater than half percent of resistance were observed for ampicilin, cotrimoxazole, penicillin G, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, norfloxacin and oxacilin. Moreover, MDR was observed in 127 (88.8%) of the isolates. High prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria was observed in this study. Therefore, resistance surveillance studies should be conducted to develop local antibiogram data, for choosing the best antimicrobial therapy. Key words: Antibiotic resistance, bacteria isolate, clinical specimen, Ethiopia. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/14A127962796 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2016.0224 en Copyright © 2017 Anteneh Amsalu, Zeleke Geto, Demissie Asegu and Setegn Eshetie
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:2A4D01F63108 2017-02-28T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2017
Evaluation of the antibacterial activities of leaf extracts of Achyranthus aspera Asmamaw Habtamu and Yalemtsehay Mekonnen Full Length Research Paper The fresh leaves of Achyranthes aspera Linn. soaked with water is traditionally used to treat skin infection in Ethiopia. The leaves are also applied traditionally to stop bleeding during cutoff in local people of Ethiopia. The above activities of the plant might be associated with antimicrobial activities. The leaves collected from their wild habitat were air dried under shade and ground into fine powder. The leaf powder was soaked in solvents (1 g: 10 ml) and shacked for 72 h. After filtering, the mixtures were concentrated by using rotary evaporator and the extract was prepared at 50, 100 and 200 mg/ml in 3% Tween 80 for antibacterial test. The disks were loaded with extract solution and allowed to evaporate. Then, the discs were placed on culture bacteria in the Muller Hinton agar and incubated for 24 h. Finally, the inhibition zones were measured in mm. The antibacterial activities and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test of the extracts were assessed by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods, respectively. Both 80% methanol and chloroform extract of A. aspera leaf showed significantly higher inhibition zone than the negative control, 3% Tween 80, but the extracts inhibition was significantly lower than the standard drugs (chloroamphenicol and ampiciline). Both 80% methanol and chloroform extract of A. aspera leaf showed MIC on Shigella boydii and Salmonella typhi at 6.25 mg/ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the 80% methanol and chloroform extract of A. aspera leaf was measured at 6.25 and 12.5 mg/ml on S. boydii and S. typhi, respectively. The bacterial inhibition increased with the 80% methanol and chloroform extracts of A. aspera leaves concentrations. The 80% methanol A. aspera leaf extract which was administered orally with a single dose of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight was not toxic to albino mice. Key words: Achyranthes aspera, inhibition zone, antibacterial activity, acute toxicity, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/2A4D01F63108 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2015.0189 en Copyright © 2017 Asmamaw Habtamu and Yalemtsehay Mekonnen
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:BB2E6FF64182 2017-04-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2017
Evaluating the antimicrobial potency of crude extracts of Psidium guajava bark, leaves of Vernonia amygdalina, Carica papaya and whole plant of Phyllanthus niruri against specific pathogenic bacteria Adetunde, L. A., Ninkuu, V. and Sacky, I. Full Length Research Paper The potency of hot water, cool water and ethanoilc extracts of bark and leaves of Psidium guajava, leaves of Vernonia amydalina, Carica papaya and whole plant of Phyllanthus niruri were assessed against isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans obtained from the Mampong Research Institute of Herbal medicine in the Eastern region of Ghana. Antibacterial tests were carried out using the agar wells diffusion method. The susceptibility test results showed that extracts of P. niruri are very effective on all gram negative bacteria and extracts of Psidium guajava were effective on both gram negative and positive bacteria. Although V. amygdalina extracts showed inhibition to some bacteria in both hot water and ethanolic extract, hot water extract of C. papaya showed inhibition to S. aureus and S. typhi but room water extracts of both V. amygdalina and C. papaya showed quite a good results. Hence the potency of these plants base on their inhibition zones can be effectively used on some infectious disease caused by the test bacteria. Key words: Antimicrobial, Crude extracts, Psidium guajava, Phyllanthus niruri, Vernonia amydalina, Carica papaya, bacteria. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/BB2E6FF64182 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2015.0188 en Copyright © 2017 Adetunde, L. A., Ninkuu, V. and Sacky, I.
