African Journal of
History and Culture

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Hist. Cult.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6672
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJHC
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 187


Equines in military operations in Sudan in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

R. Trevor Wilson
  • R. Trevor Wilson
  • Bartridge Partners, Bartridge House, Umberleigh, Devon EX37 9AS, UK.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 26 July 2017
  •  Accepted: 02 October 2017
  •  Published: 31 January 2018


Ali AIM (1973). The British Military Officers and the Sudan, 1886-1896. Sudan Notes Rec. 54:17-31.


Anglesey (1982). [The Marquess of Anglesey]. A History of the British Cavalry, 1816-1919: Volume III 1872-1898. Leo Cooper, Barnsley, UK.


Anon (1885a). Full narrative of the Battle of Abu Klea. The Daily Telegraph, 4 March 1885. P 3.


Anon (1885b). A Soldier's Letter. The Daily Telegraph, 12 March 1885. P 5.


Anon (1896). The Occupation of Dongola". The Spectator, 26 September 1896. P 8.


Anon (2009). 3,000 raiders on horseback unleash terror in Kordofan. Saturday Nation [Kenya], 15 August 2009. P 17.


Anon (2016a). 9th Bengal Lancers". 


Badsey S (2008). Doctrine and Reform in the British Cavalry 1880-1918 (Birmingham Studies in First World War History). Ashgate Publishing Ltd., Aldershot, Hampshire, UK.


Bahru Z (2001). A History of Modern Ethiopia (second ed.). James Currey, Oxford.


Beckett IFW (2003). The Victorians at War. Hambledon, London.


Bennett SCJ, John ER, Hewison JW (1948). Animal husbandry (Chapter 22). In: Tothill JD. Agriculture in the Sudan. Oxford University Press, London.


Brighton T (1998). The last charge: the 21st Lancers and the Battle of Omdurman, 2 September 1898. Crowood Press, Marlborough, UK.


Bryce T (1999). The Kingdom of the Hittites. Oxford University Press, New York.


Butler WF (!887). The Campaign of the Cataracts: Being a Personal Narrative of the Great Nile Expedition of 1884-5. Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, London.


Cardew FG (1928). Hodson's Horse, 1857-1922. W. Blackwood & Sons, .Edinburgh and London.


Churchill W (1973). The River War. New English Library, London. p.34. [The original is The River War (2 Volumes) (1899). Longmans, Green & Co., London, 



Comin DCEff (1911). Service and Sport in the Sudan - A Record of Administration in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan with some Intervals of Sport and Travel. John Lane, The Bodley Head, London.


Craig S (2001). Breaking the square: Dervishes vs Brits at the 1885 Battle of Abu Klea. Milit. Herit. 3(3):78-84.


Cudsi AS (1969). Sudanese Resistance to British Rule, 1900-1920". Thesis presented for Master of Science. Khartoum University.


Curran G (1996a).The Desert Fight of Abu Klea, 17th January 1885. Savage Soldier 2(2):6-7, 9.


Curran G (1996b). The Battle of Abu Kru. Savage Soldier 2(3):17-18.


de Cosson EA (1990). Fighting the Fuzzy-Wuzzy: Days and Nights of Service with Sir Gerald Graham's Field Force at Suakin. Greenhill Books, London (originally published 1886).


Erlich H (1996). Ras Alula and the Scramble for Africa. Red Sea Press, Lawrenceville GA.


Featherstone D (1993). Omdurman 1898: Kitchener's victory in the Sudan. Osprey Publishing, Oxford.


Featherstone D (2013). Khartoum 1885: General Gordon's Last Stand. Osprey Publishing, London. Not cited


Gleichen AEW (1888). With the Camel Corps up the Nile. Chapman Hall, London.


Gulla A (1925). The Defeat of Hicks Pasha. Sudan Notes Rec. 8:119-124.


Haig D (1910a). A short account of the work of the Egyptian cavalry during the Atbara and Omdurman campaigns. Cavalry J. 5(17):55-90.


Haig D (1910b). A short account of the work of the Egyptian cavalry during the Atbara and Omdurman campaigns (part 2). Cavalry J. 5(18):159-187.


Hansard (1888). Army – the Battle at Suakin – the Broken Swords of the 20th Hussars. HC Deb 21 December 1888 vol 332 c974, 21 December 1888.


Holmes R (2001). The Oxford Companion to Military History. Oxford University Press, Oxford.


Johnson D (1984). The Wars in the Eastern Sudan, Part 2: Baker & El Teb". Savage and Soldier 19(2):2-10.


