African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 19 February 2007; 6(4)

February 2007

Breeding and disseminating quality protein maize (QPM) for Africa

Quality protein maize (QPM) describes a range of maize cultivars with twice the content of limiting amino acids lysine and tryptophan compared with conventional maize, and has been developed to help reduce human malnutrition in areas where protein deficiency is prevalent and where maize is the major protein source in the diet, as in various parts of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The International Maize and Wheat Improvement...

Author(s): Alan F. Krivanek, Hugo De Groote, Nilupa S. Gunaratna, Alpha O. Dialloand Dennis Friesen

February 2007

Assessing the biological potential of N2-fixing Leguminosae in Botswana for increased crop yields and commercial exploitation

The Leguminosae are a major source of food, fodder, timber, phytochemicals, phytomedicine, nutriceuticals and N fertility in Botswana. Although the country is beset by drought as a result of low rainfall (150 – 650 mm per year) and high potential evapotranspiration, the Leguminosae appear adapted to this low-nutrient environment. Conducting field inoculation trials with infective rhizobia and selecting legume...

Author(s): Flora Pule-Meuelenberg and Felix D. Dakora

February 2007

Environmental impacts of mercury and its detoxification from aqueous solutions

There has been an increased concern over the level of heavy metals in the environment because of the serious environmental hazards these metals pose. Mercury is one of these heavy metals present in the environment. Mercury undergoes complex chemical and physical transformation once released to the air, land or rivers. The main sources of mercury are the natural and anthropogenic sources. Mercury may be emitted to the...

Author(s): Okoronkwo, N. E., Igwe, J. C. and Okoronkwo, I. J.

February 2007

Microsatellite gene diversity in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) accessions resistants to lethal yellowing disease

One of the problems faced in coconut cultivation is the lethal yellowing disease. Experimental trials, conducted in endemic region, showed that the Vanuatu Tall and Sri-Lanka Green Dwarf genotypes were tolerant while the West African Tall appeared susceptible to the lethal yellowing disease. Genetic differences between these tolerant genotypes and the susceptible ones were evaluated using twelve microsatellite markers....

Author(s): Konan K. Jean Noël, , Koffi Kouablan Edmond, Konan Jean Louïs, Lebrun Patricia, Dery S. K. and Sangare Abdourahamane

February 2007

Identification and differentiation of indigenous non-Basmati aromatic rice genotypes of India using microsatellite markers

Aromatic rice is preferred by consumers all over the world due to its flavor and palatability. Although large number of them is available, little analysis of the genetic diversity has been done at molecular level so far. Twelve microsatellite primer pairs, one from each chromosome of rice were used for evaluating the genetic diversity of 38 traditional indigenous non-Basmati aromatic rice cultivars. A total of 32...

Author(s): Raj Kumar Joshi and Lambodar Behera

February 2007

Effects of plant growth regulators on callus, shoot and root formation in fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis)

Root and stem explants of fluted pumpkin were cultured in medium containing different types and concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGRs). The explants were observed for callus, root and shoot formation parameters after four months. Differences among explants, plant growth regulators and their interaction were not significant for number of roots per plantlet. Callus formation was higher in stem than root...

Author(s): M. O. Balogun, S. R. Akande and B.A. Ogunbodede

February 2007

Quantitative variations in the growth of progeny seedlings of Prosopis africana (Guill., Perrott. and Rich.) Plus trees in Nigeria

Variations in the seedlings growth among the progenies of Prosopis africana Plus trees from four locations (Lafia, Makurdi, Ajaokuta and Oyo) in Nigeria were investigated. Seeds were sown in germination boxes under a high humidity propagator and at the two leaves stage after germination; the seedlings were transplanted into medium sized polythene pots (12 x 5 x 5 cm) containing top-soil. Assessment on the...

