African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12483

Table of Content: 22 February 2010; 9(8)

February 2010

Water-immiscible dissolved oxygen carriers in combination with Pluronic F 68 in bioreactors

  The supply and availability of dissolved oxygen (DO) in aerobic bioprocesses is often a limiting factor for the scaling up, improvement and general performance of these bioprocesses. The use of different DO carriers, particularly the use of perfluorocarbons as oxygen carriers, is discussed in this review. It also highlights interactions of microbial cultures with the surfactant, Pluronic F 68. Although oxygen...

Author(s): S. K. O. Ntwampe, C. C. Williams and M. S. Sheldon

February 2010

Increasing trend of metronidazole resistance in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: A global challenge

  Helicobacter pylori are gram negative spiral bacteria that colonize the human stomach. Infection with H. pylori is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)lymphoma. Antibiotic resistance is an ever increasing problem with the treatment of most microbial infections including H. pylori; and has become a...

Author(s): Novosti Buta, Nicoline F. Tanih and Roland N. Ndip,

February 2010

Functional analysis of a gene encoding threonine synthase from rice

  Threonine synthase (TS) is a pyridoxal phosphate dependent enzyme that catalyzes the formation of threonine (Thr) through O-phosphohomoserine (OPH) from the aspartate family pathway in plants. The properties of the TS enzyme have been evaluated in many bacteria and few plants. Sequence analysis of the cDNA from rice revealed that it harbors a full-length open reading frame for OsTSencoding for 521...

Author(s): Md. Shafiqul Islam Sikdar and Jung-Sup Kim

February 2010

Effect of endophytic Fusarium oxysporum on paralysis and mortality of Pratylenchus goodeyi

  Three bioassays were conducted to investigate the antagonistic effect of secondary metabolites produced by 5 endophytic Fusarium oxysporum isolates from banana (Musa spp.) plants in Kenya, against Pratylenchus goodeyi.  Percentage paralyses were recorded 3, 6 and 24 h after exposure to culture filtrates. Percentage mortality was evaluated after 48 h. All isolates caused...

Author(s): Peter Mwaura, Thomas Dubois, Turoop Losenge, Daniel Coyne and Esther Kahangi

February 2010

Effects of basal media, salt concentrations, antioxidant supplements and co-effects on the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency in maize

  Transformation efficiency enhancement in maize Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was tested using four different basal media, five levels of N6 salts, two antioxidants and copper sulfate. In the absence of the antioxidants L-cysteine and dithiothreitol (DTT), the frequencies of transient GUS expression was higher using Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) and Murashige and Skoog (MS) media as an alternative to...

Author(s): Hewei Du , Huixia Wu, Jianbing Yan and Jiansheng Li 

February 2010

Identification of rust resistance genes Lr10 and Sr9a in Pakistani wheat germplasm using PCR based molecular markers

  Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rusts are the most widespread and destructive among all other diseases of wheat because of their wide distribution, and their capacity to form new races that can attack previously resistant cultivars which result in serious yield losses. Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. triticiand leaf of orange rust caused by Puccinia recondita are more...

Author(s): Muhammad Babar, Aamir Fahad Mashhadi, Ambreen Mehvish, Atfah Naz Zahra, Raheela Waheed, Ammarah Hasnain, Sajid-ur-Rahman, Nazim Hussain, Muhammad Ali, Imran Khaliq and Abdul Aziz

February 2010

In vitro culture and plant regeneration derived from ray florets of Chrysanthemum morifolium

  Nine cultivars of Chrysanthemum morifolium were screened using the ray floret explants to determine the capability for plant regeneration on four media protocols and subsequently to find out the best genotype source linked with the optimum medium conditions for the high potentiality of shoot formation. The results indicated that all in vitro culture traits were highly significantly...

Author(s): M. N. Barakat, Rania S. Abdel Fattah, M. Badr and M. G. El-Torky

February 2010

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve the growth of olive trees and their resistance to transplantation stress

  Two native Algerian mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices) were tested for their effect on the growth of micropropagated olive tree (Olea europaea L.). The effect of inoculation of plantlets with G. mosseae was also compared with chemical fertilization using osmocote. Specific molecular techniques were then used to detect the presence of the two fungi. Highly...

Author(s): A. Meddad-Hamza, A. Beddiar, A. Gollotte, M. C. Lemoine, C. Kuszala and S. Gianinazzi

February 2010

Antimicrobial activity of the aqueous, methanol and chloroform leaf extracts of Cissus multistriata

  Antimicrobial activity of aqueous, methanol and chloroform leaf extracts of Cissusmultistriata were investigated against 8 bacterial and 2 fungal test organisms, using the tube dilution and agar ditch diffusion methods. Aqueous leaf extract had no activity against both the bacterial and fungal test organisms. Both the methanol and chloroform leaf extracts inhibited all the test organisms with...

Author(s): Adegoke, S. A., Opata, O. M. and Olajide, J. E.

