African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12218

Table of Content: 18 August 2008; 7(16)

August 2008

The principles of ultra high pressure technology and its application in food processing/preservation: A review of microbiological and quality aspects

Consumers have a growing preference for convenient, fresh-like, healthy, palatable, additive-free, high-quality and microbiologically safe food products. However, as food deterioration is constant threat along the entire food chain, food preservation remains as necessary today as in the past. The food industry has responded by applying a number of new technologies including high hydrostatic pressure for food processing...

Author(s): Maryam Yaldagard, Seyed Ali Mortazavi and Farideh Tabatabaie

August 2008

The dynamic and ubiquitous nature of biotechnology

The beneficial and multidisciplinary nature of biotechnology is highlighted. Contrary to the general belief that the impact of biotechnology is mainly limited to agricultural science in the area of animal, plant breeding, and tissue culture and the medical sciences in the area of gene therapy, production of bioactive products for the quick diagnosis and treatment of diseases, this paper discusses the use of...

Author(s): Soetan, K. O.

August 2008

Urinary schistosomiasis epidemiological survey of urinary schistosomiasis among children in selected schools: A preliminary study in Minna, Nigeria

The study was carried out in Minna Metropolis, between August and December, 2005, with a total of 387 school children interviewed and 217 urine samples analysed. This research employs the use of questionnaires, validation of questionnaires by urinalysis and the microscopic examination of the urine samples. The research is aimed at appreciating prevalent level of urinary schistosomiasis in Minna metropolis. The overall...

Author(s): Chidozie E. U. and Daniyan S. Y.

August 2008

Biochemical effects on the liver and kidney of rats administered aqueous stem bark extract of Xemenia americana

The effects of aqueous extract of ximenia Americana stem bark on liver and kidney of albino rats was investigated. Different doses of the crude extract were administered to rats for 30 consecutive days. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of treated animals significantly (p<0.05) increased compared to the control group. High levels of these enzymes...

Author(s): A. U. Wurochekke, A. E. Anthony and W. Obidah

August 2008

Effect of Lawsonia inermis treatment on mice with sarcoma

Lawsonia inermis commonly is used as cosmetic material. However many studies had shown that L. inermis had antitumoural, antimicrobial and anti-tuberculostatic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether L. inermis can destroy cancer cells by induction of apoptosis due to decreasing of intracellular H+ ion level or increasing intracellular free radicals and H2O2 levels in...

Author(s): Mehmet Emin Zumrutdal, Mehmet Ozaslan, Mehmet Tuzcu, Mehmet Emin Kalender, Kenan Daglıoglu, Atilla Akova, Isık Didem Karagöz, İbrahim Halil Kilic, Omer Colak and Fatih Köksal

August 2008

Phytoconstituents and biological activities of essential Oil from Rhus lancea L. F

The present study determined the major phytoconstituents, the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activities of Rhus lancea essential oil against eight bacterial and four fungal species. The yield was 0.18% and the major phytoconstituents found wereµ-pinene, benzene and d-3-carene. The oil exhibited remarkable anti-oxidant and dose dependent antibacterial and antifungal activities with highest...

Author(s): M. Gundidza, N. Gweru, V. Mmbengwa, N. J. Ramalivhana, Z. Magwa and A. Samie

August 2008

Optimization of somatic embryogenesis and selection regimes for particle bombardment of friable embryogenic callus and somatic cotyledons of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

Although a number of transformation systems and selection regimes have been developed for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), they have only been applied in a limited number of genotypes. This limitation of the applicability of the systems is due largely to variation in morphological responses of different genotypes to the regeneration and transformation procedures employed, which underscores the need to study all...

Author(s): Ibrahim A.B., Heredia F.F., Pinheiro C.B., Aragao F.J.L. and Campos F.A.P.

August 2008

Evaluation of genetic stability in cryopreserved Solanum tuberosum

Cryopreservation is a technology of high importance in the storage of plant germplasm for long periods; however, the practical application of this technology for the preservation of plant materials is useful only if it does not lead to the genetic changes in the plant of interest. In the present investigation, the genetic stability of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets of the cultivars Agria and Marphona...

