African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12433

Table of Content: 4 August 2008; 7(15)

August 2008

RNA interference in plant parasitic nematodes

RNA interference (RNAi, also called RNA-mediated interference) is a mechanism for RNA-guided regulation of gene expression in which double-stranded ribonucleic acid inhibits the expression of genes with complementary nucleotide sequences. Conserved in most eukaryotic organisms, the RNAi pathway is thought to have evolved as a form of innate immunity against viruses and also plays a major role in regulating development...

Author(s): Mehmet KarakaÅŸ

August 2008

Evaluation of hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Treculia africana Decne and Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. and their mixture on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats

The plants Treculia africana and Bryophyllum pinnatum are ethnobotanically used in the treatment of various diseases including diabetes and heart diseases. Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by hyperglycaemia, and hyperlipidaemia which leads to an increased risk of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. The effects of aqueous ethanol (80%) extracts of T....

Author(s): Ogbonnia Steve O., Odimegwu Joy I. and Enwuru Veronica N.

August 2008

Screening of the leaves of three Nigerian medicinal plants for antibacterial activity

The leaves of three plants, Alstonia boonei, Morinda lucida and Petiveria alliacea, and latex of A. boonei were screened for antibacterial activity. In evaluating antibacterial activity, both aqueous and ethanol extracts of the plants were used. Agar well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the plants. Among the bacterial screened, Pseudomonas...

Author(s): Patience O. Adomi

August 2008

Persistence of plasmid DNA in different soils

Natural genetic transformation is believed to be the essential mechanism for the attainment of genetic plasticity in many species of bacteria. Dying cells are likely to release naked DNA that may survive for many hours. Although numerous studies have shown that horizontal gene transfer between distantly related genera, but how long that DNA persists in the environment is yet be reported. We present evidence from...

Author(s): Meenakshisundaram Kandhavelu and S. John Vennison

August 2008

The effect of mutations in the AmpC promoter region on β-lactam resistance from an Escherichia coli clinical isolate in a public sector hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

The ampC promoter and attenuator regions of an Escherichia coli clinical isolate from a public hospital in KwaZulu-Natal was investigated to detect the presence of mutations in these regions. The isolate was subjected to MIC determinations, IEF analysis, PCR for the presence of β-lactamases and sequencing of the ampCgene. Analysis of the ampC promoter and attenuator regions of the...

Author(s): Chunderika Mocktar, Usha Govinden, A. Willem Sturm and Sabiha Essack

August 2008

Mapping QTLs for submergence tolerance during germination in rice

To understand the genetic bases of tolerance and to identify relevant quantitative trait loci (QTLs), KHAIYAN (Aus type) was crossed with IR64, a semi-dwarf, modern variety moderately sensitive to anaerobic conditions during germination. Results of screening of BC2F2 lines showed that survival percentage in IR64/KHAIYAN//IR64 population ranges from 0 to 68% with an average of 30%. A linkage map was constructed...

Author(s): S. Abdolhamid Angaji

August 2008

Screening and characterization a RAPD marker of tobacco brown-spot resistant gene

Bulk Segregant Analysis (BSA) and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) methods were used to analyze F2 individuals of 82-3041 × Yunyan 84 to screen and characterize the molecular marker linked to brown-spot resistant gene. A total of 800 arbitrary decamer oligonucleotide primers were used for RAPD analysis. Primer S361, producing one RAPD marker S361650, was tightly linked to the brown-spot resistant...

Author(s): H. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Yang, F. S. Li, C. S. He and X. Z. Liu

August 2008

Optimization of cultural conditions for production of chitinase by Bacillus laterosporous MML2270 isolated from rice rhizosphere soil

A total of 39 chitinolytic bacteria were isolated from 77 rhizosphere soil samples collected from different crop fields in Tamil Nadu state, India. Among them, a strain designated as MML2270, which produced highest chitinolytic activity in primary and secondary screening in colloidal chitin agar was selected and later identified asBacillus laterosporous. The production of chitinase by B. laterosporous was...

