African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12484

Table of Content: 8 January, 2014; 13(2)

January 2014

Evaluating codon bias perspective in barbiturase gene using multivariate analysis

Barbiturases exist solely in bacteria and encompass an undistinguished protein family. s-Triazine compound introduction into the environment owing to recent industrial practices have revitalized barbiturases. Codon usage patterns were analysed in this study for 17 barbiturase genes encoded by 16 bacterial species. Multivariate and correspondence study of amino acid and codon usage was employed for detecting the cause of...

Author(s): Zarrin Basharat

January 2014

Molecular based assessment of genetic diversity of xoconostle accessions (Opuntia spp.)

Xoconostle or acidic prickly pear is an important fruit in Mexico; it is produced by a group of Opuntia plants known for their nutritional qualities and adapted to harsh environmental conditions. In this study, we report for the first time the estimation of genetic diversity within a set of 24 xoconostle accessions using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. Five ISSR primers were selected to detect DNA...

Author(s): Ernestina Valadez-Moctezuma, Quetzely Ortiz-Vásquez and Samir Samah

January 2014

In-silico identification and phylogenetic analysis of auxin efflux carrier gene family in Setaria italica L.

The phytohormone auxin is crucial for plant growth and development. Transportation and distribution of auxin throughout the plant is very important to maintain the auxin homeostasis. Auxin efflux carrier genes play significant roles in auxin transport. In this study, we identified 12 auxin efflux carrier genes from the Setaria italica genome, which are similar in number with that of monocotyledonous plant Oryza sativa....

Author(s): Tapan Kumar Mohanta, Mickael Malnoy, Nibedita Mohanta and Chidananda Nagamangala Kanchiswamy

January 2014

Morphological and molecular evaluation of some Egyptian pomegranate cultivars

Six Egyptian pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars were characterized by fruit characteristics (physical and chemical) and two molecular markers; Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Genetic diversity of the pomegranate genotypes was evaluated. Physical fruit traits were determined (weight, volume and diameter), calyx [diameter, length (mm) and Carpels number],...

Author(s): Omayma M. Ismail, Rania A. A. Younis and Ibrahim A. M.

January 2014

Genetic diversity and population structure among isolates of the brown spot fungus, Bipolaris oryzae, as revealed by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR)

Bipolaris oryzae, the rice brown spot fungus is one of the pathological threats to rice crop worldwide. The genetic diversity among the Indian isolates of brown spot pathogen was studied using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR). Considerable intraspecific variability among the isolates of B. oryzae was revealed. Eighty-seven (87) highly reproducible fragments were amplified in all 69 isolates with an average of 13.8...

Author(s): Basavaraju Archana, Kukandhuru R. Kini and Harishchandra S. Prakash

January 2014

Potential benefits of genetic modification (GM) technology for food security and health improvement in West Africa: Assessing the perception of farmers in Ghana and Nigeria

We assessed the perception of farmers towards potential adoption of genetic modification (GM) technology for improving health, food security and agricultural productivity using a semi-structured interview. A total sample of 54 small-scale farmers participated in 6 focus group meetings (FGMs) and 23 in-depth interviews at six locations in Ghana and Nigeria (West Africa). Our results reveal that most farmers have a very...

Author(s): Ademola A. Adenle, Walter S. Alhassan and Bamidele O. Solomon

January 2014

Estimates of genetic parameters of fruit quality traits in teasle gourd (Momordica subangulata Blume. subsp. renigera)

The present investigation was carried out to assess genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in five genotypes of teasle gourd. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with four replications. High phenotypic coefficients of variation were observed for all characters except ascorbic acid in excoarp, ascorbic acid in mesocarp, total soluble solids (TSS) in exocarp, b-carotene in exocarp,...

Author(s): A. Naik, S. Akhtar, A. Chattopadhyay, U. Thapa and P. Hazra

January 2014

In vitro regeneration from different ages of petioles of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.)

Jatropha curcas L. is an important non-edible oil yielding plant growing in wasteland and dry lands. The experiment was conducted to study the plant regeneration of J. curcas from different ages of petioles. Petioles explant grown on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with 1 mg/l α-naphthalene acetic acid and 0.2 mg/l kinetin showed the highest frequency of callus induction and the same medium...

Author(s): Ravi Mahalakshmi, Palanisami Eganathan and Ajay Parida

January 2014

Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC-124

The induced mutagenesis method for deriving pigment mutants of a green microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC-124 and their pigment composition as well as ability to assess mutability of contaminated aquatic ecosystems were studied. In the present study, 14086 mutants (colonies) were obtained by exposure of the wild strain, C. reinhardtii CC-124, to 1, 2, 3, 5 min of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. After screening, these...

Author(s): Zaydan, B. K., Sadvakasova, A. K., Saleh, M. M., and Gaballah, M. M.

January 2014

Cryopreservation of embryonic axes of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by vitrification

An efficient cryopreservation protocol was developed for groundnut embryonic axes using vitrification technique. Embryonic axes obtained from seeds of four groundnut genotypes were dehydrated in Plant Vitrification Solution (PVS2) solution for different durations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h) before plunged into liquid nitrogen and held for 1 h. Survival and shoot formation of cryopreserved embryonic axes were significantly...