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:7A559DB65413 2017-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2017
An optimised in vitro protocol for mass production of Rhizophagus irregularis spores - for sustainable agriculture B. Mohan Raj, R. Bharath Kumar, G. Venkata Rao and K. Sri Rama Murthy The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) plays a symbiotic vital role in most of the plant species by maintaining health, nutrient availability, against water stress, heavy metal resistance, against dreadful diseases with higher yields. To reach the requirement of AMF, large scale production practices can be required to produce specific strain aseptic inoculum. Carrot roots were selected for mass production of mycorrhizal spores among tomato, potato, sweet potato, soybean, amaranths and carrots through root organ culturing method. Aggregated roots were cultured and developed as root clumps for continuous sub-culturing. With slight modification of root organ culture method and split plate method, in containers shown significant increase in the extra radical spore count. Maximum Rhizophagus irregularis spore count was achieved with molecular weight (MW) medium among three different media MW medium, M medium and MSR medium. Almost 99204plusmn;1438.10 R. irregularis propagules were achieved with sugar free MW medium per container in 90 days of incubation in dark. M medium fortified with 1% sugars yields 16236plusmn;1186.70 intraradical and 39458plusmn;1098.00 extra radical spores were observed. To achieve continuous production of Mycorrhizal inoculum, transformed callus root clumps were infected with R. irregularis. This AMF inoculum developed in the sugar free medium is less contagious and highly productive during the process of harvesting, packing, transportation and preserved for longer duration without much contaminants. Key words: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, root organ culture, endomycorrhizae. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/7A559DB65413 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2016.0214 en Copyright © 2017 B. Mohan Raj, R. Bharath Kumar, G. Venkata Rao and K. Sri Rama Murthy
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:045B41365844 2017-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2017
Antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolites obtained with different carbon sources at different stages of the Pseudomonas growth curve isolated from Fresnillo, Zacatecas, México mineral soils Mayela Robles-Huiacute;zar, Susana De La Torre-Zavala, Myriam A. De La Garza-Ramos and Luis J. Galan-Wong Full Length Research Paper The obtention of secondary metabolites from bacterial filtrates has permitted the identification of new compounds with diverse biotechnological applications. These metabolites were generated under different conditions. Eighty-six strains of Pseudomonas were isolated from mineral soils of the central region of Zacatecas to determine if these generated secondary metabolites possess antimicrobial activity against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Afterwards, parameters, such as nutrients, were identified using seven different mediums, time of production of bioactive metabolites using growth curves, the determination of antimicrobial activity during fermentation, and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). One strain of Pseudomonas was able to generate specific secondary metabolites for one or all microorganisms during different stages of the growth curve. The best phase for development of these metabolites was the stationary phase; however, in enriched media supplemented with glycerol and mannitol, less antimicrobial activity was observed than that with minimal salts medium supplemented with glucose, since in the latter, five strains were susceptible. Additionally, as the growth curve advanced, the generated metabolites were specific for one microorganism and lost activity against others. It was also determined that the MIC of the secondary metabolites generated in minimal salts medium was much lower than that obtained in enriched media supplemented with glycerol and mannitol. The Pseudomonas strain obtained from mining soils is capable of generating specific bioactive metabolites of one microorganism at different stages of growth. Key words: Phytopathogens, minimal inhibitory concentration, metabolism, biochemical applications, strains. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/045B41365844 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2017.0244 en Copyright © 2017 Mayela Robles-Huiacute;zar, Susana De La Torre-Zavala, Myriam A. De La Garza-Ramos and Luis J. Galan-Wong
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:E7E121366955 2017-11-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2017
