African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12433

Table of Content: 12 December; 10(79)

December 2011

Overview of silkworm pathology in China

  In this study, we elaborated the history and progress of studies on silkworm diseases in China through summarizing and reviewing the achievements on silkworm pathology, pathogenic molecular biology, epidemiology, pathogen detection and diagnostic techniques, damage from non-infectious silkworm diseases and control of non-infectious silkworm diseases. These summaries and reviews would provide good...

Author(s):   Kang Guo-Ping, and Guo Xi-Jie,  

December 2011

Microsatellite association with seed protein content and flowering time in Nigerian cowpea cultivars

  Cowpea microsatellites were evaluated for their potential to be used as markers associated with seed protein content and plant flowering time. Seeds with high and low protein content as well as plants with early and late flowering time were selected from 104 Nigerian cowpea accessions. Fifteen (15) microsatellite primer pairs were tested for amplification of microsatellite sequences using PCR...

Author(s): Celestine A. Afiukwa, Karl J. Kunert, Juan Vorster, Christopher A. Cullisand Benjamin E. Ubi

December 2011

Genetic relationship and diversity analysis of Clitoria ternatea variants and Clitoria biflora using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers

  Clitoria ternatea and C. biflora are multipurpose forage legumes. They provide bioactive compounds for medicinal use and also are an ornamental plant. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based molecular markers technique; random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was employed to identify the polymorphism and genetic diversity between four genotypes of different variants A, B and C of C...

Author(s):   Yeotkar Swati D, Malode, S.N, Waghmare, V.N and Thakre, P.  

December 2011

Genetic analysis of resistance to early blight disease in tomato

Early blight is a fungal pathogen that causes destructive necrotic and chlorotic symptoms on leaves, stems and fruits of tomato plants. Host resistance remains the most desirable control strategy against the early blight disease. In this study, the responses of 6 cultivated and 3 wild tomato accessions were tested with 3 isolates of the fungal pathogen. To investigate inheritance of the resistance, resistant plants of...

Author(s): Özer Çalış and Åžerife Topkaya

December 2011

Effects of heat stress on gene expression in eggplant (Solanum melongema L.) seedlings

  In order to identify differentially expressed genes involved in heat shock response, cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) were used to study gene expression of eggplant seedlings subjected to 0, 6 and 12 h at 43°C. A total of 53 of over 2400 bands amplified were differentially expressed between the control and heat...

Author(s):   Yanyan Li, Zhiliang Li, Zhenxing Li, Shaobo Luo and Baojuan Sun  

December 2011

Ascorbate peroxidase gene from Brassica napus enhances salt and drought tolerances in Arabidopsis thaliana

  A full-length cDNA clone, BnAPX (GenBank: FJ965556.1) encoding ascorbate peroxidase and isolated from Brassica napus, was successfully introduced intoArabidopsis thaliana. Investigation into the function of BnAPX demonstrated thatBnAPX transgenic plants grew better than wild type under NaCl stress, and also had higher germination rate and longer root length. Moreover, under the...

Author(s): Liang Chai, Jian-mei Wang, Zhi-yong Fan, Zhi-bin Liu, Xu-feng Li and Yi Yang  

December 2011

Molecular markers associated with salt tolerance in Egyptian wheats

  Salinity affects plant growth by the osmotic stress of the salt around the roots, as well as by toxicity caused by excessive accumulation of salt in leaves. In the present study, seven common (Triticum aestivum) and two durum (T. turgidum ssp. Durum)wheat genotypes were subjected to salt stress for 2 weeks. Salt stress decreased leaf osmotic potential in all cultivars. The...

Author(s): Reda E. A. Moghaieb, Abdel-Hadi A. Abdel-Hadi and Neveen B. Talaat  

December 2011

Variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis of seedling traits and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

  Indirect selection is a useful means for improving yield in cotton crop. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic variability, broad sense heritability, genetic advance and correlation among the six seedling traits and their direct and indirect effects on cotton yield by using path coefficient analysis. Thirty cotton genotypes were studied in green house using randomized complete...

Author(s):   Aziz Irum, Aqsa Tabasum and M. Zaffar Iqbal  

December 2011

Molecular phylogeny of Trametes and related genera based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and nearly complete mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA (mt SSU rDNA) sequences

  Some species of Trametes and their related genera are so similar in microstructure characteristics that it is difficult to identify and separate them by traditional taxonomy. In this study, we elucidated relationships among Trametes through comparison of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the nearly complete mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA (mt SSU rDNA) sequences....