Author(s): Reza Zarghami, Mostaffa Pirseyedi, Shabnam Hasrak and Babak Pakdaman Sardrood

August 2008

Genetic identification and symbiotic efficiency of Sinorhizobium meliloti indigenous to Saudi Arabian soils

Soil bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti are of enormous agricultural value, because of their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with an important forage crop legume-alfalfa. The main aim of this study was (i) to isolate indigenous S. melilotistrains from different field sites in Saudi Arabia, (ii) to assess genetic diversity and genetic relationships amongst strains of natural populations and...

Author(s): Abdel-Aziz R. A., Al-Barakah F. N. and Al-Asmary H. M.

August 2008

Line X tester analysis in pea (Pisum sativum L.): Identification of superior parents for seed yield and its components

This research was carried out to investigation the genetic structure of the 24 F1 pea hybrids established from eight exotic female lines and three local winter hardinessmale testers, to determine parents showing general combining ability (GCA) and determine crosses showing specific combining ability (SCA.), and to evaluate theheterosis. Broad genetic variability was observed among the...

Author(s): Ercan Ceyhan, Mehmet Ali Avci and Serdar Karadaş

August 2008

A safe inexpensive method to isolate high quality plant and fungal DNA in an open laboratory environment

The most commonly used plant DNA isolation methods use toxic and hazardous chemicals (phenol, chloroform), which require special equipment to minimize exposure and may limit their use in certain environments. Commercial DNA extraction kits are convenient and usually safe, but their availability to certain developing countries and high cost can be limiting, especially when handing a large number of samples and...

Author(s): Chen Niu, Hirut Kebede, , Dick L. Auld, Jason E. Woodward, , Gloria Burow, and Robert J. Wright,

August 2008

Effect of mycorrhizal inoculum and urea fertilizer on diseases development and yield of groundnut crops (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Diseases (rosette virus disease (RVD), Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) and poverty of soils in nutrients are the main causes of groundnut losses (>60%). Among the methods applied in disease management, the biological method is identified as a priority in crop protection research programs. This study was carried out during the 2001 growing season in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The aim was to characterize the...

Author(s): Ambang Zachée, Ndongo Bekolo, Bime, Ngoh Dooh, Maho Yalen and Ntsomboh Godswill

August 2008

Plants regeneration from African cowpea variety (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.)

Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. plant was efficiently regenerated from cotyledonary node explants. The shoots multiplication rate was influenced by the presence or the absence of cotyledons. Explants with two entire cotyledons from 5-6-d-old seedling produced the greater number of shoots (8.30) after two weeks on B5 medium supplemented with 1 mg.l-1 BAP.  Shoots elongation is optimal on media...

Author(s): Mamadou Saliou Diallo, Aliou Ndiaye, Maurice Sagna and Yaye Kène Gassama-Dia

August 2008

High in vitro production of ant-canceric indole alkaloids from periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) tissue culture

Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) is one of the most important medical and ornamental plants in the world. In this investigation, periwinkle seeds, after sterilization were cultured on MS medium. Petiole segments of seedlings (4 day old) were subcultured to medium containing various concentrations of NAA accompanied with Kin and subcultured to regenerate the callus and root. Callus and roots were obtained from...

Author(s): Azra Ataei-Azimi⊃, Babak Delnavaz Hashemloian⊃ Hassan Ebrahimzadeh⊃ and Ahmad Majd⊃

August 2008

Effect of seed collection times and pretreatment methods on germination of Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC

A nursery experiment was conducted to study the effects of seed collection times and pretreatment methods on the germination of Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC. (Combretaceae). T. sericea is a multipurpose tree species occurring in the miombo woodlands whose seedling production is hampered by very low seed germination rate. Seeds were subjected to four treatment methods each at four different...

