African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12213

Table of Content: 15 February 2010; 9(7)

February 2010

An overview on the small heat shock proteins

  In the last 25 years, a huge amount of literature has been accumulated describing the cell’s response to different kinds of environmental stress conditions, such ashigh temperatures, altered pH, exposure of the cell to toxins, starvation, oxygen, and water deprivation, among others. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are one of the main expressed products of the cell in response to stresses....

Author(s): Tariq Mahmood, Waseem Safdar, Bilal Haider Abbasi and S. M. Saqlan Naqvi

February 2010

Multiple human prolactin receptors and signaling

  Human prolactin receptor (PRLR) transcripts and their protein products exhibit heterogenic structures and functions. This multiplicity constitutes a gene regulatory system. Short PRLR might modulate longer PRLR structures and signaling. Here we overviewed 10 forms (including two putative forms) of PRLR structures, signaling and functions and analyzed the possible regulatory system regarding multiple PRLRs....

Author(s): Wei Ding and Wei Wu

February 2010

QTL mapping for controlling anthesis-silking interval based on RIL population in maize

  Nitrogen (N) deficiency will severely affect many metabolic pathways and physiological progresses during maize (Zea mays L.) growth and change of anthesis-silking interval (ASI) is one of the most serious consequences. To realize the genetic basis of ASI, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 239 RILs, derived from the cross between Mo17 and Huangzao4, was used to identify the...

Author(s): Xiaohong Liu, Zuping Zheng, Zhenbo Tan, Zhong Li, Chuan He, Daihui Liu, Guoqing Zhang and Yangchun Luo

February 2010

Genetic diversity of gliadin pattern, morphological traits and baking quality in doubled haploid wheat

  This study aimed at assessing the genetic diversity of 102 lines doubled haploid wheat (sent from CIMMYT) using acid-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE) method, morphological traits and baking quality. Cluster analysis according to morphological traits divided all genotypes into four groups, so that genotypes with high yield were placed in one group. However, by cluster analysis according to...

Author(s):   J. Ojaghi and E. Akhundova  

February 2010

Cloning and characterization of a y-type inactive HMW glutenin subunit gene from Triticum durum cultivar youmangbingmai

  The high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are key factors of the breadmaking quality of common wheat flour. In the present study, one unexpressed1By gene from Triticum durum cultivar youmangbingmai was cloned and characterized. The results indicated that the silenced 1By gene in youmangbingmai showed the highest homology to that of previously published 1By8,...

Author(s): Weiwei Xiang,#, Baolong Liu,# and Huaigang Zhang  

February 2010

Over-expression of Arabidopsis DnaJ (Hsp40) contributes to NaCl-stress tolerance

  DnaJ (Hsp40), a heat shock protein, is a molecular chaperones responsive to various environmental stress. To analyze the protective role of DnaJ, we obtained sense transgenic Arabidopsis plants that constitutively expressed elevated levels of DnaJ. In this study, sense transgenic plants show large thinner, fade color and malformed leaves, as well as less floss of back leaves. Plants with enhanced levels of...

Author(s): Zhao Zhichang, Zhang Wanrong, Yan Jinping, Zhang Jianjun, Liu Zhen Li Xufeng and Yi Yang

February 2010

Semi-random PCR markers for DNA fingerprinting of rice hybrids and theirs corresponding parents

  Molecular markers technology provides novel tools for DNA fingerprinting of rice hybrids to assess hybrid seed purity. Semi- random PCR primers targeting intron-exon splice junctions (ISJ) were used to analyze the rice genome with the aim of evaluating potential of these markers for identification and classification of rice hybrids. A total of 21 primers were tested for screening eight hybrid combination...

Author(s): Seyyed Hamidreza Hashemi-Petroudi, Seyyed Ali Mohammad Mirmohammadi Maibody, Ghorban Ali Nematzadeh and Ahmad Arzani

February 2010

Comparison of Manzanilla and wild type olives by RAPD-PCR analysis

  The object of this study was to detect genetic similarities and distances between cultivated Manzanilla and wild type olives by random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) technique. In this study, the cultivated type olive Manzanilla was supplied from Olive Research Institute of Turkey and the wild type olives from the villages of Manisa, Izmir and Mugla provinces. Genomic...

Author(s): Meltem Sesli and E. Dilşat Yeğenoğlu

February 2010

Fungal contaminants observed during micropropagation of Lilium candidum L. and the effect of chemotherapeutic substances applied after sterilization

  Lilium candidum L. is a species which grows in the South West Anatolia region of Turkey. It is a bulbous plant with beautifully scented flowers and is used in the floral industry. The bulbs are produced by using traditional propagation and in vitrotechniques. Micropropagation is a rapid propagation technique, but the greatest problem is contamination with fungi and bacteria. Antibiotic and fungicide...

