African Annals of
Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

  • Abbreviation: Afr. Ann. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1994-7461
  • DOI: 10.5897/AATCVS
  • Start Year: 2005
  • Published Articles: 69

Case Report

Current status of the paediatric congenital heart disease management pathway in Kenya

Mark Nelson Awori
  • Mark Nelson Awori
  • Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Daniel Ojuka
  • Daniel Ojuka
  • Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Diana Marangu
  • Diana Marangu
  • Department of Paediatrics and Child health, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya
  • Google Scholar
Paul Bannon
  • Paul Bannon
  • Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 11 March 2024
  •  Accepted: 03 April 2024
  •  Published: 31 May 2024


Awori MN, Ogendo SW, Gitome SW, Ong'uti SK, Obonyo NG (2007). Management pathway for congenital heart disease at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Africa Medical Journal 84(7):312-317.


Fleming S (2022). The World Bank's 2020 country classification explained. Available at Accessed December 12, 2022.


Gan HL, Zhang JQ, Zhou QW, Feng L, Chen F, Yang Y (2014). Patients with congenital systemic-to-pulmonary shunts and increased pulmonary vascular resistance: what predicts postoperative survival? PLoS One 9(1):e83976.


Glidewell J, Olney RS, Hinton C, Pawelski J, Sontag M, Wood T, Kucik JE, Daskalov R, Hudson J (2015). State Legislation, Regulations, and Hospital Guidelines for Newborn Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defects - United States, 2011-2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 64(23):625-630.


Grimes CE, Henry JA, Maraka J, Mkandawire NC, Cotton M (2014). Cost-effectiveness of surgery in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. World Journal of Surgery 38(1):252-263.


Hwang IC, Sisavanh M, Billamay S, Phangmanixay S, Oudavong B, Kang J, Kwon BS, Kim GB, Bae EJ, Noh CI, Choi JY (2017). Congenital heart disease at Laos Children's Hospital: Two year experience. Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society 59(3):271-279.


Kimenyi MS (2023). Devolution and resource sharing in Kenya. Available at; accessed 14th August 2023.


Liu Y, Chen S, Zühlke L, Black GC, Choy MK, Li N, Keavney BD (2019). Global birth prevalence of congenital heart defects 1970-2017: updated systematic review and meta-analysis of 260 studies. International Journal of Epidemiology 48(2):455-463.


Mostafa H, Rashed M, Azzo M, Tabbakh A, El Sedawi O, Hussein HB, Khalil A, Bulbul Z, Bitar F, El Rassi I, Arabi M (2021). Congenital Heart Disease in Syrian Refugee Children: The Experience at a Tertiary Care Center in a Developing Country. Pediatric Cardiology 42(5):1010-1017.


Our world in data (2023). Healthcare spending versus Gross domestic product. Available at Accessed 7th August 2023.


Park MK (2014). Pediatric Cardiology for Practitioners E-Book: Expert Consult-Online and Print. Elsevier Health Sciences.


Reddy NS, Kappanayil M, Balachandran R, Jenkins KJ, Sudhakar A, Sunil GS, Raj RB, Kumar RK (2015). Preoperative Determinants of Outcomes of Infant Heart Surgery in a Limited-Resource Setting. Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 27(3):331-338.


Samanek M (1992). Children with congenital heart disease: probability of natural survival. Pediatric Cardiology 13(3):152-158.


Saxton AT, Poenaru D, Ozgediz D, Ameh EA, Farmer D, Smith ER et al. (2016). Economic Analysis of Children's Surgical Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Analysis. PLoS One 11(10):e0165480.


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