Author(s): Michael G. Likoswe, , Joyce P. Njoloma, Weston F. Mwase and Clement Z. Chilima

August 2008

Yield performance of dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines under Researcher Designed Farmer Managed (RDFM) system in three bean agro-ecological zones of Malawi

An on-farm study was carried out under rain-fed condition in 2003 - 2004 and 2004 - 2005 growing seasons in five sites namely Ntchenachena and Ngong’a in Rumphi district, Chipuka in Ntchisi district, Thondwe and Matapwata in Zomba and Thyolo districts respectively representing three bean agro-ecological zones of Malawi. Seven dwarf bean entries; DC 96-95, PC 490-D8, BCMV-B2, SDDT-54-C5, APN 130, F6BC (19) and DOR...

Author(s): V. M. Mwale, J. M. Bokosi, C. M. Masangano, M. B. Kwapata, V. H. Kabambe and C. Miles

August 2008

Germination, seedling growth and relative water content of shoot in different seed sizes of triticale under osmotic stress of water and NaCl

Effect of seed size (small, medium and large) on germination and seedling growth of triticale (xTriticosecale Witm. cv. Presto) at the different osmotic potential of NaCl and PEG solutions were determined in the present study. Germination tests were conducted under five osmotic potential levels (-0.45, -0.77, -1.03, -1.44 MPa, and Control) of PEG 6000 and NaCl. Germination percentage (%) at 4 and 8th days and also...

Author(s): Digdem Kaydan and Mehmet Yagmur

August 2008

Effects of application boron on yields, yield component and oil content of sunflower in boron-deficient calcareous soils

The study was conducted to investigate the effects of five boron (B) doses; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg B ha-1 in B-deficient calcareous soils on yield and some yield components of four sunflower genotypes. Genotypes have shown variations with respect to their responses to B applications. AS-615 and Coban had the highest seed yield (3.75 and 3.23 t ha-1, respectively) at 7.5 kg B ha-1, whereas S-288 and TR-4098...

Author(s): Ercan Ceyhan, Mustafa Önder, Özden Öztürk, Mustafa Harmankaya, Mehmet Hamurcu and Sait Gezgin

August 2008

Effect of oil palm sludge on cowpea nodulation and weed control in the humid forest zone of Nigeria

A field trial was conducted at the Rivers State University of Science and Technology Research and Training farm Port Harcourt to test the effect of oil palm sludge on cowpea nodulation and weed control. The cultivars of cowpea used were Dan Kano, Bornu local and Sokoto local while the oil palm sludge levels applied were 0, 4000, 6000 and 8000 l/ha. The trials were conducted during the rainy and dry season of 2004. It...

Author(s): C. S. Ekwuribe, J. A. Osakwe, E. C. Chuku and T. T. Epidi

August 2008

Comparative nematotoxicity and fungitoxicity of crude and partitioned ethanolic leaf extracts of three plant species

The nematotoxicity and fungitoxicity of crude and partitioned ethanolic leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica, Blumea perotitiana and Lippia multiflora were compared in vitro involving Meloidogyne root-knot nematode and Rhizoctonia root-rot fungus. The experiment which involved a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replicates indicated that the nematode mortality...

Author(s):   S. T. Anjorin and E. A. Salako

August 2008

Prophylactic effect of paw-paw leaf and bitter leaf extracts on the incidence of foliar myco-pathogens of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Ishiagu, Nigeria

The aqueous extracts of the leaves of paw-paw (Carica papaya) and bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) were used to investigate their prophylactic effects on the incidence of myco-pathogens of groundnut in Ishiagu, south eastern Nigeria. Two field experiments were conducted: pre-soaking of the seeds before sowing and post-germination spraying. Both experiments had significant effects (P < 0.05) on the disease incidence...

Author(s): S. I. Ogwulumba, K. I. Ugwuoke and C. Iloba

August 2008

Lipase activities of microbial isolates from soil contaminated with crude oil after bioremediation

This study involving assessment of the enzyme lipase as indicator of microbial degradation of crude oil was carried out using indigenous and exogenous soil microorganism. Standard microbiological, physiological and biochemical methods were adopted. Result obtained revealed Edwardsiella...

