International Journal of
Biodiversity and Conservation

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Biodivers. Conserv.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-243X
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJBC
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 661

Full Length Research Paper

In vitro callus initiation of a ‘threatened’ Nigerian leafy vegetable, Gnetum africanum (WILW)

A. C. Iloh1*, N. R. Isu2 and D. D. Kuta1
  1Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Advanced Laboratory, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja, Nigeria. 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, Nigeria.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 14 July 2009
  •  Published: 30 August 2009



Gnetum africanum is a green leafy vegetable found in Nigeria, where it is a highly valued food source. Stocks of this plant in the wild are increasingly threatened by land transformation and harvesting methods are unsustainable. In vitro callus initiation of G. africanum has been developed. The surfaces of 3 to 4 day old leaf explants were sterilized before exposure to a range of different concentrations of plant growth regulators. In vitro callus initiation of explants in single concentrations of auxins (2,4D: 2-4-dichloroxyphenoxyacetic and pichloram) did not initiate callus after 3 months of culture. However, combinations of cytokines (BAP: 6-benzylaminopurine, and Kinetin) and auxins initiated callus. The highest percentage callus initiation response of 100% was observed in the combination of BAP (1.0 mg/l) + 2,4D (7 mg/l). There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in callus production of explants in response to different callus induction and initiation media. However, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the degree of callus response and callus size to these different media.


Key words: BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), callus initiation, Gnetum africanum, kinetin, 2,4D (2-4-dichloroxyphenoxyacetic), pichloram.