Author(s): Filiz Altan, Betül Bürün and Nurettin Şahin

February 2010

A comparative study of chromosome morphology among some accessions of Aegilops crassa

  In this study karyotype and chromosome characteristics of the nine accessions ofAegilops crassa species obtained from gene bank of Seed and Plant Improvement Research Institute (SPII) of Iran and one accession collected by authors were inspected. Aceto-iron-hematoxilin staining method was used to stain chromosomes. For each accession, chromosome characteristics including long and short arms,...

Author(s): Hatami-Maleki Hamid, Samizadeh Habibollah, Asghari-Zakaria Rasool, Moshtaghi Nasrin and Fazeli-Sangari Esmaeil

February 2010

Late-season nitrogen applications in high-latitude strawberry nurseries improve transplant production pattern in warm regions

  The influence of late-season nitrogen (N) applications on the fruiting pattern of strawberry runner plants of ‘Camarosa’ was determined over three growing seasons. Experiments were carried out in high-latitude nurseries in northern California and fruit production trials were established in southern California. A total of 80 kg/ha of foliar nitrogen was delivered in three applications to the...

Author(s):   Daniel S. Kirschbaum, Kirk D. Larson, Steve A. Weinbaum and Theodore M. DeJong  

February 2010

Diurnal gradual heat stress affects antioxidant enzymes, proline accumulation and some physiological components in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

  Even though high temperatures significantly reduce both vegetative growth and yield in cotton, very little is known about the effects of heat stress on cotton antioxidant system. Thus, the effects of gradual heat stress on cotton growth in controlled conditions were investigated in the present study. At squaring stage, cotton plants were subjected to two different temperatures, 38 and 45°C to determine...

Author(s): Atilla Gür, Ufuk Demirel, Mustafa Özden, Abdullah Kahraman and Osman Çopur

February 2010

Allelopathic potential of macrofungi on germinating maize (Zea mays L.) grain

  The effect of methanol extracts of 10 macrofungi was evaluated on grain germination of maize (Zea mays L.). Germination percentage, radicle and plumule length and the level of carbohydrates and fatty acids were measured. Fungal metabolites inhibited germination up to 90.96%, plumule (97.77%) and radicle (92.83%) development. Plumule and radicle lengths were stimulated 35.26 and 10.60% in some assays,...

Author(s): Yusuf Uzun, Musa Türker, Abdullah Kaya, Kenan Demirel, Sinan Işler and Ali Keleş

February 2010

Optimizing the production of welan gum by Alcaligenes facalis NX-3 using statistical experiment design

  Welan gum is an exopolysaccharide produced by Alcaligenes facalis NX-3. The composition of the medium for the production of welan gum was optimized with a stepwise strategy. Effects of various carbon and nitrogen sources were investigated. Plackett–Burman design was applied to elucidate the key ingredients in the media and the results indicated that the corn starch, cottonseed cake flour...

Author(s): Sha Li, Hong Xu, Hui Li and Chaojiang Guo

February 2010

Antimicrobial and phytochemical analysis of leaves and bark extracts from Bridelia ferruginea

  Five bacteria and three fungi were grown and tested against the effects of crude ethanolic, methanolic and water extracts of Bridelia ferruginea leaves and bark. The leaf water extract had zero antimicrobial activity. The overall antimicrobial activity recorded zones of inhibition ranging between 9 and 20 mm. The crude extracts were not active against the fungi tested. The minimum inhibitory...

Author(s): Owoseni, Abimbola A., Ayanbamiji, T. A., Ajayi, Yejide O. and Ewegbenro Ikeoluwa B.

February 2010

Flocculation phenomenon of a mutant flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain: Effects of metal ions, sugars, temperature, pH, protein-denaturants and enzyme treatments

  The flocculation mechanism of a stable mutant flocculent yeast strainSaccharomyces cerevisiae KRM-1 was quantitatively investigated for potential industrial interest. It was found that the mutant flocculent strain was NewFlo phenotype by means of sugar inhibition test. The flocculation was completely inhibited by treatment with proteinase K, protein-denaturants and carbohydrate modifier. The absence of...