Author(s): K. Chuks Ugochukwu, N. C. Agha and J. N. Ogbulie

August 2008

Preliminary results of the analysis of the population structure of the Nile perch (Lates niloticus linnaeus, 1758) of Lake Victoria using microsatellite markers

Preliminary results are provided of a study instituted to analyze the genetic population structure of the Nile perch in Lake Victoria since 2002. 293 individuals from six geographically distinct locations within the lake were analyzed using two polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers. Tests for differentiation with an overallFST = 0.03 (P < 0.05) suggested that populations were genetically differentiated, with...

Author(s):   Matthew Tenywa Mwanja and Wilson Waiswa Mwanja

August 2008

Formation of biofilm by strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from soft cheese 'wara' and its processing environment

Quantification of biofilm formation by 40 Listeria monocytogenes strains from wara soft cheese and its processing environment was assessed on glass vials surfaces. Attachement to glass surface was quantified using a crystal violet binding assay. All the 40 strains produced biofilms after 48 and 72 h incubation at 37oC. No biofilms were formed at 24 h incubation but biofilm formation increased with incubation...

Author(s): V. O. Adetunji and G. O. Adegoke

August 2008

Comparative studies and microbial risk assessment of different Ready-to-Eat (RTE) frozen sea-foods processed in Ijora-olopa, Lagos State, Nigeria

This study reports the comparative studies and microbial risk assessment of different frozen seas-foods processed in Ijora-olopa, Lagos State, Nigeria. Different varieties of popularly consumed frozen sea-foods bought from different processing shops in Ijora-olopa, Lagos were microbiologically analyzed for the presence of microorganisms. Total plate counts, enterobacteriaceae counts and Salmonella-Shigella (SS)...

Author(s): Okonko, Iheanyi Omezuruike, Ogunjobi, Adeniyi Adewale, Fajobi, Enobong Aloysius, Onoja Bernard Anyebe, Babalola, Eunice Temilade, and Adedeji Adetola Olamide

August 2008

Comparative studies and microbial risk assessment of different water samples used for processing frozen sea-foods in Ijora-olopa, Lagos State, Nigeria

This study reports the comparative studies and microbial risk assessment of different water samples used for processing frozen sea-foods in Ijora-olopa, Lagos State, Nigeria. Twelve different samples of well, tap, borne-hole, river water used for processing frozen sea-foods were collected from different processing shops in Ijora-olopa, Lagos. These water samples were microbiologically analyzed for the presence of...

Author(s): Okonko, Iheanyi Omezuruike, Ogunjobi, Adeniyi Adewale, Adejoye, Oluseyi Damilola, Ogunnusi, Tolulope Adeola, and Olasogba Mojisola Clara

August 2008

Antimicrobial activity of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria isolated from Algerian traditional fermented milk “Raïb”

Twenty samples of traditional fermented milk “Raib” were collected in eastern Algeria from individual household. They were evaluated for the presence of autochthonous bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria. From 13 of these samples 52 strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated, and shown to exhibit inhibitory activity against the indicator strain Listeria monocytogenes. Five of these...

Author(s): Mechai Abdelbasset and Kirane Djamila

August 2008

Determination and comparison of vitamin C, calcium and potassium in four selected conventionally and organically grown fruits and vegetables

It is evident that the growing interest in organically grown produce has correspondingly necessitated the debate on the nutritional supremacy between organically and conventionally grown produce. A study was carried out to determine and compare vitamin C, calcium and potassium in organically and conventionally grown cabbage, carrots, Cos lettuce and Valencia oranges. Samples were purchased from local supermarkets within...

Author(s): K. G. Masamba and M. Nguyen

August 2008

Antinutrient and antioxidant quality of waxed and unwaxed pawpaw Carica papaya fruit stored at different temperatures

The storage of shea butter waxed and unwaxed pawpaw Carica papaya fruit at two storage temperatures was investigated with respect to the antinutrient (phytate, oxalate, condensed tannin (CT) and hydrolysable tannin (HT)) and antioxidant (vitamin C, tocopherol, total phenol and carotenoid) properties. Freshly harvested just ripe pawpaw C. papaya fruit was divided into two lots; one was waxed with...

