African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12484

Table of Content: 16 May 2007; 6(10)

May 2007

The Membrane Gradostat Reactor: Secondary metabolite production, bioremediation and commercial potential

This manuscript focuses on the aspect of a membrane gradostat as an entirely different concept compared to submerged hollow fibre modules. The use of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is rapidly advancing in the wastewater treatment industries. However, this is not the case in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing industries. The MGR has shown great potential and versatility in terms of industrial applications. It can...

Author(s): S. K. O. Ntwampe, M. S. Sheldon and H. Volschenk

May 2007

In vitro micropropagation of orchid, Oncidium sp. (Dancing Dolls)

  A successful procedure was established for in vitro mass multiplication of orchid (Oncidium sp.). In vitro regeneration multiplication and rooting of plantlets were achieved from the immature seeds on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with BAP (2.0 mg/l). Rooted plantlets were then transferred to perforated plastic pots and grown in the green house.   Key...

Author(s): K. Kalimuthu, R. Senthilkumar and S. Vijayakumar

May 2007

Banana nectar as a medium for testing pollen viability and germination in Musa

  A quick and reliable method for evaluating pollen quality is essential in a breeding program, especially in a crop such as banana that is characterized by high male and female sterility. In this study the germination and viability of banana pollen was evaluated in a sucrose solution and diluted banana nectar. Twenty banana accessions were used to evaluate pollen germination in the two media after 3 and 24 h....

Author(s): Moses Nyine and Michael Pillay

May 2007

Heat activation and stability of amylases from Bacillus species

  Leitch and Collier sporulating Bacillus medium was used to isolate some strains ofBacillus species from soil, wastewater and food sources in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, by heat activation method. Heat treatment at 80oC allowed the growth of sporulatingBacillus species, in the culture sample source without other bacteria forms. The amylolytic Bacillus species isolated during the study were...

Author(s): Ajayi, Adedayo Olajide and Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel

May 2007

Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations on wastewater nutrient removal

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by the unicellular green microalga Chlorella vulgaris immobilized in calcium alginate beads. Different cell stockings in beads, different bead sizes and different algal bead concentrations in wastewaters were tested. Significant higher nutrients reductions were found in bioreactors containing algal beads than...

Author(s): M. S. Abdel Hameed

May 2007

The protective role of Scoparia dulcis on tissue antioxidant defense system of rats exposed to cadmium

  The possible antioxidant property of aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis was tested in rats exposed to cadmium. Different groups of animals were treated with CdCl2 alone or in combination with graded levels of S. dulcis (i.e. 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body wt, respectively). Cadmium, a known prooxidant was administered subcutaneously (3 mg /kg body wt), once every week, for two weeks....

Author(s): M. A. Adaikpoh, N.E.J Orhue and I. Igbe

May 2007

Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Alstonia boonei

  The chemical composition and some antioxidant indices of Alstonia boonei stem-bark extract were evaluated. A. boonei was found to contain important minerals like calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides were among the phytochemicals detected together with the important vitamin, ascorbic acid. DPPH...

Author(s): Afolabi C. Akinmoladun, E. O. Ibukun, Emmanuel Afor , B. L. Akinrinlola, T. R. Onibon, A. O. Akinboboye, E. M. Obuotor  and E. O. Farombi .

May 2007

Synthesis, physical properties, antimicrobial potentials of some antibiotics complexed with transition metals and their effects on alkaline phosphatase activities of selected rat tissues

  Metal complexes of ampicillin trihydrate, chloramphenicol and oxytetracycline with Ni(II), Fe(III) and Co(II) chloride salts were prepared using standard methods. The geometry and the mode of binding of complexes have been proposed on the basis of chemical analysis, conductivity measurements, molec-ular weight determinations and spectroscopic studies. Ampicillin and oxytetracycline coordinated through...

Author(s): Ogunniran, K. O., Tella, A.C., Alensela, M. and Yakubu, M. T.

May 2007

Anti-inflammatory activity of Ruta graveolens Linn on carrageenan induced paw edema in wistar male rats

  Aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema in wistar male rats, and compared to a positive control drug, Voveran. These extracts were given (ip) in a concentration of 20 and 50 mg/kg b.w. before carrageenan injection. Methanolic extracts of R. graveolens with a concentration of 20 mg/kg...

Author(s): Ratheesh, M and Helen, A

May 2007

Anti-diabetic and spermatogenic activity of Cocculus hirsutus (L) Diels

  Anti-diabetic effect was observed with Cocculus hirsutus when given as an aerial part extract in normal as well as diabetic rats. The effect, however, was more pro-nounced in diabetic animals in which administration for 15 days after streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, significantly reduced blood glucose levels. After STZ-induced diabetes, it was observed that both standard drug (glibenclamide)...

Author(s): Sangameswaran, B and Jayakar, B

May 2007

Occurrence of haemolysin antibodies among sickle cell anaemia patients within Calabar metropolis of Nigeria

  The role of alpha (α) and beta (β) haemolysins in blood transfusion has been well documented. However, the occurrence of haemolysins and its attending problems in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients has limited appearance in the literatures especially in black Africa. This study was therefore designed to investigate the occurrence of α and β haemolysins in SCA patients within Calabar...