Author(s): Akinnagbe, Akindele and Oni, Olutayo

February 2007

Neutralization of soil acidity by animal manures: mechanism of reaction

The mechanism of reaction leading to neutralization of soil acidity by animal manures was studied in the laboratory. Five animal manures; rabbit manure (RBM), swine manure (SWM), goat manure (GTM), poultry manure (POM), and cow manure (COM) were respectively added at rates equivalent to 10, 20, 30, and 40 t ha-1 to an Ultisol having soil-water pH of 4.6 and KCl extractable acidity of 3.00 cmol kg-1. The amended...

Author(s): A. O. Ano and C. I. Ubochi

February 2007

Temporal variations in organic carbon, soil reactivity and aggregate stability in soils of contrasting cropping history

We studied the effect of incorporating agricultural wastes on soil aggregate stability (AS), organic carbon (OC), and soil reactivity (pH) of similarly textured soils under different managements (vegetable, (VG) and Orchard (OR) farming), in South-eastern Nigeria. The agricultural wastes were cow dung (CD,) cassava peels (CP), and kola nut pods (KP). The air dried agricultural wastes were crushed and sieved using a 2 mm...

Author(s): Eneje, R. C., Oguike, P. C. and Osuaku, S.

February 2007

Discrimination of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) strains using Mexican lime/citrange Troyer combinations (Citrus poncirus/Citrus trifoliata x Poncirus sinensis)

Two strains of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were studied for six years in Yaounde in the forest zone of Cameroon. These strains, SNCL2 and SNCL4, were characterized on Lisbon lemon in Nyombe in the littoral zone of Cameroon. They were inoculated onto combinations of Mexican lime/citrange Troyer. The virulent strain SNCL2 induced a lower lateral growth of the trunk of stocks and scions of six years old combinations. These...


February 2007

Ethanolic extract of melgota (Macaranga postulata) for repellency, insecticidal activity against rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae)

Ethanolic extract of Melgota is used for repellency, insecticidal activity against rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) with emphasis on chemical investigation. Fruits of Melgota (Macaranga postulata) were extracted on different solvents as in ethanol, acetone, petroleum ether, distilled water and the extracts were concentrated and dried. The ethanol extracts of Melgota (M. postulata) of different concentrations were...

Author(s): Syed Shayfur Rahman, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Mohammad Mizanur Rahman Khan, Shameem Ara Begum, Balaram Roy and S. M. Fakruddin Shahed

February 2007

Control of Aspergillus niger with garlic, onion and leek extracts

Antifungal activity of “Allium”  vegetables that is garlic (Allium sativum L.), onion (Allium cepa L.) and leek (Allium porrum L.) were investigated against Aspergillus niger. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of aqueous, ethyl alcohol and acetone extracts were determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods in the test...

Author(s): Reyhan Irkin and Mihriban Korukluoglu

February 2007

Antagonism of Trichoderma viride and effects of extracted water soluble compounds from Trichoderma species and benlate solution on Ceratocystis paradoxa

Trichoderma viride was identified as a mycoparasite against Ceratocystis paradoxa. When grown near the pathogen, T. viride was seen entwining around the pathogen mycelium. It was stimulated to produce branches that grew directly to the pathogen mycelium. Firm attachment on the pathogen conidia resulted in the penetration and successful growth of T. viride. Some of the impregnated C....

Author(s): E. I. Eziashi, I. B. Omamor and E. E. Odigie

February 2007

Bioluminescent hydrocarbonclastic bacteria of the Niger Delta

Utilization of three petroleum hydrocarbons (Mobil SAE 40 Engine Oil, Diesel and Bonny light Crude Oil) by four bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio harveyi, V. fisheri, Photobacterium  leiognathi and P. Phosphoreum isolated from the  Bonny estuary in the Niger Delta, Nigeria was investigated. Microbial utilization was monitored for an 8-week period using mineral salt medium containing the...