Author(s): M. M. Abdulmalik, I. S. Usman, J. D. Olarewaju and D. A. Aba

January 2014

Analysis of diallel crosses between six varieties of durum wheat in semi-arid area

The study of morphological genetic determinism characteristics and production of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) through the use of a diallel cross between six varieties, including two Algerian genotypes and four French genotypes was conducted in semi-arid high area of Chellif, Algeria. The analysis of variance for general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) abilities and reciprocal effects...

Author(s): Boussalhih Brahim and Bencheikh Mohamed

January 2014

Germination at low osmotic potential as a selection criteria for drought stress tolerance in sweet corn

Water stress can affect germination by decreasing the percentage of germination. A study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of different osmotic potentials (MPa) on proline content and percentage seed germination of corn. The experiment was conducted in factorial with a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Seeds of two open pollinated varieties (Masmadu and Thai super sweet) and three...

Author(s): Shahriari, Ali Adam B. Puteh, Ghizan B. Saleh and Anuar B. Abdul Rahim

January 2014

Genetic diversity for nutritional traits in the leaves of baobab, Adansonia digitata

Genetic divergence of baobab (Adansonia digitata) in the North East and West of Nigeria was investigated. The seeds collected from 36 populations of Adansonia digitata were thoroughly washed from the pulp, dried and sown in polyethylene pots and arranged in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications in the nursery of Savanna Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, (FRIN), Zaria Station. The leaves of the...

Author(s): Ibrahim A., Usman A., Yahaya A.I., Umar M. L., Halilu A., Abubakar H., Kwanashie A. J., Mahadi M. A. and Ibrahim B.

January 2014

Direct regeneration protocols of five Capsicum annuum L. varieties

The bud induction obtained is a simple and efficient protocol developed for in vitro propagation of five varieties of cultivars. Seeds of Capsicum annuum L. of five varieties red, yellow, green, purple and white were decontaminated and placed in a culture bottle containing a Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, 5 mg/l) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, 1 mg/l) or indole-3- acetic acid...

Author(s): Shreya Swamy, A. Krupakar , D.Surendra Chandran and Eapen P. Koshy

January 2014

Biochemical quality indices of sorghum genotypes from east Africa for malting and brewing

There is a gradual shift to substitute barley with sorghum in brewing industry to reduce the cost of doing business and make beer products more competitive. This study evaluates the sorghum genotypes for desirable malting and brewing characteristics. Biochemical characteristics assayed for 131 sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench] accessions included total starch, amylopectin, amylose, proteins, tannins contents,...

Author(s): Felix K. Kiprotich, Erick K. Cheruiyot, Charles M. Mwendia, Francis N. Wachira and James Owuoche

January 2014

Early seedling development of Medicago truncatula genotypes under salt stress in relationship with seed dry weight and storage protein content

In order to have more information on early seedling development under salinity stress (one of the important factors limiting plant productivity and also crop growth), it will be interesting to examine radicle growth in comparison to plumule elongation under different salinity stress conditions. In this study, we assessed the variability of four genotypes of the plant model Medicago truncatula under four levels of salt...

Author(s): Amouri Adel Amar, Fyad Lamèche Fatima Zohra and Yahia Noureddine

January 2014

Studies on the antimicrobial effect of corn steep liquor on some diarrhoea causing organisms

The antimicrobial effect of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL) was investigated over a five day period. The pH and titrable acidity of the liquor were determined, while the antimicrobial effect on some diarrhoea causing organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteriditis, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus was also determined. Using well diffusion method, 0.1 ml (100 ml) of the liquor effectively inhibited...

Author(s): Abdus-Salaam, R. B., Adepoju, P. A., Olaleye O. N. and Adeoye, I.  A.

January 2014

Biochemical composition and nutritional value of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del fruit pulps from Northern Ferlo in Senegal

Balanites aegyptiaca, a forest species of socio-economic interest for rural people, was chosen to be planted in the frame-work of the Great Green Wall project in Senegal. Although in vastly demand during food scarcity period before crops harvest, the species’ fruit is poorly valued despite its important production. In this study, the fruit pulps were harvested at maturity and the biochemical characteristics were...

Author(s): Moustapha Bassimbé Sagna, Aly Diallo, Papa Saliou Sarr, Ousmane Ndiaye, Deborah Goffner, and Aliou Guisse,

January 2014

The effect of Cordia platythyrsa on various experimental models of pain and carrageenan induced inflammation

Only one study has reported on the medicinal properties of Cordia platythyrsa (C. platythyrsa) though it is used in African traditional medicine for treatment of fever and pain. The current study aimed at investigating the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of C. platythyrsa using various animal models: writhing test, tail flick, thermal hyperalgesia, mechanically induced-pain, formalin-induced pain and...

Author(s): Benedicta N. Nkeh-Chungag, Eugene J. Ndebia, Joseph T. Mbafor, Lonwabo A. Dotwana, O. O. Oyedeji and Jehu E. Iputo

January 2014

Derangement of hemopoiesis and hematological indices in Khat (Catha edulis) - treated rats

The purpose of this study was to identify the sub-acute toxic effects of Khat (Catha edulis) on hemopoiesis and hematological indices of white albino rats. Two groups, each of 10 rats, were used. In the experimental group, a hydro-ethanol extract of C. edulis was administered orally to rats, daily, in single doses of 500 mg/kg body weight, for for weeks. The control group received equivalent amounts of normal saline....

Author(s): Ismaeel Bin-Jaliah, Mohammad A. Dallak, Fahaid H. Al-Hashem, Luke O. Nwoye, Hussein F. Sakr, Abdul-Moneim Jamil and Mahmoud Al-Khateeb