Author(s): V. Shanmugaiah, N. Mathivanan, N. Balasubramanian and P.T. Manoharan

August 2008

Use of phylloplane fungi as biocontrol agent against Colletotrichum leaf disease of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.)

Phylloplane fungi were used as biocontrol agent against Colletotrichum leaf disease of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). Aspergillus sp. lysed the cytoplasm of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Potato Dextrose Agar.Trichophyton sp. and Gliocladium sp. antagonised C. gloeosporioides by overgrowing on it. Other phylloplanes used in this study such...

Author(s): Evueh, G. A. and Ogbebor, N. O.

August 2008

Quantitative trait loci for resistance to maize streak virus disease in maize genotypes used in hybrid development

Maize streak virus disease is an important disease of maize in Kenya. In this study, we mapped and characterized quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to maize streak virus in maize populations of S4 families from the cross of one resistant MAL13 and one susceptible MAL9 recombinant inbred lines. Resistance was evaluated in replicated field trials under artificial inoculation while selecting using...

Author(s): Martin Lagat, Jedidah Danson, Michael Kimani and Alex Kuria

August 2008

Table sugar as an alternative low cost medium component for in vitro micro-propagation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

Most developing countries are limited in maximizing tissue culture technology due to the overhead costs involved. In view of this, the aim of this research was to evaluate alternative cheap sources of carbon and energy in potato culture media in order to reduce the overall cost of micro-propagation. A randomized complete block design was used to compare laboratory grade sucrose with two types of local commercial table...

Author(s): Demo, P., Kuria, P., Nyende, A. B. and Kahangi, E. M.

August 2008

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extract and essential oil of korarima (Aframomum corrorima (Braun) P.C.M. Jansen)

The antioxidant potential of extracts and essential oils of korarima (Aframomum corrorima (Braun) P.C.M. Jansen) were investigated, as well as total phenolics, total ascorbic acid (TAA), condensed tannins (CT) and antifungal potential. Antioxidant capacities of seeds and pods as assayed in methanol extracts, and of essential oils were at moderate levels.The antioxidant activity of seeds (29.59...

Author(s): S. Eyob, B. K. Martinsen,  A. Tsegaye, M. Appelgren  and  G. Skrede

August 2008

Effect of phosphorus application and soybean cultivar on grain and dry matter yield of subsequent maize in the tropical savannas of north-eastern Nigeria

Soybean can contribute to soil N, which may partly be used to improve maize production in northeast Nigeria. However, the efficiency of soybean to fix N can be limited by soil P deficiency. This study evaluated the effect of P application and soybean cultivars on dry matter and grain yield of subsequent maize for two years (2005 - 2006) at Miringa and Azir. Experimental design was a split-plot with three replications....

Author(s): A. Y. Kamara, J. Kwari, F. Ekeleme, L. Omoigui and R. Abaidoo

August 2008

Adaptation of eight American blackberry (Rubus fructicosus L.) cultivars for Central Anatolia

Blackberry is an important fruit plant cultivated for its delicious fruit throughout Europe and America. Although the fruit has wide acceptance in Turkey, it is not cultivated on large scale. The study aimed to evaluate the performance of Arapaho, Black Satin, Cherokee, Chester Thornless, Dirksen Thornless, Jumbo, Navaho and Loch Ness cultivars of American origin for adaptation under Central Anatolian conditions at...

Author(s): S. Peral Eyduran, Ecevit Eyduran, Khalid Mahmood Khawar and Y. Sabit Agaoglu

August 2008

Co-transfer of gfp, CHS and hptII genes into Oncidium Sharry Baby PLB using the biolistic gun

This study was aimed at assessing the biolistic method of co-transforming non-linked genes on separate gene cassettes into Oncidium Sharry Baby’s protocorm-like-body (PLB). An expression vector containing a synthetic green fluorescence protein (sgfp) gene driven by the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and another vector containing the antisense chalcone synthase (CHS) and hygromycin resistant (hpt II)...