Studies on antibacterial spectrum of extracts of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. Juss on some clinical isolates associated with urinary tract infection Olaoluwa Bolu Success, Ugboko Harriet, Bobai Mathew and De Nandita Full Length Research Paper This investigation was aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of extracts of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. Juss on some clinical isolates. Results of preliminary analysis showed that the stem bark of A. indica possesses alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, phlobotannins and phenols. The ethanol extract produced higher antibacterial activity against all test microorganisms compare to the acetone extract, the highest Proteus vulgaris (15 mm) with ethanol extract at 500 mg/ml, and Staphylococcus aureus (13.5 mm) with acetone extract at 500 mg/ml respectively. Both the extracts produced definite strong antibacterial activity against test organisms at 50 to 1000 mg/ml concentration. Statistical analysis (t cal.-0.42) revealed that there was no significant difference among the antibacterial activities of ethanol and acetone extracts of A. indica against the test organisms. At pH value 2.0, the antibacterial activity of ethanol extract at 500 mg/ml was increased significantly against P. mirabilis (diameter of zone 20.0 mm) compared to the untreated one at pH 4.2 (diameter of zone 9.0 mm). In the case of S. aureus at pH 8.0 there was an increase in antibacterial activity of the ethanol extract (diameter of zone 29.0 mm) when compared to untreated extract at pH 4.2 (diameter of zone 14.0 mm). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for acetone extract ranged from 100 to 500 mg/ml for the test organisms, and for ethanol extract the value was 200 mg/ml for all the test organisms. In case of test organisms, the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500 mg/ml for both extracts. So, the use of A. indica for treatment of urinary tract infection may be justified. Key words: Phytochemicals, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), Azadirachta indica, Proteus mirabilis. Academic Journals 2017 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/E7E121366955 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2017.0246 en Copyright © 2017 Olaoluwa Bolu Success, Ugboko Harriet, Bobai Mathew and De Nandita
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:114D52B56424 2018-03-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2018
Beijing and the T superfamily, the major families among multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Senegal Dia M. L., Affolabi D., Gueye P. A. L., Sanoussi N., Diouf B., Sow A. I. and Cisseacute; M. F. Full Length Research Paper To determine the molecular profile of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Senegal. From 2011 to 2014, 43 MDR strains isolated at the National Reference Laboratory for Mycobacteria of the National Antituberculosis Program (NAP) were characterized by spoligotyping. Nine different spoligotypes were identified, three of which were unique, the other six forming clusters of two to nine isolates. The three principal families identified were the T superfamily (12/43, 27.90%), Beijing (9/43, 20.93%), and Latino-American-Mediterranean (LAM; 3/43, 6.97%). Twelve isolates could not be attributed to a particular lineage. The strains causing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Senegal belong to three main families: the T superfamily, Beijing, and LAM. Key words: Tuberculosis, spoligotypes, resistance, Senegal. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/114D52B56424 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2018.0257 en Copyright © 2018 Dia M. L., Affolabi D., Gueye P. A. L., Sanoussi N., Diouf B., Sow A. I. and Cisseacute; M. F.
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:1D5DBDB57644 2018-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2018
An overview of epidemiology and etiology of bacteria associated with diabetic injuries and their dominant infection at Central Region, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Hissah A. Alodaini and Alia A. Shoeib, Full Length Research Paper Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most chronic and dangerous diseases worldwide and in the Saudi society in particular. Swabs (168) from DM injuries were collected from inpatient and outpatient departments. Analysis of variance revealed the high incidence of diabetic foot infections compared to other injuries by an average of 51 and 33, respectively. Adultsrsquo; category was significantly the highest age category in the incidence. Inpatients have recorded the highest incidence than outpatients, while routine cases have recorded the highest rates of infection compared to the urgent and very urgent cases. Etiology was confined in 210 bacterial isolates belonging to gram negative (G-ve), gram-positive (G+ve), aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The study detected a high incidence in one genus/swab compared to two, three, four genera and polymicrobial/swab, with 67, 14, 1, 0.5 and 1.5% respectively. Aerobic bacteria reached 98.5% compared to anaerobic bacteria (1.5%). G-ve aerobic bacteria were highly significant compared to the G+ve. The dominant bacterial species in diabetic injuries was Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Staphylococcus aureus with a rate of 28 and 17%, respectively. It is worth noting that the antibacterial ability was evident in Ps. aeruginosa for the most bacterial isolates tested, and this reinforces the result found in the study of Ps. aeruginosarsquo;s dominance in diabetes compared to the rest of the isolated bacterial genera. Results of the study are considered unique in the epidemic spread of diabetic injuries for inpatients, outpatients, as well as the antagonistic relations of each bacterial etiology of diabetic injuries in Saudi Arabia. Key words: Epidemiology, etiology, bacteria, diabetic injuries, age, in-outpatients, priority, polymicrobial, aerobic, anaerobic, Ps. aeruginosa, S. aureus. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/1D5DBDB57644 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2017.0250 en Copyright © 2018 Hissah A. Alodaini and Alia A. Shoeib,