Author(s):   Cui, D. Z. Zhao, M., Yang, H. Y., Wang, C. l. and Dai, H. B.  

December 2011

Evaluation of seed priming in mung bean (Vigna radiata) for yield, nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation under rainfed conditions

  A study was carried out for improving yield and biological nitrogen fixation capacity of mung bean through priming techniques. The seeds were invigorated by traditional soaking (hydropriming), osmo-conditioning (soaking of seeds in aerated, low-water-potential solutions) with potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4), mannitol (C6H14O6), polyethylene glycol (PEG6000), sodium molybdate dihydrate...

Author(s): Adnan Umair, Safdar Ali, Rifat Hayat, Muhammad Ansar and Muhammad Javed Tareen

December 2011

Micropropagation of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) ‘Bhagava’ cultivar from nodal explant

  Reliable and reproducible protocols to get healthy and well formed plants from nodal explants of the pomegranate (Punica granatum L) cv ‘Bhagava’ has been developed. Nodal segments were cultured on two different media at full strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) and Woody Plant Medium (WPM). The media was prepared as a basal medium supplemented with 0.2 to 2 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), 0.1...

Author(s):   Vijay M. Patil, G. A. Dhande, Dipak M. Thigale and J. C. Rajput  

December 2011

Role of secondary metabolites biosynthesis in resistance to cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) disease

Disease percentage on six cotton varieties with respect to time for cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) was evaluated. In August 2007, the maximum disease was observed in CIM-506, CYTO-89 and BH-118 (susceptible), whereas CIM-443 was resistant with lower disease percentage. It was found that the leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight were more in healthy sample of leaves as compared to diseased samples of same...

Author(s):   Sumaira Ajmal, Rashida Perveen, Sobia Chohan, Ghazala Yasmin and Mirza Abid Mehmood  

December 2011

Biocontrol of charcoal-rot of sorghum by actinomycetes isolated from herbal vermicompost

  A total of 137 actinomycetes, isolated from 25 different herbal vermicomposts, were characterized for their antagonistic potential against Macrophomina phaseolina by dual-culture assay. Of them, eight most promising isolates (CAI-17, CAI-21, CAI-26, CAI-68, CAI-78, KAI-26, KAI-27 and MMA-32) were characterized for the production of siderophore, chitinase, protease, hydrocyanic acid (HCN), indole...

Author(s):   Subramaniam Gopalakrishnan, Bandru Keerthi Kiran, Pagidi Humayun, Meesala Sree Vidya, Kanala Deepthi, Simi Jacob, Srinivas Vadlamudi, Gottumukkala Alekhya and Om Rupela  

December 2011

Comparative micropropagation efficiency of diploid and triploid mulberry (Morus alba cv. S1) from axillary bud explants

  Micropropagation ability of two cytotypes (2n = 2x = 28 and 2n = 3x = 42) of mulberry (variety S1) was tested from axillary buds through organogenesis. Both shoot and rootlets development periods varied considerably with ploidy variations. The triploid shoots generally grew more vigorously in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with 6-benzyl amino purine (6-BAP) than those of diploids. Maximum shoot...

Author(s): S. Chattopadhyay, S. Gandhi Doss, S. Halder, A. K. Ali and A. K. Bajpai  

December 2011

Comparative micropropagation efficiency of diploid and triploid mulberry (Morus alba cv. S1) from axillary bud explants

  Micropropagation ability of two cytotypes (2n = 2x = 28 and 2n = 3x = 42) of mulberry (variety S1) was tested from axillary buds through organogenesis. Both shoot and rootlets development periods varied considerably with ploidy variations. The triploid shoots generally grew more vigorously in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with 6-benzyl amino purine (6-BAP) than those of diploids. Maximum shoot...

Author(s): S. Chattopadhyay, S. Gandhi Doss, S. Halder, A. K. Ali and A. K. Bajpai  

December 2011

Effect of boiling on the physicochemical properties of Roselle seeds (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) cultivated in Mali

  Effect of boiling on the physicochemical composition of Roselle seeds (Hibiscus sabdariffa) grown in Mali was shown. Proximate analysis indicated that boiled whole Roselle seeds (BWRS) are potential high protein source. Moreover, the results of lipid analysis indicated that the seeds were good source of unsaturated fatty acid (74.33%) with that of linoleic (35.55%), oleic (36.64%), palmitic (19.34%) and...

