African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12184

Table of Content: 18 January; 7(2)

January 2008

Aqueous and ethanol leaf-extracts of Piliostigma thonningii (Schum) increase locomotor activity in Sprague-Dawley rats

Among other uses, aqueous and alcohol extracts of Piliostigma thonningii (Schum) have been claimed by traditional herbal medical practitioners in Nigeria to be effective tranquilizers. In our efforts to establish some of the tradomedical uses of the plant, we designed the present study in order to test the effects of the extracts on the locomotor activity (LA) of rats. Male rats were administered 25 or 50...

Author(s): Raymond I. Ozolua and Peter Alonge

January 2008

Immunoglobulin profile of Nigerian children with Plasmodium falciparum infection

The immunoglobulin profiles of 126 Nigerian children infected with Plasmodium falciparum in their peripheral blood were investigated. The mean malarial parasitaemia was 4699.17 ± 3695.2 µl. The mean immunoglobulin profile of these infected children were 2.68 ± 0.019 mg/dl for IgA, 0.031 ± 0.01 mg/dl for IgD, 1358.29 ± 123.57 ng/dl for IgE, 19.09 ± 1.27 mg/dl for IgG and...

Author(s): Nmorsi, O. P. G. Ukwandu, N. C. D., Isaac, C., Ekoma, N. E, Asibor, V.

January 2008

Enhanced Phagocytosis and Antibody Production by Tinospora cordifolia - A new dimension in Immunomodulation

Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi) is a widely used shrub in ayurvedic systems of medicine known to possess immunomodulatory properties. In the present study the aqueous extract of T. cordifolia was found to enhance phagocytosis in vitro. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts also induced an increase in antibody production in vivo.   Key words: Immunomodulation, phagocytosis...

Author(s): M. S. Ranjith, A.J.A. Ranjitsingh, S. Gokul Shankar, G. S. Vijayalaksmi, K. Deepa and Harcharan Singh Sidhu

January 2008

Antibacterial activity of whole plant extract of Marrubium vulgare

The antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare whole plant was tested by disc diffusion method. Zones of Inhibition produced by methanolic extract in a dose of 50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/ml against selected strains was measured and compared with those of standard discs of antibiotic ciprofloxacin (10 µg/ml).   Key words: Disc diffusion, antibacterial...

Author(s): Mubashir H. Masoodi, Bahar Ahmed, Iqbal M. Zargar, Saroor A. Khan, Shamshir Khan and Singh P.

January 2008

Yield response of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts using supplements of some locally available peats and their mixture with some secondary casing materials

The study was conducted to investigate yields of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts. Mixtures (50:50, v/v) of some locally available peats including peat of Bolu (PB), peat of Agacbasi (PA), peat of Caykara (PC) and their mixture (80:20; v/v) with which piece of mosaic and sand were used. Also, some activator materials such as wheat bran, wheat chaff, chicken manure, pigeon...

Author(s): Hakan Simsek, Ergun Baysal, Mehmet Colak, Hilmi Toker, and Ferah Yilmaz

January 2008

Micropropagation of Sterculia urens Roxb., an endangered tree species from intact seedlings

An efficient and reproducible procedure for the large scale propagation of Sterculia urens is described. Direct shoot proliferation was induced in aseptic seed cultures of S. urens on MS medium (1962) supplemented with 5.0 μM thidiazuron + 1.5 μMGA3 + 0.1% ascorbic acid. The highest number of shoots (14.0) was formed within 8 weeks of seed culture without root formation on...

Author(s): Town Mohammad Hussain, , Thummala Chandrasekhar  and Ghanta Rama Gopal

January 2008

Polyploidization effect in two diploid cotton (Gossypium herbaceum L. and G. arboreum L.) species by colchicine treatments

Anti-mitotic agents such as colchicine have been used to induce polyploidy in various plants. Here we examined the effects of different doses of colchicine on polyploidy induction in two cotton species (Gossypium herbaceum andGossypium arboreum). The data reveal that the dose of colchicine, treatment duration, genotype and their combined effects on the induction of polyploidy and plant growth rate were...

Author(s): Alishah Omran and  Bagherieh-Najjar Mohammad B

January 2008

Larvicidal and insecticidal properties of some marine sponges collected in Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar waters

Among marine invertebrates, sponges are one of the most productive marine ecosystems, with regard to presence of novel bio-active compounds. Few sponges (n = 18) were collected from Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar waters of India and their methanol and dichloromethane (1:1) extracts were screened for larvicidal and insecticidal properties. Among them, around 40% of test extracts were active against the fourth-instar larvae...

Author(s): J. Venkateswara Rao, P. K. Usman and J. Bharat Kumar

January 2008

Decolourisation and degradation of textile dyes using a sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) – biodigester microflora co-culture

Successful decolourisation and degradation of textile dyes was achieved in a biosulphidogenic batch reactor using biodigester sludge from a local municipality waste treatment plant as a source of carbon and microflora that augmented a sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium. Orange II (O II) was decolourised by 95 % within one day (24 h) producing 1-amino-2-naphthol and stoichiometric quantities of sulphanilic...