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:43D506D57646 2018-07-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2018
Bacterial identification and drug susceptibility pattern of urinary tract infection in pregnant Women at Karamara Hospital Jigjiga, Eastern Ethiopia Adugna Negussie, Getenet Worku and Ermiyas Beyene Full Length Research Paper Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy and if left untreated in pregnancy it may result in acute pyelonephritis, abortion, premature delivery, low birth baby and even still birth. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the bacterial profile and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infection in pregnant women at Karamara Hospital Jigjiga, Eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 190 pregnant women at Karamara Hospital. Clean catch midstream urine was collected and cultured on MacConkey and Blood agar for isolation and on Muller Hinton agar media for antibiotic sensitivity tests. The present study showed that overall prevalence of UTI was 13.2%. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism 10 (40%) followed by Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) and Staphylococcus aureus each 3 (12%), Proteus species 2 (8%) and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa 1 (4%). Gram-negative isolates showed high resistance rate of 89.5% and 84.2% to amoxicillin and ampicillin, respectively. All Gram-negative bacterial isolates revealed low level of resistance (26.3%) against ciprofloxacin. Among the total isolates (n=25), multi-drug resistance (resistance for two or more drugs) were observed in 24 (96 %) of all bacterial pathogen from urine specimen. The present study revealed bacterial agents which causing urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women were multidrug resistant. E.coli was the most common isolated bacteria from mid-stream urine specimen. Key words: Pregnancy, urinary tract infection, antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/43D506D57646 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2017.0255 en Copyright © 2018 Adugna Negussie, Getenet Worku and Ermiyas Beyene
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:B16387457880 2018-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2018
Enteric bacterial communities associated with the Omubhira Stream in Kakamega County, Kenya Menya A. A., Shivoga A. W. and Wawire S. A. Full Length Research Paper The present study was undertaken to establish the distribution and diversity of enteric bacterial communities along the Omubhira stream and also determine if physico-chemical parameters influence their distribution in water in terms of total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli. Stratified random sampling was used and four strata with 15 selected sampling sites identified along the stream. Selection of the sampling sites was in relation to land use activities that are likely to be sources of bacterial contamination to the stream. The results of bacteriological analysis of water quality revealed that water from some of the selected sites of the stream had bacterial loads that exceeded the WHO value/guidelines for water for recreational use. Mean comparison of coliforms counts using a one way ANOVA test revealed that the difference in coliforms among the sampling sites of Omubhira stream was significant (F=18.324, P=0.0005). Pearson product-moment correlation showed that there was a strong positive correlation between Escherichia coli and electrical conductivity which was statistically significant (r=0.413, n=80, plt;0.0005), total dissolved solids (r=0.408, n=80, plt;0.0005), dissolved oxygen (r =0.446, n=80, plt;0.0005) and total coliforms (r=0.983, n=80, plt;0.0005). However, there was no relationship between faecal coliforms and temperature, total suspended solids and pH which was not statistically significant; temperature (r =0.185, n=80, pgt;0.101), total suspended solids (r=-0.118, n=80, pgt;0.298) and pH (r=-0.089, n=80, pgt;0.433). The bacteria isolated from water samples in this study included Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Proteus spp., Serratia spp., Shigella spp., Providencia spp. Morganella spp., Salmonellae spp. and Klebsiella spp. Escherichia coli was the most predominant enterobacterial isolate during both the dry and the wet season. Intervention measures including creating awareness, educating residents on hygiene practices on the use of Omubhira stream water and improvement of sanitation should be implemented. Key words: Enteric bacteria, Omubhira stream, Escherichia coli, total coliforms (TC). Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/B16387457880 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2018.0261 en Copyright © 2018 Menya A. A., Shivoga A. W. and Wawire S. A.
