African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 2 May 2006; 5(9)

January 2006

Bacteriocins and lactic acid bacteria - a minireview

Fermentation of various foods by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is one of the oldest forms of biopreservation practised by mankind. Bacterial antagonism has been recognized for over a century but in recent years this phenomenon has received more scientific attention, particulary in the use of various strains of lactic acid bacteria. One important attribute of LAB is their ability to produce antimicrobicrobial compounds...

Author(s): SAVADOGO Aly, OUATTARA Cheik A.T, BASSOLE Imael H. N, TRAORE S. Alfred

May 2006

SSR marker based DNA fingerprinting and diversity study in rice (Oryza sativa. L)

The genetic diversity and DNA fingerprinting of 15 elite rice genotypes using 30 SSR primers on chromosome numbers 7-12 was investigated. The results revealed that all the primers showed distinct polymorphism among the cultivars studied indicating the robust nature of microsatellites in revealing polymorphism. Cluster analysis grouped the rice genotypes into 10 classes in which japonica types DH-1 (Azucena) and...

Author(s): B. Kalyan Chakravarthi and Rambabu Naravaneni

May 2006

Cytogenetic studies on some Nigerian species of Solanum L. (Solanaceae)

Cytogenetic studies to determine the chromosome number, structure and behaviour of some species of Solanum in Nigeria was carried out. Attempt was also made to induce polyploidy in the species. Comparative analysis of the cytological behaviour of the diploid and polyploid cytotypes was made. The studies show that the somatic chromosome number in the genus Solanum is 2n = 24. Colchiploidisation...

Author(s): Gordian C. Obute, Benjamin C. Ndukwu and B.E. Okoli

May 2006

Optimization of FTA technology for large scale plant DNA isolation for use in marker assisted selection

Conventional methods for DNA acquisition and storage require expensive reagents and equipments.  Experimental fields located in remote areas and large sample size presents greater challenge to developing country institutions constrained financially.  FTATM technology uses a single format utilizing basic tools found in laboratory.  In this study, FTATM cards were used to collect over 3000 samples...

Author(s): Mbogori MN, Kimani M, Kuria A, Lagat M, Danson JW

May 2006

A rapid PCR based method to distinguish between Enterococcus species by using degenerate and species-specific sodA gene primers

Thirty of thirty-seven cocci isolates from traditional 36 h-old fermented goat’s raw milk were characterised phenotypically and genotypically in order to assess the biodiversity within this wild microbiol population. Selective SB media, genus and species-specific tests, based on the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase A encoding gene sodA, were used for the identification of enterococci species. All 30...

Author(s): Farid Bensalah, Maria-José Flores and Aziz Mouats

May 2006

Effect of metabolites produced by Trichoderma species against Ceratocystis paradoxa in culture medium

Metabolites released from Trichoderma viride, T. polysporum, T. hamatum and T. aureoviride were tested in culture medium against Ceratocystis paradoxa, which causes black seed rot in oil palm sprouted seeds. The Trichoderma metabolites had similar fungistatic effects on the growth of C. paradoxa except those from T. aureoviride. The inhibition varied...

Author(s): E.I. Eziashi, N.U. Uma, A.A. Adekunle, C.E. Airede  

May 2006

Effect of myoinositol and zinc on sporangiosporeyeast transformation of Mucor circinelloides Tieghe

Environmental factors influence mould-yeast interconversion. Such factors may trigger changes at the cellular level. Yeastlike cells induced from sporangiospores of Mucor species consist of central globose mothercell, which produce multiple buds by blastic action. This study examines the effect of synthetic broth on sporangiospores of M. circinelloides. Sporangiospores of M. circinelloides converted...

Author(s): C. O. OMOIFO

May 2006

Effect of K+, Na+ and uracil on sporangiospore-yeast transformation of Mucor circinelloides Tieghe

Potassium is a key constituent element that functions in intracellular metabolism of eukaryotes. This study demonstrates potassium is absolutely necessary for the formation of Mucor circinelloides protoplasts, the cross over transient form in the sequential transformation of sporangiospores to yeast cells. We also show that Na+ contributes significantly to the induction of yeast form from protoplast in synthetic broth...

Author(s): C. O. OMOIFO

May 2006

In vitro multiplication of Ocimum gratissimum L. through direct regeneration

The objective of this study was to develop a rapid system for regeneration of the important medicinal plant, Ocimum gratissimum L, from nodal explant. Single node explants were inoculated on basal MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium containing 3% (w/v) sucrose, supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (KN), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or...

Author(s): C. Gopi, Y. Nataraja Sekhar and P. Ponmurugan  

May 2006

Antifungal effects of two tropical plant leaf extracts (Ocimum gratissimum and Aframomum melegueta) on postharvest yam (Dioscorea spp.) rot

Effects of leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Aframomum melegueta on spore germination and mycelial reduction of the most occurring fungal pathogen causing soft rot of yam tuber were investigated. Fungi isolated from rotted yams were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Fusarium oxsporium Rhizopus stolonifer, Botryodiplodia theobromae and Penicillium chrysogenum. The leaf...