Author(s): R. A. Anyanwu, A. O. Emeribe, C. U. Igwe, I. Ajayi, J. Akpotuzor, K. C. Lele and F. O. Emelike

May 2007

PREX-1979: Modeling the first ever prototype of a new generation of microbicides for preventing HIV infection among high risk women

Impregnating a proteolytic substrate of specifity to viral envelope with a restriction enzyme cleaving the HIV genome could generate a novel line of microbicide. Web Cutter version 2.0 aimed at identifying which enzyme can cleave HIV-1 and 2 genomes in 10 or > cuts was employed. Computational analysis indicate that of 291, 17 (5.8%) enzymes had 10 or more cuts in the HIV- 1/SIVcpz genome as compared to 25 (8.9%) for...

Author(s): Wayengera Misaki

May 2007

Frequency and site mapping of HIV-1/SIVcpz, HIV-2/SIVsmm and other SIV gene sequence cleavage by various bacteria restriction enzymes: Precursors for a novel HIV inhibitory product

  Resistance, toxicity and virologic failure have underlined the need to develop new HIV inhibitory products. Base on the natural bacteria “restriction modification system” antiviral immune model, we set out to analyze the effects of various restriction enzymes on the HIV genome. A computer simulated model using Web cutter Version 2.0, and cytogenetic analysis. 339 restriction enzymes from Promega...

Author(s): Wayengera Misaki, Byarugaba Wilson and Kajjumbula Henry

May 2007

Comparative analgesic activity of the root bark, stem bark, leaves, fruits and seeds of Carissa edulis VAHL (Apocynaceae)

  The analgesic activity of the water extracts (50,100 and150 mg/Kg body weight) of the root bark, stem bark, leaves, fruits and seeds of Carissa edulis were evaluated in mice using the mechanical method (tail-chip method) and chemical method (acetic acid induced writhing). The plant was found to have analgesic activity, with the fruits having the highest activity, followed by the leaves, seeds, root...

Author(s): H. Ibrahim, E. M. Abdulrahman, M. Shok, N. Ilyas, K.Y.Musa and I. Ukandu

May 2007

Effects of crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia cambogia on the reproductive system of male wistar rats (Rattus novergicus)

  15 male rats were grouped and administered crude ethanolic extracts of Garcinia cambogia seeds to test the effects on the histology of the testis and sperm counts. Group A served as the control while Groups B and C received 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of extracts, respectively. The administration was done orally once a day, six days a week for six weeks. The routine histological preparation at the...

Author(s): Oluyemi Kayode A., Jimoh Olusegun R., Adesanya Olamide A. Omotuyi Idowu O., Josiah Sunday J. and Oyesola Tolulope O..

May 2007

Genetic diversity of Annona senegalensis Pers. populations as revealed by simple sequence repeats (SSRs)

  Annona senegalensis Pers. is one of the wild fruit tree for domestication in southern Africa. An assessment of the genetic diversity in A. senegalensis would assist in planning for future germplasm collection, conservation and fruit domestication programmes. During 2004 to 2006 nine populations were collected from different locations in Malawi and genetic diversity was evaluated using...

Author(s): Kingdom Kwapata, Weston F. Mwase, J. M. Bokosi, M. B. Kwapata and P. Munyenyembe

May 2007

Purification, characterization and application of laccase from Trametes versicolor for colour and phenolic removal of olive mill wastewater in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole

  Laccase forms (L1 and L2) from Trametes versicolor CCT 4521 showed a molecular mass of 66 kDa and optimum temperature around 40oC. The optimum pH (4.0 and 5.0) and Km (28.6 and 5 µM) values using syringaldazine as substrate were found for L1 and L2, respectively. The enzymes were able to oxidize several compounds and were strongly inhibited by sodium azide, L-cysteine and...

Author(s): Rosana C. Minussi, Márcio A. Miranda, José A. Silva, Carmen V. Ferreira, Hiroshi Aoyama, Sérgio Marangoni, Domenico Rotilio, Gláucia M. Pastore and Nelson Durán,

May 2007

Fungal laccase: copper induction, semi-purification, immobilization, phenolic effluent treatment and electrochemical measurement

  The laccase activity induced by copper ions in Trametes versicolor by two inducers was studied and the aims were to show that it is possible to obtain a high laccase activity in almost 12 of the enzymes product using a basic culture medium but different copper concentration. Laccase was inducted by 2,5-xylidine and copper sulfate. Semi-purification of the crude laccase was carried out through...

Author(s): Cordi, L., Minussi, R.C., Freire, R. S., and Durán, N.,

May 2007

In vitro fermentation characteristics and acceptability by West African dwarf goats of some dry season forages

  Total weight gained by small ruminants in the rainy season is lost in the dry season due to feed scarcity. Feed supplementation with dry season browse trees, legumes and grasses for ruminants is prudent.  Proximate composition, acceptability using twenty four West African dwarf (WAD) goats and in vitro gas production of dry season forages were determined. Crude protein content ranged from 7.9%...

Author(s): Babayemi Olaniyi Jacob