African Journal of
Medical and Health Sciences

OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE FEDERAL TEACHING HOSPITAL, ABAKALIKI, NIGERIA
  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Med. Health Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2384-5589
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMHS
  • Start Year: 2017
  • Published Articles: 52

Full Length Research Paper

Evaluating the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on visual acuity and intraocular pressure among HIV/AIDS patients in Kano State, Nigeria

Ebisike Philips Ifeanyichukwu
  • Ebisike Philips Ifeanyichukwu
  • Department of Optometry, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.
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Sadiq Hassan
  • Sadiq Hassan
  • Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano/ Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, Nigeria.
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Timothy Christopher Okechukwu
  • Timothy Christopher Okechukwu
  • Department of Optometry, Faculty of Health Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State University Uturu, Nigeria.
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Ibrahim Usman Yuguda
  • Ibrahim Usman Yuguda
  • Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano/ Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, Nigeria.
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Ismail Salma Mukhtar
  • Ismail Salma Mukhtar
  • Department of Optometry, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.
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Rabi Yahaya Sani
  • Rabi Yahaya Sani
  • Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano/ Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, Nigeria.
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Habib Saudat Garba
  • Habib Saudat Garba
  • Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano/ Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, Nigeria.
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  •  Received: 30 August 2020
  •  Accepted: 02 November 2020
  •  Published: 31 December 2020

Abstract

Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) has been effective in reducing rapidly progressive retinopathies, there are other ocular manifestations of HIV and ocular side effects of HAART which are yet to be determined and evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate the effect of HAART on Visual Acuity (VA) and Intraocular Pressure (IOP) among HIV/AIDS patients in Kano State, Nigeria. This was a prospective hospital based cross-sectional study; consented patients that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited and grouped into two groups A and B. Group A was those scheduled to commence HAART referred to as HAART naïve, while group B was subdivided into four groups, comprising B1, B2, B3, B4, termed as HAART experience. There were 400 participants aged 25 to 55 years with mean age of 37.86 ± 7.5 years. Their mean CD4+ T cell count was 476.94 ± 272.3 cells/mm3. The mean IOP was 14.14 ± 2.65 mmHg and analysis of variance showed that there was no correlation of HAART on IOP. About 370 (92.5%) had the best corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA) on OU of 6/6, while 30 (7.5%) had BCDVA of less than 6/6 or worse and there was a correlation between HAART and VA (p < 0.01), but statistically insignificant on CD4+ T-cells counts, HAART regimen and its durations. There was a correlation between VA and HAART among HIV/AIDS patients, but it showed no association with CD4+ T cell counts, HAART regimen and HAART duration. There was no correlation of HAART on IOP of the patients.

Key words: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), CD4+ T cell counts.