February 2010

Isolation and characterization of a bacterial strain for aniline degradation

  Aniline, a serious environmental threat and health risk to living organisms is being released into the soil and water bodies owing to its expanded use in industry. The objective of the present study was to isolate a strain from rhizospheric soil samples of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) taken from an agricultural site near the industrial area of Faisalabad, with the capability of degrading aniline with its...

Author(s): Sarfraz Ahmed, Safia Ahmed, Muhammad Farrukh Nisar, Khalid Hussain, Abdul Majeed, Pir Bakhsh Ghumroo, Shahid Afghan, Aamir Shahzad, Khalid Nawaz and Kazim Ali

February 2010

Enhanced production of intracellular dextran dextrinase from Gluconobacter oxydans using statistical experimental methods

  Optimization of the fermentation medium for DDase production by Gluconaobacter oxydans M5 was carried out in the shake flasks using two kinds of statistical methods. Four variables, namely glucose, tryptone, yeast extract and sodium chloride, were found to influence DDase production significantly by the Plackett-Burman screening. A four-factor five-level central composite design (CCD) was chosen to...

Author(s): Xiangzhao Mao#, Xiaotong Liang,#, Shu Wang, Wei Dong, Yanlong Xing, Hualei Wang, Lizhong Guo and Dongzhi Wei,   #These authors contributed equally to this paper

February 2010

Combinations of nisin with salt (NaCl) to control Listeria monocytogenes on sheep natural sausage casings stored at 6°C

  This study evaluated the effect of combinations of nisin with salt (NaCl) to controlListeria monocytogenes on sheep natural sausage casings. Casings were inoculated with 3.0 x 105 cfu/g final inocula of L. monocytogenes, stored at 6°C in different solutions of nisin at 0, 100, 150 and 200 µg/g. Each combined with salt at 0, 4, 7 and 12% (w/v). Samples were taken at day 0, 10, 20,...

Author(s): F. Ben Hammou, S. N. Skali, M. Idaomar and J. Abrini

February 2010

The incidence and antibiotics susceptibility of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from beef in Ibadan Municipal, Nigeria

  The incidence of Escherichia coli 0157: H7 was assessed in meat samples from slaughtered cattle in Ibadan metropolis by culturing on sorbitol MacConkey agar and confirmed using serological agglutination kits. The isolates were tested for susceptibility to seven commonly used antimicrobial agents. Out of the total of the 116 non-sorbitol fermenting (NSF) E. coli isolated from the...

Author(s): Olatoye, Isaac Olufemi

February 2010

Effect of processing on iodine content of some selected plants food

  Effect of processing on iodine content of some selected plants food was investigated. Results show significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the iodine content of the processed food compared with the raw forms. The iodine value of 658.60 ± 17.2 µg/100g observed in raw edible portion of Discorea rotundata was significantly higher compared with the value of 448.60 ± 2.46, 248.60...

Author(s): Salau, B. A., Ajani E .O, Odufuwa, K. T. , Adegbesan, B. O., and Soladoye, M. O.

February 2010

Selected cultivars of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) as a new food source for human nutrition

  The aim of this work was to determine antioxidant activity in 12 cultivars of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.). Two assays based on ion reduction of ABTS (2,2´-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals were used for antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content of the fruit was analysed by Folin-Ciocelteau colorimetric method and...

Author(s): Otakar Rop, Jiri Mlcek, Daniela Kramarova and Tunde Jurikova

February 2010

Hepatoxicity of aqueous extract and fractionated methanol extract of Phytolacca americana by isolated rat liver perfusion system

  Phytolacca americana is a perennial plant native to North America and other parts of the world. It is well known for several medicinal properties despite being considered to have digestive toxicity (especially hepatotoxicity). Our objective is to examine whether extract of aerial parts of P. americana could produce biochemical changes by Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion (IRLP) system, which is...

Author(s): Mohammad Karami, Farshad Naghshvar, Sodabah Saeidnia and Nada Omrani

February 2010

Acute and subacute toxicity study of ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Faidherbia albida (DEL) A. chev (Mimosoidae) in rats

  Faidherbia albida (Del.) A. Chev (mimosoidae) is widely used in African traditional medicine (ATM) for management of fever, diarrhoea and human trypanosomiasis.Acute and sub-acute toxicity profiles of ethanolic stem bark extract of F. albida were evaluated in wistar albino rats. The acute toxicity was studied using the method of Lorke (1983). In the sub-acute toxicity study, four groups of six...

Author(s): Salawu A. Oluwakanyinsola, Tijani Y. Adeniyi, James A. Akingbasote and Oga E.  Florence

February 2010

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the methanol extract of Malva parviflora Linn (Malvaceae) in rats

  Malva parviflora Linn Malvaceae is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds and other related ailments by the Xhosa people of South Africa. The anti-inflammatory activity of the stem extract of this plant was assessed using carrageenan-induced paw oedema and histamine-induced paw oedema. The analgesic effect was determined using the acetic acid writhing method as well as formalin test. The...