Author(s): Okigbo R. N. and Ogbonnaya, U. O.

May 2006

Study of the bacteriological and physicochemical indicators of pollution of surface waters in Zaria, Nigeria

This study investigates the pollution level of surface waters in Zaria, Nigeria. The bacteriological and physicochemical analyses performed were in accordance with standard procedures. Out of 228 samples from different sites, 128 (56.1%) had counts higher than the standards. Samaru stream was the most polluted. The frequency of contamination of samples with Escherichia coli O157 was only 2.2%. There was a...

Author(s): Vincent N. Agbogu, Veronica J. Umoh, Charles A. Okuofu, Stella I. Smithand Joseph B. Ameh

May 2006

The biochemical changes induced by natural human African trypanosome infections

Biochemical evaluation of body fluids gives an indication of the functional state of the various body organs. An evaluation of the biochemical parameters of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in humans infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense was carried out. A significant elevation (P<0.01) in the plasma values of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase...

Author(s): Awobode H.O

May 2006

Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African dwarf goats vaccinated against Pestes des petit ruminants (PPR)

The effect of Pestes des petit ruminants (PPR) vaccine on haemoglobin genotype, haematological and blood biochemical indices of forty randomly selected West African dwarf (WAD) goats were studied. Packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), neutrophil (NEU), lymphocyte (LYM), albumin (ALB), total blood protein (TBP), and globulin (GLO) concentrations were evaluated regarding body weight, sex,...

Author(s): Aikhuomobhogbe, P. U. and Orheruata, A. M.

May 2006

Effects of acute and sub-chronic ammonium nitrate exposure on rat liver and blood tissues

Use of fertilizers like ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) for agricultural purposes has increasingly contaminated the ecosystem with nitrate and/or nitrites. Nitrite is a toxic substance that can cause multiple physiological effects if allowed to build up to high concentrations in animals such as methemoglobinemia. This work is concerned with the study of short term (3 days intoxication) and mid-term (over 21 days)...

Author(s): Samira BENSOLTANE, L. MESSERER, Mustapha YOUBI, BERREBBAH Houria, M. DJEKOUN and DJEBAR Med Réda

May 2006

Protection of rats by extracts of some common Nigerian trees against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity

Extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca, Khaya senegalensis, Prosopis africana andVitellaria paradoxa were screened for their phytochemical constituents. Stem barks of the species were also investigated for hepatoprotective effects in Wistar albino rats. Different groups of animals were pre-treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of plant extracts for 10 days and administered with paracetamol (2 g/kg) on the...

Author(s): OJO, O. O., NADRO, M. S. and TELLA, I. O.

May 2006

Larvicidal properties of Lepidagathis alopecuroides and Azadirachta indica on Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus

Comparative analysis of the larvicidal properties of aqueous extracts of leaves of Lepidagathis alopecuroides and Azadirachta indica (neem) was carried out on Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Assays showed that L. alopecuroides was more toxic to both larvae, while C. quinquefasciatus was more susceptible to extracts of both plants. For extracts from 500 mg of leaves in 1 L of water, the lethal time (LT50)...

Author(s): OBOMANU , F. G., OGBALU, O. K., GABRIEL, U. U., FEKARURHOBO, G. K., and ADEDIRAN, B. I.  

May 2006

Effect of matrix granulation and wax coating on the dissolution rates of paracetamol granules

The study was carried out to investigate the release profile of matrix (non-disintegrating) granules consisting of paracetamol (drug) and acrylatemethacrylate copolymer, a matrix forming material. The effect of coating the matrix granules with wax on the drug release profiles was also investigated. The objective was to produce drug particles of different release profiles for application as multi-unit dosage forms. The...

Author(s): M .U. Uhumwangho and R. S. Okor

May 2006

Amendment of crude oil contaminated soil with sawdust and chromoleana leaves for optimum plant protection

A study on the effectiveness of sawdust and chromoleana leaves as soil restorative measures to optimize plant growth at two intensities of crude oil contamination showed that both restore parity on the growth parameters (leaf area, leaf ratio, relative leaf growth rate, relative growth rate, and net assimilation rate) of crops tested compared to control. However, chromoleana leaves was found to be more effective than...

Author(s): OFFOR, U.S. and AKONYE, L.A.

May 2006

Assessment of some locally developed technologies for shortening the retting time of cassava

The need to shorten the time taken for cassava tuber to ret has arisen because of increased demand for processed cassava products occasioned by population growth in developing countries. Locally developed technologies aimed at this objective which involved the addition of chemical substances to steep water were assessed to determine their efficacy. Retting time measured in hours was determined during 25 retting trials...

Author(s): Frank Chukwunwike Ogbo

May 2006

Growth response and survival of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings fed at different feeding frequencies

In an effort to utilize feed efficiently, promote growth, increase survival and reduce labour costs associated with feeding, Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings were placed on one of four feeding frequencies; once/day, twice/day; once every other day, and twice every other day for 56 days. They were fed with a commercial floating diet containing 40% crude protein level. They were reared in twelve 14 L...

Author(s): Davies, O. A., Inko- Tariah, M. B. and Amachree, D.