Author(s): Adetuyi, F.O., Akinadewo, L.T., Omosuli S.V. and Ajala, Lola

August 2008

A simple method of formulating least-cost diets for smallholder dairy production in sub-Saharan Africa

Smallholder dairy farmers in sub-Saharan Africa are constrained by inadequate supply of good quality protein sources particularly during the dry season. Commercial protein concentrates are expensive and not readily accessible. Multipurpose forage legumes and other non-conventional protein sources available on-farm have been promoted as alternative cheaper protein sources. The major problem faced by smallholder dairy...

Author(s): Sebastian Chakeredza, Festus K. Akinnifesi, Oluyede Clifford Ajayi, Gudeta Sileshi, Simon Mngomba and France M. T. Gondwe

August 2008

Inhibition of growth of some phytopathogenic and mycotoxigenic fungi by aqueous extracts of Combretum imberbe (Wawra) wood

Fungal attack of crop plants and the associated production of mycotoxins on edible produce from plants is a global concern. This is so because mycotoxins are carcinogenic. This study reports on an investigation of the effects of aqueous extracts of Combretum imberbe wood ash on the growth of some phytopathogenic and mycotoxigenic fungi including Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum,Penicillium...

Author(s): Peloewetse E., Thebe M. M., Ngila J. C. and Ekosse G. E.

August 2008

Effect of cooking methods on available and unavailable carbohydrates of some tropical grain legumes

The available and unavailable carbohydrate contents of eleven tropical legumes from different seed lines were investigated in raw, cooked and autoclaved forms. Raw legumes contained small amounts of glucose and fructose which ranged from 0.05 to 0.22 g/100 g and 0.24 to 0.90 g/100 g, respectively, sucrose varied between 1.49 g/100 g and 3.76 g/100 g. Reducing sugars were higher in bambara groundnut than other legumes....

Author(s): David F. Apata

August 2008

Epidemiological studies of the incidence of pathogenic Campylobacter spp. amongst animals in Lagos metropolis

Faecal specimens were collected from different animal species (puppies, Guinea fowl, chicken and pigs) at different farm locations in Lagos (Inner City - Central urban area; peripheral City – rural/farming houses; Rural - a farming and agricultural zone, where people raised their own domestic animals). In all, 200 animals were sampled out of which twenty (14%) were positive for Campylobacter, seventeen (17)...

Author(s): P. O. Uaboi-Egbenni, P. N. Okolie, O. D. Adesanya, E. Omonigbehin, A.O. Sobande  

August 2008

Contribution of different constituents to the toxicity of the essential oil constituents of Vernonia amygdalina (Compositae) and Xylopia aetiopica (Annonaceae) on maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

The lethal toxicity of the major constituent of the essential oils of Vernonia amygdalina and Xylopia aetiopica, and of selected blends of these againstSitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was compared with those of the full blends of the essential oils. The compounds were assayed in amounts and proportions present in the minimum 100% lethal dose of the essential oils. The...

Author(s): Asawalam E. F, , Emosairue S. O and Hassanali A.

August 2008

Isolation and identification of the genera Acetobacter and Gluconobacter in coconut toddy (mnazi)

This study investigated the occurrence and identified the dominant spoilage genera of acetic acid bacteria in coconut wine (mnazi), by plating the dilution series previously pre-enriched in a basal medium onto GYP agar, followed by physiological and biochemical tests. Both Acetobacter and Gluconobacter strains were Gram variable, oxidase negative and catalase positive....

Author(s): T. T. Kadere, T. Miyamoto, R. K. Oniang`o, P. M. Kutima and S. M. Njoroge

August 2008

Nutritional evaluation of kabuli and desi type chickpeas (cicer arietinum L.) for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique

  The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition and estimation of nutritive value of kabuli and desi type chickpeas using in vitro gas production technique in sheep. The samples were collected from East Azerbaijan, Iran, pea packaging and processing factories. The feed samples (200 mg from each) were incubated with rumen liquor taken from three fistulated...

Author(s): Naser Maheri-Sis, Mohammad Chamani, Ali-Asghar Sadeghi, Ali Mirza- Aghazadeh and Abolfazl Aghajanzadeh-Golshani