In Marrakech (Morocco), a world collection of the genetic resources of the olive-tree was established. This collection currently contains 600 cultivars of various origins. However, work of characterization of these cultivars remains very limited. The objective of this study is to emphasize these genetic resources through their agronomic characterization. Certain agronomic characters were studied on some of the most productive cultivars during the 4 years of production (2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010). Fifteen cultivars originating from various countries that show a cumulated average production higher than 20 kg were selected for behavioral study of their strength, floral biology and content of their oil. The study on the vigor of all cultivars showed that Alameno de Marchene, Haouzia, Manzanilla de Sevilla, and Sevillano de Jumilla are the most vigorous whereas Acebuchera and Blanqueta are the least vigorous and could be used for a system of high density. Analysis of floral phenology of the 15 cultivars revealed overlapping between majority of them. This result will help to determine the pollination adequate for each cultivar. The analysis of the index of compatibility showed that four cultivars (Azeitoneira, Koroneiki, Amargoso and Acebuchera) are self-fertilizing. This study proposes a base of knowledge for the valorization of the Moroccan genetic resources of olive.
Keywords: Olea europaea spp., world collection, morphological characteristics, floral biology, pollinic compatibility.