African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: November 2003; 2(11)

November 2003

Harmonizing the agricultural biotechnology debate for the benefit of African farmers

  The intense debate over agricultural biotechnology is at once fascinating, confusing and disappointing. It is complicated by issues of ethical, moral, socio-economic, political, philosophical and scientific import. Its vocal champions exaggerate their claims of biotechnology as saviour of the poor and hungry, while, equally loudly, its opponents declare it as the doomsday devil of agriculture. Sandwiched...

Author(s): Segenet Kelemu, George Mahuku, Martin Fregene, Douglas Pachico, Nancy Johnson, Lee Calvert, Idupulapati Rao, Robin Buruchara, Tilahun Amede, Paul Kimani, Roger Kirkby, Susan Kaaria, Kwasi Ampofo

November 2003

Determination of effective nodulation in early juvenile soybean plants for genetic and biotechnology studies

  Symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is a complex physiological process influenced by the interaction of genetic elements in the higher plant species and rhizobia. No standardized, efficient method is available to critically examine the effect of altering the genetic elements in either component by selection and/or genetic engineering. At planting, seeds of a tropical (‘TGX-4E’) and...

Author(s): E. T. Gwata, D. S. Wofford, K. J. Boote, and H. Mushoriwa

November 2003

In vitro multiplication of the semi-arid forest tree, Balanites aegyptiaca (l.) Del.

  Procedures were developed for micropropagation of Balanites aegyptiaca using axillary bud explants obtained from mature trees. Cultures were established in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.1 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The effects of kinetin on shoot growth and proliferation in vitro was also investigated. Results show that...

Author(s): Mansor Ndoye, Ismaïla Diallo and Yaye Kène Gassama/Dia

November 2003

Comparative efficacy of microbial and chemical insecticides on four major lepidopterous pests of cotton and their (insect) natural enemies

  Three microbial (biotrol, dipel and thuricide) and three chemical insecticides (monocrotophos, endosulfan and carbaryl) were compared for efficacy on four major lepidopterans and their natural enemies in replicated field trials at Moor Plantation, Ibadan. Thuricide was evaluated at different combinations with monocrotophos in a second trial. The results showed that the microbials caused the mortalities of...

Author(s): T. A. Fadare and N. A. Amusa

November 2003

Solanum cultivar responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: growth and mineral status

  A greenhouse experiment was carried out in a sandy soil with a low available phosphorus to evaluate responsiveness of four Solanum aethiopicum cultivars to indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Results showed clear interaction between genetic variability of cultivars and fungal isolates on shoot biomass and on mineral status. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can be ranked as Glomus...

Author(s): Tahir Abdoulaye DIOP, Tatiana KRASOVA-WADE, Alioune DIALLO, Meïssa DIOUF, Mamadou GUEYE

November 2003

Farmer’s knowledge and perception of horticultural insect pest problems in southwestern Nigeria

  This survey was carried out in three states of southwestern Nigeria (Ogun, Oyo and Lagos states) on farmer’s perception of horticultural insect pest problems. The survey was conducted between August 2002 and January 2003. A large number of the farmers were above 25 years old (91%). They were predominantly male (73%) and about 76% were married. Some farmers cultivate both tree and vegetables (36.5%)...

Author(s): BANJO, A.D., LAWAL, O.A., FAPOJUWO, O.E. and SONGONUGA, E. A.

November 2003

Transformation kinetics of mixed polymeric substrates under transitory conditions by Aspergillus niger

  A mixture of polymeric substrates (simulating a complex wastewater) was transformed under sewer conditions and aerobiosis by Aspergillus niger in a tanks-in-series reactor at a hydraulic retention time of 14 h. Starch was totally removed after 7 h of incubation. Removal of the protein portion with a molecular weight larger than 2 kDa followed the starch removal and the total proteins were the latest...

Author(s): Lacina Coulibaly and Spiros N. Agathos

November 2003

Production and regulation of lignin degrading enzymes from Lentinus squarrosulus (mont.) Singer and Psathyrella atroumbonata Pegler

  The influence of metal ions on the production and regulation of ligninase and mycelia extension of two type Basidiomycetes (Lentinus squarrosulus and Psathyrella atroumbonata) cultivated on lignocellulose waste was investigated. Mn2+ and Ca2+ions stimulated growth of both fungi and mycelia extension significantly.  Ligninase production increased two to twelve fold under the influence of...

Author(s): WUYEP. P. A  KHAN, A. U, AND NOK, A. J.

November 2003

Safety and protective effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei used as probiotic agent in vivo

  The protective effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei, isolated from fresh cow milk, was studied in vivo. Toxicological data of rat serum revealed that the Lactobacillus isolates had liver improvement functions. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities of the rats dosed with Lactobacillus isolates alone were lower (15.50 and 18.27...

Author(s): Oyetayo, V.O, Adetuyi, F.C. and Akinyosoye, F.A.

November 2003

Effects of microwave heating on the thermal states of biological tissues

  A mathematical analysis of microwave heating equations in one-dimensional multi-layer model has been discussed. Maxwell's equations and transient bioheat transfer equation were numerically calculated by using finite difference method to predict the effects of thermal physical properties on the transient temperature of biological tissues. This prediction of the temperature evolution in biological bodies...

Author(s): Nabil T. M. El-dabe, Mona A. A. Mohamed and Asma. F. El-Sayed

November 2003

Some genetic characteristics of sabin-like poliovirus isolated from acute flaccid paralysis cases in Nigeria

  A total of 34 sabin strains of the poliovirus isolated from 22 children with 60-day follow-up residual acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) were genetically characterized and screened for any form of recombination. Sequence analysis of the 906-nucleotide capsid showed that all the isolates were similar to their original sabin serotypes, however two of the viruses had drifted in their 3D noncapsid regions toward a...

Author(s): Festus Doyin Adu, Jane Iber, Tekena Harry, Cara Burns, Oluseyi Oyedele, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji , Mubarak Ossei-Kwasi  David Kilpatrick Oyewale Tomori and Olen Kew

November 2003

Comparison of ivermectin and thiabendazole in the treatment of uncomplicated human Strongyloides stercoralis infection

  Ivermectin is the drug of choice in the treatment of onchocerciasis, and has been proven to be highly effective against Strongyloides stercoralis. This study compares ivermectin’s efficacy and safety with that of thiabendazole, an established drug of choice for strongyloidiasis, in 252 confirmed cases of uncomplicated human intestinal strongyloidiasis. Subjects were administered orally with...

Author(s): AA Adenusi, AO Oke and AO Adenusi

November 2003

Relative prevalence of the human hookworm species, Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale in an urban community in Ogun State, Nigeria

  In order to estimate the proportion of hookworm infections represented by Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale, the 2 major species of human hookworms in Nigeria, stool samples from 1253 hookworm-positive schoolchildren were cultured to the third-stage (L3), filariform larvae, using the Harada-Mori test-tube method. N. americanus larvae were recovered from a total of 1177...

Author(s): AA Adenusi and EOA Ogunyomi†

November 2003

In vitro activity of commercial formulation and active principle of trypanocidal drugs against blooststreams forms of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense

  The in vitro trypanocidal activities of 4 commercial formulations Ornidyl®, Pentamidine isethionate®, Germanin® and Lampit® and their corresponding active principles (Dl-difluoromethylornithine, pentamidine isethionate, suramine and 5-nitrofuran) were compared against Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Differences of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were observed between...

Author(s): Clarisse Lekane Likeufack, Lisette Kohagne Tongue, and Philippe Truc,