International Journal of
Physical Sciences

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Phys. Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-1950
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJPS
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2557

Full Length Research Paper

Hybrid particle swarm optimization for robust digital image watermarking

Hai Tao1, Jasni Mohamad Zain1*, Ahmed N. Abdalla2 and Mohammad Masroor Ahmed1
  1Faculty of Computer System and Software Engineering (FSKKP), University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), 26300, Kuantan, Malaysia. 2Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (FKEE), University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), 26300, Kuantan, Malaysia.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 30 September 2011
  •  Published: 30 November 2011



This paper presents an image watermarking algorithm for the optimization between robustness and transparency which is recently considered as one of the most challenging issues. The novelty is to associate the Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (HPSO), instead of a single optimization, as a model with singular value decomposition (SVD). To embed and extract the watermark, the singular values of the blocked host image are modified according to the watermark and scaling factors. A series of training patterns areconstructed by employing between two images. Moreover, the work takes accomplishingmaximum robustness and transparency into consideration. HPSO method is used to estimate the multiple parameters involved in the model. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed scheme can effectively improve the quality of the watermarked image and resist common image manipulations such as adding noise, resizing compression, tempering, etc. and some geometric attacks.


Key words: Watermarking, singular value decomposition (SVD), hybrid particle swarmoptimization (HPSO).


HPSO, Hybrid particle swarm optimization; SVD, singular value decomposition; NC, normalized correlation; GA, genetic algorithm.