Keays GAV (1939). Note on the History of the Camel Corps. Sudan Notes Rec. 22:103-123.


Lacey M (2004). In Sudan, Militiamen on Horses Uproot a Million. The New York Times, 4 May 2004. P 1.


Lamothe R (2011). Slaves of Fortune: Sudanese soldiers and the River War. 1896-1898. James Currey, Woodbridge, UK.


London Gazette (1898). Despatch From Major-General Sir Herbert Kitchener, Sirdar, to Lieutenant-General Sir Francis Grenfell, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., Commanding in Egypt. Omdurman, September 5, 1898. The London Gazette No 23009, 30 September 1898. P 5726. 



London Gazette (1912). Operations in the South-eastern Sudan against the Beir and Anuak Tribes.  2016.


Ministry of Animal Resources, Fisheries and Range (MARFR) (2011). Statistical Bulletin for Animal Resources No 20, 2010. Ministry of Animal Resources, Fisheries and Range, Khartoum.


Mason IL, Maule JP (1960). The Indigenous Livestock of Eastern and Southern Africa (Commonwealth Bureau of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Edinburgh, Technical Communication No 14). Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, UK.


Moir JP (1898). Account of the Battle of Atbara. Royal Engineers J. 28:123-125.


Monick S (1985). The political martyr. General Gordon and the fall of Kartum. Milit. Hist. J. (S. Afr. 6(6). 



National Army Museum (NAM) (1888). Accession No 6807/269 Ferguson Manuscripts, Letter to his parents dated 11 December 1888. National Army Museum, London.


National Archives (1915). Dispatch on Operation Round Miri Jebels, 1915 AIR5/828/1-35. National Archive Library, London.


O'Fahey RS, Spaulding JL (1974). Kingdoms of the Sudan (Studies in African History 9). Methuen and Co. Ltd., London.


Parry EG (1885). Suakin, 1885: Being a sketch of the campaign of this year. Kegan Paul, Trench & Co., London.


Pollock J (1999). Kitchener: The Road to Omdurman. Constable, London.


Spiers EM (2013). The Victorian soldier in Africa. Manchester University Press, Manchester.


Stack LOF (1916). Military Operations in Darfur. The London Gazette No 29800 Third Supplement, 25 October 1916. pp. 6489-6493. 


Stack LOF (1917). Despatch from Acting Sirdar and Governor General of Sudan on operations in Darfur. The London Gazette No 30102Third Supplement, 29 May 1917 pp 5327-5330. 



Stewart H (1885). The Battle of Abu Klea. London Gazette, No 25444. 20 February 1885. pp. 754-758. A full account is also at BritishBattles.Com, The Battle of Abu Klea. 



The Spectator (1889). The Battle of Toski. The Delta has beaten the Desert. The Spectator, 10 August 1889. P 5.


Victorian Wars Forum (2016). British Military Campaigns from 1837 to 1902. Lieut. Col. W.H. Persse late Egyptian Cavalry. 



Willcox WT (1908). The Historical Records of the Fifth (Royal Irish) Lancers from their Foundation as Wynne's Dragoons (in 1689) to the Present Day. Arthur Doubleday and Company Limited, London. 


Wilson RT (1977). The horse improvement scheme in Darfur, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan: Policy and practice during the Condominium period 1916-1956. Sudan Notes Rec. 58:190-198.


Wilson RT (1978). Temporal changes in livestock numbers and patterns of transhumance in Southern Darfur, Sudan. J. Dev. Areas 10:493-508.


Wilson RT (2016). The one-humped camel in Anglo-Egyptian military campaigns in Sudan, 1885-1926 J. Camel Pract. Res. 23:193-205. 


Wingate FR (1891). Mahdiism and the Egyptian Sudan: Being an Account of the Rise and Progress of Mahdiism and of Subsequent Events in the Sudan to the Present Time. Macmillan and Company, London.


Wingate FR (1906). Report on the Operations against the Nyam Nyam Tribes in the Southern Bahr-el-Ghazal, January, February, and March, 1905. The London Gazette No 27914, 18 May 1906. pp. 3443-3446. 



Wingate FR (1910). Jebel Nyima Patrol. The London Gazette No 28419, 27 September 1910 pp. 6837-6838. 



Wormald F (1898). The Gallant Twenty-First". Dewsbury Reporter, 15 October 1898. P 5.


Wingate R (1964). Two African Battles. II. The Battle of Galabat, 8th-11th March. 1889. J. RUSI. 109:149-154.


Ziegler P (1973). Omdurman. Collins, London.