Author(s): A. A. Adoki and L. O. Odokuma

February 2007

Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based compost formulas using wheat chaff as activator material

This study was designed to determine the pin head formation time and yield values ofAgaricus bisporus on some casing materials. Composts were prepared basically from wheat straw and waste tea leaves by using wheat chaff as activator substance. Temperatures of the compost formulas were measured during composting at various depths in order to determine the compostability level. Results showed that in both compost...

Author(s): Huseyin Peker , Ergun Baysal, Osman Nuri Yigitbasi, Hakan Simsek, Mehmet Colak and Hilmi Toker

February 2007

A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of fringe tree (Chionanthus virginicus L.) extracts

  Fringe tree (Chionanthus virginicus L.) is used as a raw material by pharmaceutical industries for the preparation of homeopathy tinctures. In this study, antioxidant activity of methanol extract (MEFT) and ethylacetate extract (EEFT) from root bark of fringe tree (C. virginicus L.) were evaluated. 2,2-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging,...

Author(s): Ä°lhami Gülçin, Riad Elias, Akçahan Gepdiremen, Laurent Boyer, Ekrem Köksal

February 2007

Biodegradation of the carbofuran by a fungus isolated from treated soil

  A total of 50 bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus strains isolated from some Nigerian indigenous fermented foods and beverages (ogi, fufu, garri and nono) and characterized as L. acidophilus, L. casei, L. fermentum, L. lactis and L. plantarumwere screened for their inhibitory potentials against food-borne pathogenic indicator...


February 2007

Decolorization of textile dyes and their effluents using white rot fungi

  Reactive dyes are important chemical pollutants from textile industries .The two species of white rot fungi were evaluated for their ability to decolorize Blue CA, Black B133, Corazol Violet SR. Trametes hirsuta and Pleurotus florida displayed the greatest extent of decolorization. Laccase is the ligneolytic enzyme from these fungi. The laccase activity was measured using both solid and...

Author(s): Sathiya moorthi, P., Periyar selvam, S., Sasikalaveni, A. Murugesan, K., and Kalaichelvan, P. T.

February 2007

Physical and nutritional factors affecting the production of amylase from species of bacillus isolated from spoiled food waste

  Amylase producing Bacillus sp. was isolated from spoiled food waste, which yielded 30 U ml-1 of amylase in medium containing 4% starch and 2% yeast extract at 37°C, pH 7.0 after 20 h of incubation. Maximum amylase activity was at pH 7.0 and 37°C. The enzyme retained 70% activity at pH 9.0. It exhibited 77% activity at 42°C and decreased to a low value of 25% at 52°C proving it...

Author(s):   Sekar Sudharhsan, Sivaprakasam Senthilkumar and Karunasena Ranjith  

February 2007

Naphthalene and pyrene degradation in contaminated soil as a function of the variation of particle size and percent organic matter

  The effect of soil particle size distribution and percent organic matter on the degradation rate of naphthalene and pyrene in a water medium of 7.05 ml/min at 272oC in a soil reactor was studied. Analysis of the pattern of disappearance of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using various particle sizes showed a rapid decline of concentration of the chemicals during initial stages of bioremediation...

Author(s): Owabor, C. N. and Ogunbor, O. F.

February 2007

Molluscicidal activity of crude water leaf extracts of Alternanthera sesselis on Bulinus (phy) globosus

  Evaporated and unevaporated extracts were prepared from both dried and fresh leaves sample and subjected to a 24 h static bioassay. A reference molluscicide niclosamide (Baylusicide) was used as standard and rainwater as untreated control. Reaction of the snails on coming in contact with the test medium is either shock or distress. The distress reaction started with retraction of tentacles and ended in some...

Author(s): AZARE, B. A., OKWUTE, S. K.  and KELA, S. L.

February 2007

In vitro antimicrobial characteristics of bacteriocin- producing Lactobacillus strains from Nigerian indigenous fermented foods

  A total of 50 bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus strains isolated from some Nigerian indigenous fermented foods and beverages (ogi, fufu, garri and nono) and characterized as L. acidophilus, L. casei, L. fermentum, L. lactis and L. plantarumwere screened for their inhibitory potentials against food-borne pathogenic indicator...