Author(s): Ng Chea Yee, Janna Ong Abdullah, Maziah Mahmood, Nazir Basiron

August 2008

Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of essential oil of Lantana Camara L. leaves from Nigeria

The chemical composition of essential oil obtained from air-dried leaves of Lantana camara L. by hydrodistillation was analyzed by GC and GC-MS.  A total of thirty-two compounds representing 74.8% of the oil were identified. The main constituents were 1,8-cineol (15.8%), sabinene (14.7%) and β-caryophylene (8.9%). The essential oil was tested for antibacterial activity against 6 strains, using disc diffusion...

Author(s): O. Oluwadayo Sonibare and I. Effiong

August 2008

Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability for reuse

There is an increasing trend to require more efficient use of water resources, both in urban and rural environments. In Jordan, the increase in water demand, in addition to water shortage has led to growing interest in wastewater reuse. In this work, characteristics of wastewater for four wastewater treatment plants were determined. Characterization of wastewater was evaluated in terms of measuring BOD, COD, TSS,...

Author(s):   Al-Zboon, Kamel and Al-Ananzeh, Nada

August 2008

Photosynthetic responses of pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Little marvel) exposed to climate change in Riyadh city, KSA

Pots study was conducted to determine interactive effects of climate change (NO2, SO2 and O3) on photosynthetic responses in pea. The seeds of pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Little marvel) were grown full-season in three pots arranged at four localities in Riyadh city, KSA. Photosynthetic rates (Pn) were measured three times during vegetative and reproductive stages with portable gas exchange system (LI-COR...

Author(s): Akram Ali, Ahmed Alfarhan, Ibrahim Aldjain, Nagat Bokhari, Wafa’a Al-Taisan, Khaled Al-Rasheid and Saleh Al-Quraishi

August 2008

Cytotoxic effects of delfin insecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis) on cell behaviour, phagocytosis, contractile vacuole activity and macronucleus in a protozoan ciliate Paramecium caudatum

The freshwater protozoan ciliate Paramecium caudatum was used to assess the potential cytotoxic effects and functional activities of biological insecticide delfin.Delfin® WG is a biological insecticide based on the SA-11 strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki serotype 3a, 3b. In acute toxicity studies, cell motility was affected slightly at lower concentrations...

Author(s): Nageswarara Rao Amanchi and Mohd Masood Hussain

August 2007

Antibiotic activity of two Anabaena species against four fish pathogenic Aeromonas species

Three organic extracts (chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol) of ten cyanobacterial species (Anabaena solitaria, Anabaena variabilis, Anabaena cylindrical, Anabaena spiroides, Anabaena circinalis, Oscillatoria ornate, Oscillatoria salins, Oscillatoria tenuis, Oscillatoria rubescens and Oscillatoria prolifica) were investigated for their antibacterial activities against 4 fish pathogenic bacterial species...

Author(s): Neveen Abdel-Raouf and Ibraheem B. M. Ibraheem

August 2008

Removal of basic dye methylene blue by using bioabsorbents Ulva lactuca and Sargassum

In the present study, the removal of textile dye methylene blue was studied by adsorption technique using adsorbents such as, alumina, Ulva lactuca andSargassum (Maine algae). The batch technique was adopted under the optimize condition of amount of adsorbent, stay time, concentration, temperature and pH. By using uv spectrophotometer, concentration of dye was measured before and after adsorption. The...

Author(s): Hajira Tahir, Muhammad Sultan and Qazi Jahanzeb

August 2008

Domestic wastewater treatment with a vertical completely drained pilot scale constructed wetland planted with Amaranthus hybridus

A pilot scale constructed wetland planted with Amaranthus hybridus was developed for domestic wastewater treatment. The reactor system was composed of rectangular beds realized in cement. Each bed was filled from the bottom to the top with 0.1 m of gravel (15/25 mm) and 0.30 m of a white sand originating from the Ebrié lagoon. Two beds planted with yang A. hybridus plants (high density: 40...