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:7CB80FA57882 2018-08-31T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2018
Physicochemical analysis and microbial quality of cow butter obtained from Menz district of Amhara region, Ethiopia Lina Gazu, Tewodros Eshete and Getachew Kassa Full Length Research Paper Menz has long been known for its quality butter production but traditional milk products are generally reported to be of substandard quality. Therefore, this investigation was conducted to access physiochemical and microbial quality of butter from Menz district along the market value chain. The study was conducted by using laboratory analysis of physiochemical and microbial quality. The microbiological count data were transformed to log10 values before statistical analysis. Overall values of 15.05%:82.62%:2.09%, 14.26%:83.44%:2.77%, 14.25%:83.30%:1.03%, 14.58%:83.82%:3.58%, and 12.52%:83.96%:2.82% for moisture, fat and free fatty acid contents were observed in samples from farmers, traders, made by investigators, Tarmaber and Addis Ababa, respectively. In general, an overall mean of 3.94 times;109 : 2.66times;106 : 1.83times;106, total aerobic mesophilic bacterial count, total coliform and yeast and mold counts were observed in samples from farmers. Total aerobic mesophilic bacterial count, total coliform and yeast and mold counts values were 3.44times;109:3.03times;106:1.31times;106 and 3.26times;109:1.61times;106:1.77times;106 for samples collected from traders and for butter made by invigilators, respectively. For samples collected from Tarmaber and Addis Ababa, these values were 4.19times;109:2.69times;106:1.56times;106 and 4.20times;109:2.10times;106:1.45times;106, respectively. There is unhygienic production and processing of butter in the study area. Both physiochemical and microbial analysis shows the substandard traditional production system of the area which calls for improvement. Improvements are required on introduction of modern butter production technologies and awareness creation on hygienic production, processing and handling of butter. Key words: Bacterial count, fat content, market value chain, butter from Menz district, moisture content. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/7CB80FA57882 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2018.0268 en Copyright © 2018 Lina Gazu, Tewodros Eshete and Getachew Kassa
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:B96350058435 2018-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2018
Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of crude aerial part extracts of Satureja Punctata (Benth) Briq Mesfin Melaku, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen and Melaku Tefera Full Length Research Paper This study evaluates the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the crude extract of an aerial part of Satureja punctata (Benth.) Briq. The dried aerial part of S. punctata (Benth.) Briq was extracted separately using aqueous, ethanol and n-hexane. The antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed using disc diffusion method, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts were determined by the agar dilution method. The radical scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated by DPPH assay. The result indicated that the aqueous and ethanol extracts exhibited significant antibacterial activities on the test microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of 600 mg/ml aqueous extract as measured by inhibition zones against S. aureus was 10.33plusmn;0.25 mm, E. coli 9.83plusmn;0.19 mm and P. aeruginosa 8.53plusmn;0.12 mm. The 600 mg/ml ethanol extract inhibited through zone of inhibitions S. aureus (10.33plusmn;0.41 mm), E. coli (9.37plusmn;0.18 mm) and P. aeruginosa (10.17plusmn;0.46 mm). Furthermore, the MIC values for both aqueous and ethanol extracts were from 75 to 100 mg/ml; whereas the MBC values for same extracts were from 100 to 150 mg/ml. The in vitro free radical scavenging activity showed that the aqueous, ethanol and n-hexane extracts showed maximum antioxidant activity of 87.89, 78.68 and 47.18 % at 25 mg/ml concentration, respectively. The results showed that the aerial part of S. punctata contains components that have antibacterial and antioxidant properties that substantiate the medicinal importance of the plant. Key words: Satureja punctata, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, zone of inhibition. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/B96350058435 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2017.0251 en Copyright © 2018 Mesfin Melaku, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen and Melaku Tefera
