International Journal of
Physical Sciences

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Phys. Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-1950
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJPS
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2533

Full Length Research Paper

Evaluation of Turkish black amber: A case study of Oltu (Erzurum), NE Turkey

Ekrem Kalkan1*, Özgür Bilici1 and Hasan Kolaylı2
  1Department of Geological Engineering, Oltu Earth Sciences Faculty, Ataturk University, 25400 Oltu-Erzurum, Turkey. 2Department of Geological Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Karadeniz Technical University, 61000 Trabzon, Turkey.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 23 March 2012
  •  Published: 30 April 2012



Turkish black amber named OltutaÅŸi in Turkish is one of the best examples of semi-precious stone to be found in the world. It is mainly extracted in the county of Oltu (Erzurum) and surrounding mountains, NE Turkey since the 18th century. At the present time, it is known as ornamental stone and its rosary is very famous worldwide. However, there is no modern review of geological properties of the OltutaÅŸi and OltutaÅŸi-bearing deposits. This paper filling this gap presents the results of original research on the subject. The OltutaÅŸi-bearing deposit with Jurassic-Cretaceous is a flych-character sequence, including limestone, sandstone interbedded with volcanic, sandstone, marl and claystone levels. The OltutaÅŸi is seen asobserved in the a form of lenses with 0.2 to 75 mm in thick within the OltutaÅŸi-bearing geological material represented by pebble-sandstone-siltstone alternation, including sandy-claystone and marl levels. These lenses present the folded and faulted structures in parallel with the maincounty rocks due to the tectonic deformation affecting the region. It is seenobserves from microphotographs that OltutaÅŸi includes dominantly consists of carboncarnone and it includes has fracture filled with resinite and maceral such as fusinite and semifusinite. Also, it is possible to observethere are that euhedral pyrite and hematite minerals generally finely disseminatedin the OltutaÅŸi organic matter.


Key words: Oltu, OltutaÅŸi, Turkish black amber, Jurassic-Cretaceous flysch, semi-precious stone.