Author(s): Chamunorwa Aloius Togo, Cecil Clifford Zvandada Mutambanengwe and Christopher George Whiteley

January 2008

Assessment of heavy metals bioavailability in dumpsites of Zaria Metropolis, Nigeria

The objectives of this study was to investigate the chemical fractionation, mobility and bioavailability of Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in refuse waste soils of some dumpsites in Zaria metropolis. The heavy metals in the waste soils samples were sequentially extracted and measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean of total extractable metals in the samples analysed for Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn ranged from 25.86 –...

Author(s): S. Uba⊃, A. Uzairu⊃, G. F. S. Harrison⊃, M. L. Balarabe⊃ and O. J. Okunola

January 2008

QTL analysis for early yield in a pseudo F2 population of cassava

Genetic mapping of early bulking in a full-sib population of cassava was continued in a selfed family of 268 cassava plants derived from a single progeny of the full-sib population.  The pseudo F2 population was analysed with 122 segregating SSR markers.  A previously constructed linkage map of cassava consisting of 22 linkage groups covering 1236.7 cM, with an average marker distance of 18 cM was used...

Author(s): E. Okogbenin, J. Marin, and M. Fregene

January 2008

Estimation of out-crossing rate in a natural breeding population of Warburgia ugandensis using AFLP marker

Warburgia ugandensis Sprague (Canellaceae) occurs in East and Central Africa, and the species is of great medicinal importance to the local communities where it occurs. As the wild populations diminish, planted stands will in future be used as the source of medicinal products as well as germplasm. This study investigated the levels of out-crossing rates to provide knowledge for proper planning in future cultivation...

Author(s):   A. Muchugi, G. M. Muluvi, A. J. Simons, F. N. Wachira and R. H. Jamnadass

January 2008

Screening of Chinese brassica species for anti-cancer sulforaphane and erucin

Natural sulforaphane and erucin have been of increasing interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries due to their anti-cancer effect. The sulforaphane and/or erucin contents in seeds of 43 different Chinese Brassica oleracea L.varieties were analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS. Among them, 21 cultivars seed meal (in 5 species, including Chinese kale, cabbage, kohlrabi, kale and broccoli) yielded sulforaphane...

Author(s): Yuru You, Yuanfeng Wu, Jianwei Mao, Ligen Zou and Shiwang Liu

January 2008

Some biochemical and haematological effects of black seed (Nigella sativa) oil on Trypanosoma brucei-infected rats

The effect of black seed oil (Nigella sativa oil) on parasitaemia, some serum and liver enzymes as well as some haematological parameters in Trypanosoma brucei-infected rats were investigated. The results show there was low parasitaemia and extension of life span of rats from 12 days of the infected untreated (control) rats to 22 days for the infected black seed oil-treated rats. Results also show significant increases...

Author(s): Justine T. Ekanem and Oluwatosin K. Yusuf

January 2008

Effect of stabilizers on the physico-chemical and sensory attributes of thermized yoghurt

Stabilized thermized yoghurt was produced by the addition of gelatin, carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) and corn starch, into yoghurt mix as stabilizers, each at 0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0% concentrations. The yoghurt samples produced after pasteurization of the mix, cooling, inoculation of starter culture and incubation for about 16 h were thermized at 75oC for 60 s followed by immediate cooling. Results show that titratable...

Author(s): Alakali, J. S., Okonkwo, T. M. and Iordye, E. M.

January 2008

Physical, chemical and microbiological changes in alcoholic fermentation of sugar syrup from cassava flour

Changes in alcoholic fermentation of sugar syrup produced from cassava flour with Saccharomyces cereviseae (baker’s yeast) were investigated. Cassava flour paste was hydrolysed using rice malt to produce hydrolysate (sugar syrup), which was fermented at 28 – 30°C for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days. The fermented sugar syrup was analysed for alcohol content, reducing sugars, specific gravity, soluble...

Author(s): F. C. K. Ocloo and G. S. Ayernor

January 2008

Antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract and fractions of the seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae)

The crude ethanol extract, aqueous and chloroform fractions of the seeds ofGarcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) was investigated for antimicrobial activity. Agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration determinations were the methods employed for the study. Clinical bacterial and fungal isolates were used as indicator organisms while standard antimicrobial agents were included in the study. The crude...

Author(s): John, O. Akerele, Osahon, Obasuyi, Maureen, I. Ebomoyi   Israel, E. Oboh, Osamuyi, H. Uwumarongie

January 2008

Vegetation indices as indicators of damage by the sunn pest (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) to field grown wheat

The sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Put. (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), also known as sting or cereal pest, is one of the most economically important pests of wheat in the world. In this study, a collapsible nylon cloth cage experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using remote sensing techniques to detect stress in wheat caused by the density of sunn pests. The results show we can detect the...

Author(s): H. Genc, L. Genc , H. Turhan, S. E. Smith and J. L. Nation