Background: Acute coronary syndrome is a spectrum of thrombotic coronary diseases which includes unstable angina, non ST segment elevation and ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Incidence is on the increase worldwide and in Nigeria. Early diagnosis and prompt intervention is of utmost importance. Cardiac Troponin T is an important Biomarker of myocardial ischaemia and levels become elevated in myocardial infarction.
Objective: To evaluate Serum High sensitive troponin T levels in patients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome; and determine its usefulness in diagnosis of STEMI and NSTEMI, and its prognostic significance.
Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study. Data of 30 patients diagnosed with Acute coronary syndrome and seen in the Emergency unit of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital was analyzed. 15 (14 males, 1 female) were diagnosed with STEMI and 15 (10 males and 5 females) were diagnosed with NSTEMI. Diagnosis was made based on chest pain history, ECG and Echocardiography findings and elevated High sensitive troponin T levels. High sensitive troponin T assay was done with Elecys (Roche) 4th generation. Abnormal values were established at ≥ 0.014ng/ml.
Results: Mean Age of patients was (50.04 ± 12.0 years) and (53.3 ± 19 years) in subjects with STEMI and NSTEMI respectively. Elevated High Sensitive Troponin T levels ≥ 0.014ng/ml was seen in 93.3% of subjects with ST Segment elevation myocardial infarction and 66.7% of subjects with non ST Segment elevation myocardial infarction. Mean High Sensitive Troponin T levels was higher in subjects with ST Segment elevation myocardial infarction (0.43±0.56ng/ml) than those with non ST Segment elevation myocardial infarction (0.018±0.01ng/ml). Difference was statistically significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion: High sensitive Troponin T levels is useful in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, both in STEMI and NSTEMI and may have prognostic significance.
Keywords: ST Segment myocardial infarction (STEMI), Non ST Segment myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), High Sensitive Cardiac Troponin T (hs - cTnT), Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)