Author(s):   Adenike A.O. Ogunshe, Mopelola A. Omotoso and J. Adeleye Adeyeye  

February 2007

The effects of different preservation methods on the quality of nunu, a locally fermented Nigerian dairy product

  Biochemical and microbial analyses were carried out on fresh and preserved nunu for seven days. Fresh nunu contained protein, carbohydrates, lipids, calcium and other nutrients. Fresh samples had an initial pH of 4.4, microbial load of 4.2 x 103 cfu/ml and free fatty acid level of 2.21 mg/g of sample. Unpreserved sample showed appreciable degree of lipolysis, proteolysis and lactose fermentation....

Author(s): NEBEDUM, J. O. and OBIAKOR, T.

February 2007

Energy intake and anthropometry: a case study of families in Zaria, Nigeria

  Energy intake and nutritional status of 44 members of 5 families in Zaria Local Government Area of Kaduna State were evaluated for 6 consecutive days. The socioeconomic activities and health condition of the participants was determined by the administration of questionnaire interviews. Food samples were analyzed by the standard AOAC methods to determine their energy and proximate composition while nutritional...

Author(s): Oranusi S, Galadima M, Umoh VJ and Nwanze PI

February 2007

The effect of sweeteners and milk type on the archeological properties of reduced calorie salep drink

  The aim of the study was, to determine effects of sweeteners and milk type on the rheological and sensorial properties of reduced calorie salep drink. In addition to sugar, three different sweeteners; aspartame, saccharine and cyclamate as well as three different milk types; full-fat, low-fat and non-fat; were used for sample preparation. The rheological characterization of samples was described by power-law...

Author(s): Telcioglu, A. and Kayacier, A.

February 2007

Determination of post-dredging concentrations of selected trace metals in water, sediment and the freshwater mudfish (Clarias gariepinus) from Ikpoba river in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

  This investigation monitored the post-dredging concentrations of Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Ni and Pb in the water, sediment and the freshwater mudfish, Clarias gariepinus, from Ikpoba River in Benin City, Nigeria, over a six-month (February – July, 2005) period.  The results showed that the levels of Mn, Ni and Pb in water and Cu, Mn, Cr and Pb in fish were higher than the recommended levels in...

Author(s): Obasohan, E. E., Oronsaye, J. A. O. and Eguavoen, O. I.

February 2007

Characteristics and mechanics of tall vegetation for resistance to flow

  Characteristics and mechanical properties of vegetation have a considerable effect on the resistance to flow for both water in vegetation zone of rivers and air in forest canopies. For tall vegetation, these properties include leaf density, shape and the general flexibility of tree species. To estimate the resistance coefficients (i.e., coefficient of drag, the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor, f, or...

Author(s): M. Fathi-Moghadam

February 2007

Optimizing factors influencing DNA extraction from fresh whole avian blood

  A study was conducted to optimize the efficient combination of lysis buffer, proteinase K, incubation time, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCI) volume, spinning rate (rpm), and precipitation agent on quantity and quality of DNA extracted from various volumes of avian blood. Blood samples were collected in EDTA and swiftly transferred to a laboratory for DNA extraction. The lysis buffer used...

Author(s): H. Khosravinia, H. N. Narasimha Murthy, D. Thertha Parasad and N. Pirany

February 2007

Performance and carcass yield of barrows fed dried poultry waste as a replacement for palm kernel cake

  Performance characteristics and carcass yield obtained from barrows (castrated male pigs) fed a diet in which dried poultry waste (DPW) totally replaced palm kernel cake (PKC) was investi-gated. The DPW diet was inferior in terms of total weight gained (30.8 kg as opposed to 34.2 kg for the PKC diet). The daily weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization were also better in the PKC diet (610.70 g versus...

Author(s): S.O. ARO and O.O. TEWE