Author(s): Lacina Coulibaly, Jacques Kouakou, Issiaka Savané and Germain Gourène

August 2008

Performance of growing pigs of different genetic groups fed varying dietary protein levels

Two feeding experiments were conducted, using a 2 x 2 factorial design, to determine the performance of two genetic groups of pigs fed two protein levels in each case.  Each experiment was replicated three times. In the first experiment, 24 pigs, 12 each of indigenous Nigerian pigs (LC) and Large White x Indigenous cross-breeds (LW x LC) with average initial weights of 7.3 and 10.2 kg, respectively, were fed...

Author(s): F.O.I. Anugwa and A.I. Okwori

August 2008

Comparison of bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 allele frequencies between two subpopulations of Iranian holstein cattle

The bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) gene encodes cell surface glycoproteins that initiate immune responses by presenting processed antigenic peptides to CD4 T helper cells. DRB3 is the most polymorphic bovine MHC class II gene which encodes the peptide-binding groove. Since different alleles favor the binding of different peptides, DRB3 has been extensively evaluated as a candidate marker for associations with...

Author(s): Mohammad Reza Nassiry, Balal Sadeghi, Reza Tohidi, Jalil Tavakkoli Afshari  and Mahdi Khosravi

August 2008

Growth and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed water soaked and cooked velvet bean (Mucuna utilis) meal

A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary raw and soaked and cooked velvet beans, Mucuna utilis on the performance of broiler chickens. Two batches of raw Mucuna seeds were used. The first batch of seeds was used raw. The second batch was soaked for 24 h, subdivided into four parts and cooked for 0, 20, 40 and 60 min before sun-drying and milling. All the meals were...

Author(s): C. D. Tuleun and F. Igba

August 2008

Polymorphism of calpastatin gene in Arabic sheep using PCR- RFLP

Calpastatin has been known as candidate gene in muscle growth efficiency and meat quality. This gene has been located to chromosome 5 of sheep. In order to evaluate the calpastatin gene polymorphism, random blood sample were collected from 111 Arabic ram sheep from different regions. The DNA extraction was based on Boom et al. (1989) method. Exon and entron I from L domain of the ovine calpastatin gene was amplified to...

Author(s): M. Mohammadi, M. T. Beigi Nasiri, K h. Alami-Saeid, J. Fayazi, M. Mamoee and A. S. Sadr

August 2008

The diversity of leptin gene in Iranian native, Holstein and Brown Swiss cattle

This study describes genetic variability in the leptin in Iranian native, Brown Swiss and Holstein cattle (Bos Indicus and Bos Taurus). This is the first study of genetic polymorphism of the leptin gene in Iranian native cattle. We examined exon 2 of the leptin gene from 587 individuals in six different populations of Iranian native cattles (86 Sarabi, 66 Taleshi, 94 Sistani, 76 Golpayegani, 104...

Author(s): Mohammad Reza Nassiry, Frydoun Eftekhari Shahroudi, Alireza Heravi Mousavi, Balal Sadeghi, Ali Javadmanesh

August 2008

Survival of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain V4-UPM coated on three grains offal and exposed to room temperature

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain V4-UPM was investigated for its viability when coated on different grains offal following exposure to room temperature (RT) (21-27°C) for 8 weeks and using residual infectivity titration at weekly intervals in chick embryos as a measure of viability. The grains (maize, sorghum and millet) used for the study were processed to produce the offal which was dried in the sun before and...

Author(s): Echeonwu, GON, Iroegbu, CU, Ngene, A, Junaid, SA, Ndako, J, Echeonwu, IE, Okoye, JOA

August 2008

Plant regeneration as affected by plant growth regulators (PGR) in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.)