Author(s): Kedong Ma, Minato Wakisaka, Kenji Sakai and Yoshihito Shirai

February 2010

Effect of the method of processing on quality and oxidative stability of anhydrous butter fat (samn)

  In this study four samn samples prepared from cow milk using two processing methods (traditional T1, T2 and factory processed T3, T4) were investigated for their physico-chemical properties, fatty acids composition, oxidative stability and sensory properties. The traditionally processed samples showed a significance difference (p < 0.05) in peroxide value and acid value in comparison to...

Author(s): Abdalbasit Adam Mariod, Rehab Tageldeen Ali, Yousif M. Ahmed, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab and Ahmad Bustamam Abdul

February 2010

Epicatechin content and antioxidant capacity of cocoa beans from four different countries

  Natural antioxidant has received more attention to be part of daily diet. Cocoa beans is one of the main sources of polyphenols especially epicatechin. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between antioxidant potential and epicatechin content of raw cocoa beans from different countries, namely Malaysia, Ghana, Cote d’Ivoire and Sulawesi (Indonesia). Antioxidant potential was...

Author(s): Azizah Othman, Abbe Maleyki Mhd Jalil, Kong Kin Weng, Amin Ismail, Nawalyah Abd.Ghani and Ilham Adenan

February 2010

Analysis of the essential oil from the leaves of Sesamum radiatum, a potential medication for male infertility factor, by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry

  Essential oil was extracted from the dried leaves of Sesamum radiatum by hydro-distillation and analyzed by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  n-Hexadecanoic acid was found to be the major constituent and with three other fatty acids namely, 9,12,15-octadecanoic acid-(Z,Z,Z), dodecanoic acid and tetradecanoic acid constitute 40.64% of the oil. Other constituents include...

Author(s): Modupe Ogunlesi, Wesley Okiei and Elizabeth Adejoke Osibote

February 2010

The effects of aqueous root extract of Senna italica subsp. arachoides on the feeding performance of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes adults

    The effects of aqueous root extracts of Senna italica subsp. arachoides on the feeding performance of adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes in three consecutive infestations of rabbits were studied under laboratory conditions. Rabbits were divided into treatment group (n = 3), fed aqueous root extracts and rabbit pellets while the control group (n = 3) was fed with rabbit...

Author(s): M. K. Thembo, S. R. Magano and L. J. Shai

February 2010

Production of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes by a phytopathogenic Myrothecium roridum and some avirulent fungal isolates from water hyacinth

  The cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of a pathogenic Myrothecium roridum Tode (IMI 394934) and non-pathogenic Fusarium solani and Curvularia pallescenceBoedjin isolates from water hyacinth were investigated. The mycelial plugs of each isolate was grown in submerged cultures of Czapeck Dox broth containing the appropriate carbon source (carboxymethylcellulose, sawdust and...

Author(s):   Wahab Oluwanisola Okunowo, George Olabode Gbenle, Akinniyi Adediran Osuntoki, Adedotun Adeyinka Adekunle and Sikiru Abiola Ojokuku  

February 2010

Effect of Gymnema inodorum on postprandial peak plasma glucose levels in healthy human

  Gymnema inodorum (GI), a vegetable widely used in a Northern Thai food, is known for not only its health nourishing effect, but also its hypoglycemic effect. But no scientific evidence on the hypoglycemic effect of GI has ever been reported in human. In this study, the effect of GI consumption on peak plasma glucose concentrations in healthy subjects was investigated. Either oral glucose load (75 g) or...

Author(s): Anchalee Chiabchalard, Tewin Tencomnao and Rachana Santiyanont  

February 2010

Antioxidant activities of the selected plants from the family Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae and Balsaminaceae

  Extraction of nine plants selected from the family Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae and Balsaminaceae was done in petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol/n-butanol in order of increasing polarity using soxhlet apparatus. Total phenolic contents were determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent which ranged from 30.5 to 547.0 mg GAE/g of extract. Maximum phenolic contents were found in n-butanol...

Author(s): Durre Shahwar, Shafiq-ur-Rehman, Naeem Ahmad, Sami Ullah and Muhammad Asam Raza

February 2010

Protective role of interferon against cytotoxcicity induced by rabies virus in mice

  Rabies remains an important public health problem in the world due to uncontrolled enzootic rabies, lack of safe efficient vaccines and poor information on the risk of contracting rabies post animal exposure. The lethality and mutagenic potential of challenge virus standard (CVS) was evaluated in mice. Mice were intracerebrally infected (MIC) with low, medium and high viral...

Author(s): Tohamy A. A., Fahmy A. M., Dkhil M. A., and Diab M. S. M.