Author(s): Fatoumata Tounkara, Issoufou Amadou, Guo-Wei Le and Yong-Hui Shi  

December 2011

A study on the mechanism of resistance to streptomycin in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

  11 streptomycin-resistant mutants of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae were obtained by streptomycin selection. These mutants could grow at 100 µg ml-1 of streptomycin while the wild-type strain (PXO99) could not grow at 2 µg ml-1. Specific primers based on the conserved region of X. oryzae pv. oryzae were designed and used to amplify the gene encoding...

Author(s): Yong Zhang#, Jun Li#, Xiao-Wei Ma, Xiao-Feng Zhu, Feng Zhang and Ming-Guo Zhou

December 2011

Botrallin from the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 and its antimicrobial activity

  Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of the mycelia from the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, associated with the hybrid 'Neva' of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L., led to the isolation of one compound coded as P12-1 which was identified as botrallin (1,7-dihydroxy-3,9- dimethoxy-4a-methyl-6H- dibenzo [b,d] pyran-2,6...

Author(s):   Lingyun Zhong, Liang Xu, Xiangjie Meng, Youliang Peng, Yuanquan Chen, Peng Sui, Mingan Wang and Ligang Zhou  

December 2011

Chemical composition and toxicities of essential oil of Illicium fragesii fruits against Sitophilus zeamais

  The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and toxicities of essential oil derived from Illicium fargesii Finet et Gagnep fruits against the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch). Essential oil of I. fargesii fruits was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by GC (Gas Chromatography) and GC–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 43...

Author(s): Cheng Fang Wang, Peng Liu, Kai Yang, Yan Zeng, Zhi Long Liu, Shu Shan Du and Zhi Wei Deng

December 2011

Cloning of a novel stearoyl-acyl desaturase gene from white ash (Fraxinus americana) and evolution analysis with those from other plants

  Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, a new full-length cDNAs of stearoyl-ACP desturases (SAD) (FaSAD) was obtained from white ash. Sequence analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of FaSAD has high similarity to that of other reported SAD proteins. They are different from each other by some...

Author(s):   Gang Chen, Zhao-Kai Xing, Wen-Li Pan, Li-Ping Bai, Jing-Feng Ye, Dong-Jing Ma, Zhong-Ping Wei, Jun-Gang Fan and Zhi-Fu Guo  

December 2011

Annual change in photosynthetic pigment contents of Zostera marina L. in Swan Lake

  This study investigated the annual change in photosynthetic pigment contents ofZostera marina L. in Swan Lake from April 2009 to March 2010. Photosynthetic pigment of Z. marina L. was extracted using the soaking method and measured spectrophotometrically. The maximum value of total chlorophyll content observed was 2.40 ± 0.034 mg/g in October, while the minimum was 1.22 ± 0.028...

Author(s): Jie Liu, Peidong Zhang, Dong Guo, Shuna Niu and Xiumei Zhang  

December 2011

Quality characteristics of fresh-cut ‘Hami’ melon treated with 1-methylcyclopropene

  To further understand the response of ‘Hami' melon to 1- methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and search for additional more reliable parameters to determine edible quality, fresh-cut ‘Hami' melons were treated with 0, 1.0 μL/L 1-MCP, 1.0 μL/L 1-MCP + 10 μL/L ethylene and 10 μL/L ethylene, then stored at 4°C and relative humidity 90 to 95% for 10 days. Ethylene production and...

Author(s):   Qin Guo, Linlin Cheng, Jide Wang, Fenbin Che, Pin Zhang  and Bin Wu,  

December 2011

Extraction and analysis of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil

  Jatropha curcas L. is a multipurpose shrub with a variety of applications and enormous economic potentials for its seed oil, which can be converted into biodiesel- an alternative to petro-diesel. It aims to overcome energy crisis problem and also to reduce environmental changes. The fact that the oil of J. curcas cannot be used for nutritional purposes without detoxification makes its use as an...