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:B187ABB58437 2018-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2018
In vitro assessment of Leuconostoc mesenteroides zinc nanoparticles against Salmonella serovars recovered from broilers chickens Ahmed Orabi, Ismail Radwan, Mohamed Rady and Marwa Yehia Full Length Research Paper Salmonella serovars are responsible for a variety of acute and chronic diseases in poultry. Leuconostoc mesenteroides probiotic can exert antimicrobial activity by producing diverse fermentative metabolites with bactericidal or bacteriostatic activities such as lactic and acetic acids, fatty acids, hydrogen peroxide or diacetyl and antimicrobial proteins such as bacteriocins and peptidoglycan hydrolase enzymes. This trial aimed at adding novel therapy against virulent and multidrug resistance avian salmonellosis. The incidence of salmonellae in this study was 20% with high recovery rate from liver followed by yolk sac and the most common serovars were Salmonella Kentukey, Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella Enteritidis whose antibiogram showed high resistance to ampicillin, nalidexic acid, sulphamethoxasole + trimethoprim and tetracyclines. Selected virulent and multidrug resistant Salmonella serovars were exposed to probiotic mixture consisting of L. mesenteroides and zinc nanoparticles in different concentration to detect the antibacterial effect against different Salmonella serovars as novel therapy for avian salmonellosis. This study revealed that green synthesis of zinc nanoparticles by using L. mesenteroides biodegradation 100 nm in size and 10 g/ml in concentration has potent inhibitory effect against broad range of Salmonella serovars but its salmonicidal effect occurred only at 2000 g/ml. Key words: Broilers chicken, Salmonella, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, zinc nanoparticles. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/B187ABB58437 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2018.0264 en Copyright © 2018 Ahmed Orabi, Ismail Radwan, Mohamed Rady and Marwa Yehia
oai:academicjournals.org:JBR:99730D658439 2018-09-30T00:00:00Z AcademicJournals JBR JBR:2018
Antibiotic resistance genes in diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) isolated from livestock organic wastes in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Evariste BAKO, Asseta KAGAMBEGA, Germaine MINOUNGOU, Noah Obeng NKRUMAH, Tounwendsida Serge BAGRE, Cheikna ZONGO, Oumar TRAOREacute;, Reacute;neacute; DEMBEacute;LEacute;, Sidi MOCTAR, Anne OUEDRAOGO and Nicolas BARRO Full Length Research Paper Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are often disseminated through the fecal matter of livestock and waste products including slurry and manure. The study aimed to characterize archived DEC recovered from cattle fecal matter, manure and slurry for quinolone resistance and extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) with focus on trends in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. The susceptibility of the bacteria was tested using standard laboratory procedures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to detect the presence of qnrA, qnrB, qnrS genes and beta;-lactamase producing genes (blaESBL) such us blaTEM and blaSHV. About 91% of DEC strains were multidrug resistant (MDR) with non-susceptibility to ge;1 agent in ge;3 antimicrobial classes. The most common resistance was to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (96.36%), followed by tretacycline (89.09%), ceftazidime (76.36%), and cefotaxime (70.780%). qnrS (18.2%) was the most prevalent quinolone resistant genes, followed by qnrB (7.2%) and qnrA (2%). blaTEM (5.45%) was most prevalent than blaSHV genes (3.6%). blaTEM and blaSHV genes were identified in double or multiple-carrying with qnrS and qnrB, no Beta-lactamase (ESBLs) producing strains were observed. This result highlights the importance of livestock fecal matter, manure, and slurries as a significant public health concern and a repository of antibiotic resistant gene. Key words: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC), Livestock#39;s fecal matter, manure, slurry, antibiotics resistance, quinolone resistance genes, blaTEM, blaSHV, Burkina Faso. Academic Journals 2018 TEXT text/html https://academicjournals.org/journal/JBR/article-abstract/99730D658439 http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JBR2018.0266 en Copyright © 2018 Evariste BAKO, Asseta KAGAMBEGA, Germaine MINOUNGOU, Noah Obeng NKRUMAH, Tounwendsida Serge BAGRE, Cheikna ZONGO, Oumar TRAOREacute;, Reacute;neacute; DEMBEacute;LEacute;, Sidi MOCTAR, Anne OUEDRAOGO and Nicolas BARRO
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