Author(s): Anthony J. Afolayan, Oluseyi M. Aboyade, Adeolu A. Adedapo and Margaret O. Sofidiya

February 2010

Frequency of cryptosporidium infection in children under five years of age having diarrhea in the North West of Pakistan

  Cryptosporidium species are minute, coccidian protozoan parasites that have been associated with enterocolitis. It has worldwide distribution and has emerged as an important cause of diarrhea, particularly in children less than 5 years of age and in immunocompromised individuals. Waterborne transmission is particularly troublesome because Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are not eliminated by...

Author(s): Shahina Mumtaz, Jawad Ahmed and Liaqat Ali

February 2010

Phytochemical screening and in vitro anticandidal activity of extracts and essential oil of Curculigo pilosa (Schum and Thonn) Engl. Hypoxidaceae

  Curculigo pilosa is commonly used for herbal preparations as a purgative and also in the management and treatment of hernia, infertility and gonorrhea in Southwestern Nigeria. Owing to reported resistance of Candida albicans to toxic expensive anticandidal agents such as azoles and its implication for promoting opportunistic fungal infections of immunosuppressed patients, the anticandidal...

Author(s): Gbadamosi Idayat Titilayo and Egunyomi Adeyemi

February 2010

Phytotoxic, insecticidal and leishmanicidal activities of aerial parts of Polygonatum verticillatum

  The aim of the present study was to explore the aerial parts of the Polygonatumverticillatum for various biological activities such as phytotoxic, insecticidal and leishmanicidal properties. Outstanding phytotoxicity was observed for the crude extract and its subsequent solvent fractions against Lemna acquinoctialis Welv at tested doses of 5, 50 and 500 µg/ml. Complete growth...

Author(s): Muhammad Saeed, Haroon Khan, Murad Ali Khan, Shabana Usman Simjee, Naveed Muhammad and Saeed Ahmad Khan

February 2010

A survey of indigenous herbal diarrhoeal remedies of O.R. Tambo district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

  Indigenous health system and the use of herbal plants have been recognized as pivotal in primary health care and a system to reckon with in achieving one of the targets of the millennial goals on health. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to identify indigenous herbal remedies for diarrhoea and associated stomach ailments in rural areas of the O.R. Tambo district municipality in the Eastern Cape province...

Author(s): Bisi-Johnson, M. A., Obi, C. L., Kambizi, L. and Nkomo, M.

February 2010

Thalassemia mutations in Gaziantep, Turkey

  Ninety-eight postnatal and six prenatal cases of thalassemia were studied by the reverse dot-blot hybridization technique in the city of Gaziantep, Turkey. We found the following mutations: IVS 1.110 (G>A) in 29.1%, IVS 2.1 (G>A) in 12.3%, IVS 1.1 (G>A) in 7.7%, Codon 8 (−AA) in 5.6%, -30 (T>A) in 4.6%, IVS 1.6 (T>C) in 4.6%,Codon 39 (C>T) in 3.6%, Codon...

Author(s):   Sacide Pehlivan, Vahap Okan, Elif Guler, Mehmet Yilmaz, Tugce Sever, Ebru Dikensoy, Gaye Cankus , Ozcan Balat and Mustafa Pehlivan  

February 2010

Validated high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for analysis of zerumbone in plasma

  Zerumbone (ZER) is a sesquiterpene derived from Zingiber zerumbet smith, family Zingiberaceae. It has been shown to possess anti-cancer and apoptosis-inducing properties against various human tumour cells as well as in vivo against a number of induced malignancies in mice. In this study a simple, specific and accurate high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of ZER in...

Author(s): Eltayeb Elamin M. Eid, Ahmad Bustamam Abdul, Adel S. Al-Zubairi, Mohamed Aspollah Sukari and Rasedee Abdullah

February 2010

Laboratory studies on vegetative regeneration of the gametophyte of Bryopsis hypnoides Lamouroux (Chlorophyta, Bryopsidales)

  Vegetative propagation from thallus segments and protoplasts of the gametophyte of Bryopsis hypnoides Lamouroux (Chlorophyta, Bryopsidales) was studied in laboratory cultures. Thallus segments were cultured at 20°C, 20 μmol photons m-2s-1, 12:12 h LD); protoplasts were cultured under various conditions, viz. 15°C, 15 μmol photons m-2 s-1, 10:14 h LD; 20°C, 20 μmol...

Author(s): Naihao Ye, Hongxia Wang, Zhengquan Gao and Guangce Wang

February 2010

Physicochemical equivalence of some brands of Nifedipine retard tablets available in Nigeria

  This research evaluated the physicochemical equivalence of some samples of Nifedipine 20 mg Retard Tablets available in Nigeria. Seven samples were randomly procured from various zones of the country and standard protocols applied to evaluate their tablet weight uniformity, dimensions, hardness, disintegration time, content of active Ingredient and in vitro drug release profile. Results showed that...

Author(s): Okoye, E. I. and Iwuagwu, M. A.