Author(s): Patel Shivani, Patel Khushbu, Nilkanth Faldu, Vasudev Thakkar and R. B. Shubramanian

December 2011

Derivation and application of hydraulic equation for variable-rate contour-controlled sprinklers

  The variable-rate contour-controlled sprinkler (VRCS) for precision irrigation can throw water on a given shaped area and the flow rate is also varied with the throw distance of the sprinkler for the purpose of high uniformity irrigation. Much of past research work were concentrated on the mechanical availability of variable-rate application and the design of VRCS main construction without considering the...

Author(s):   Wenting Han, and Pute Wu ,  

December 2011

Effect of drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) on germination indices in corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids

  Drought stress is one of the most important environmental factors in reduction of growth, development and production of plants. Germination is one of the main growth stages and success in this stage is dependent on moisture content of soil at time of planting. This study examined germination characteristics of seven corn hybrids under five levels of osmotic potential (0, -3, -6, -9 and -12 bar) by...

Author(s): Zahra Khodarahmpour

December 2011

The influence of carbon source and calcium on the production of proteases by Erwinia chrysanthemi

  Erwinia chrysanthemi (Ec) is the causative agent of soft rot diseases in many plants. In order to cause disease, it produces hydrolytic enzymes, which are involved in the degradation of plant tissue. However, the role of proteases in its pathogenicity to plants is not well understood. E. chrysanthemi targets the host’s middle lamella, which was mainly made of pectic substances containing...

Author(s): N. T. Mazomba and L. V. Mabinya

December 2011

Production and optimization of ligninolytic enzymes by white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 in solid state medium banana stalks

  The present study deals with production of ligninolytic enzymes from an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 by using banana stalk as substrate through the process of solid state fermentation. The production process was further improved by optimizing a number of physical parameters such as incubation time, moisture level, pH, temperature, inoculums size and nutritional factors...

Author(s): Muhammad Irshad, and Muhammad Asgher

December 2011

Optimization of biogas production from banana peels: Effect of particle size on methane yield

  The matooke processing industry being set up by the Presidential Initiative on Banana Industrial Development (PIBID), once fully operational will generate muchmatooke associated waste that requires a sustainable waste handling mechanism. Anaerobic digestion of the peel waste for biogas production would provide a solution to that waste, but information on the pre-treatment of...

Author(s):   P. Tumutegyereize, F. I. Muranga , J. Kawongolo, and F. Nabugoomu,  

December 2011

Studies on the comparative effect of sodium fluoride on collagen content in various rat organs

  Fluoride is an essential element for the normal development and growth of human beings.  The main source of fluoride for humans is the intake of groundwater.  At high levels, fluoride causes dental and skeletal fluorosis. In this study, control and sodium fluoride (NaF) treated groups of rats had significant (p < 0.05) higher collagen in the kidneys followed by lungs and liver.  5, 10 and 20...

Author(s): N. J.  Siddiqi

December 2011

Changes over time in muscle fatty acid composition of Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides, fed different dietary lipid percentage

  The effects of four isonitrogenous diets containing different lipid levels on the muscle fatty acid profiles of Malaysian mahseer were evaluated over a period of six weeks from June to July, 2010. A general increase of monounsaturated fatty acid contents in the muscle of fish that were fed the test diets was detected after two weeks. Despite the high total content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty...

Author(s): Ehsan Ramezani-Fard, Mohd Salleh Kamarudin, Che Roos Saad and Sharr Azni Harmin

December 2011

Immunogenicity of the glycoprotein 5 truncated trans-membrane regions of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

  A fusion gene encoding glycoprotein 5 (GP5) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) truncated trans-membrane regions was constructed successfully through a linker-based reconstruction strategy and overlap polymerase chain reaction (PCR). High-level expression of the truncated GP5 protein with a molecular weight of 16 kDa was obtained in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) through...

Author(s):   Yinbiao Wang,#, Guangxu Xing,#, Junqing Guo, Songlin Qiao, Qingxia Lu, Qingmei Li, Gaiping Zhang,  

December 2011

Determination of the post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of combinations of extracts from galls of Quercus infectoria with vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

  Post-antibiotic effect (PAE) is one of the pharmacodynamic parameters that can be defined as the time it takes for the microorganisms to regain its normal growth after the complete removal of the antimicrobial agent. PAE on 2 strains of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-Staphyloccous were induced by galls ofQuercus infectoria in combination with vancomycin. The...