A protocol was developed for in vitro plantlet regeneration of mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana L.) from shoot tip, stem and seed explants. Shoot tip explants produced the highest mean number of shoots per explant on media supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurin (BAP) and 0.05 mg/L kinetin (KIN) (73.3). On medium containing 0.1 mg/L BAP and 0.05 mg/L KIN, the highest mean shoot height reached 1.2 cm....

Author(s): Mohammad Hossein Torabi Sirchi, M. A. Kadir, M. A. Aziz, A. A. Rashid, Arash Rafat and M. B. Javadi

August 2008

Nitrification in a submerged attached growth bioreactor using Luffa cylindrica as solid substrate

A laboratory-scale submerged attached growth bioreactor using Luffa cylindrica as support material for the immobilization of nitrifying bacteria was applied for polishing the effluent of an UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater under the tropical conditions of northeast Brazil, in the City of Campina Grande (7o 13’ 11” South, 35o 52’ 31” West, 550 m above m.s.l.), Paraiba...

Author(s): José Tavares de Sousa, Israel Nunes Henrique, Rui de Oliveira, Wilton Silva Lopes, Valderi Duarte Leite

August 2008

Purification and physicochemical properties of α-amylase from cockroach, Periplaneta americana (LINNAEUS), for starches saccharification

An α-amylase was purified from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana(Linnaeus) to homogeneity by four steps purification via ammonium sulphate crude extract precipitation, Sephacryl S-100 HR gel permeation chromatography, anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on phenyl Sepharose CL-4B. The purification was approximatively 38.42 fold with a...

Author(s): Edmond Ahipo Dué, Jean Parfait E.N. Kouadio, Hilaire Tanoh Kouakou, Soumaila Dabonné, Sebastien Lamine Niamké and Lucien Patrice Kouamé

August 2008

Assessment of selected cooking characteristics of prime starch and food grade fibre isolated from cassava (Manihot esculenta) pulp

Ease of separation of dietary fibre components of cassava pulp relative to other tropical root crops was the motivation for this study. Food grade fibres were isolated from cassava pulp using simple technique that consist essentially solvent mixture-separation procedure. Assessment of selected cooking proprieties namely paste formation and swelling capacity of the fibre isolates in comparison to the prime starch showed...

Author(s): B.  Daramola and O. O.  Makanju

August 2008

Nutritive evaluation of Telfairia occidentalis leaf protein concentrate in infant foods

Leaf meal (LM), leaf proteins concentrate (LPC) and LPC residues from Telfairia occidentalis were produced, chemically characterized and the protein quality of the LPC evaluated using rats. Five infant weaning foods were formulated using varying combinations of T. occidentalis LPC and soybean meal. These foods were compared with three coded commercial infant weaning foods (CFF, CFN and CFC) currently...

Author(s): Johnson Oluwasola Agbede, Muyiwa Adegbenro, Gbenga Emmanuel Onibi, Christian Oboh and Valentine Ayobore Aletor

August 2008

Isolation and characterization of lipase-producing Bacillus strains from oil mill waste

Bacillus strains (B1 - B5) producing extra cellular lipase were isolated from the soil sample of coconut oil industry. The strains were identified by morphological and biochemical characters. Growth of the organisms and lipase production were measured with varying pH (4 - 9) temperature (27, 37 and 47ºC) and various substrate concentrations. The result indicated that the lipase production varied...

Author(s): T. Selva Mohan, A. Palavesam and G. Immanuel

August 2008

Solvents effect on n®p*and p®p* transition of 9-fluorenone

Absorption spectra of 9-fluorenone had been studied in polar and non-polar solvents. Maximum of four bands were observed; the shift in these band as the solvents were changed from polar to non-polar were noted. The quantitative treatments of the shifts allowed the transition to be assigned as n®p*or p®p*.   Key words: Fluorenone, electronic absorption, transition, excited state polar and...

Author(s): Adeogun, A. I., Odozi, N. W., Obiegbedi N. O., and Bello O. S.