Author(s):   Vithya Amman, Dayang Fredalina Basri and Fahrul Huyop  

December 2011

Apoptosis induced by GanoPoly in human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 cells

  In order to investigate polysaccharide effect on the cultured human gastric cancer cells (SGC7901), DNA ladder, flow cytometry and western blot were used to examine the morpholog, proliferation and apoptosis of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells when they were affected by polysaccharide. Results show that multiplication of the cultured cells was restrained by treating with polysaccharide, especially with...

Author(s):   Tao Wen Hui, Liu Hong, Li Gang, Zhu You Qing and Qin Rui  

December 2011

Occurrence of monogeneans on some cyprinid fishes from Murat River in Turkey

This study was the first extensive survey of the parasites fauna of fishes from Murat River. During the two year period (2010-2011), 4 fish species were examined and 5 monogenean parasite species were recorded as follows: Dactylogyrus elegantis andDactylogyrus vistulae in Chondrostoma regium; Dactylogyrus elegantis,Dactylogyrus vistulae and Dactylogyrus prostae in Squalius...

Author(s): Mustafa Koyun

December 2011

Improved affinity of a chicken single-chain antibody to avian infectious bronchitis virus by site-directed mutagenesis of complementarity-determining region H3

  Affinity maturation of antibodies using random or site-directed mutagenesis provides the potential to change the properties of antibodies in vitro. We used site-directed mutagenesis to improve the binding affinity of an anti-avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) single-chain antibody ZL.80 with low affinity. Twelve highly variable residues in the third heavy chain complementarity-determining region...

Author(s): Yuan Lin, Benqiang Li, Man Wang, Rui Jia, Jianhua Wang, Ying Zhangand Jianguo Zhu

December 2011

Application of Lentikats Biotechnology for removal of nitrates from ion-exchange brines: Implications for adaptation of encapsulated denitrifiers

  Denitrifying Bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans encapsulated in polyvinyl alcohol matrix (so called Lentikats Biocatalyst; LB) was applied for the removal of nitrates from simulated ion-exchange brines (12.14 g.L-1 Cl-, 1.35 g.L-1 SO42-, and 2.26 g.L-1N-NO3-). The effect of brines dilution on the denitrification activity of fresh Lentikats Biocatalysts was tested simultaneously for four...

Author(s): J. Trögl, V. PilaÅ™ová, A. Boušková, J. Mrákota and R. Stloukal  

December 2011

Study on the alcohol fermentation technology of Dioscorea zingiberensis and D. zingiberensis residue

  Using Dioscorea zingiberensis and D. zingiberensis residue as raw materials, fermentation technology was studied separately under optimal fermentation conditions. This study shows that under the same condition, the final alcoholic concentration of the fermented liquors was 10.5 v/v using D. zingiberensis residue as raw material and 6.0 v/v using D. zingiberensis; moreover,...

Author(s):   Xiang Li, Jianzhong Ma,  Jing Xia, Yundong Shi and Hao Wu  

December 2011

Combined effect of vanadium and nickel on lipid peroxidation and selected parameters of antioxidant system in liver and kidney of male rat

  In this investigation, hepatorenal antioxidant effects of combined oral administration of ammonium metavanadate (AMV; 0.15 mg V/ml) and nickel sulfate (NS; 0.18 mg Ni/ml) in male albino rats over a 21-day period have been evaluated. After administration of vanadium, lipid peroxidation (LPO) increased significantly (p < 0.001) in kidney and insignificantly (p > 0.05) in liver, superoxide dismutase (SOD)...

Author(s):   Kamal Emam Mahmoud,  Tamara Shalahmetova,  Shaban Deraz and  Bauyrzhan Umbayev

December 2011

Establishment and biological characteristics of Piedmontese cattle fibroblast line

  A fibroblast line was successfully established from ear marginal tissues of Piedmontese cattle by direct culturing of explants. Biological analysis showed that the population doubling time (PDT) for reviving cells was approximately 24 h. The average viability of the cells was 96.6% before freezing and 92.7% after thawing. Isoenzyme polymorphorism of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and malic dehydrogenase...

Author(s): Hui Wang,#, Di Liu#, Dapeng Jin, Yu Guo, Weijun Guan and Yuehui Ma