International Journal of
Physical Sciences

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Phys. Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-1950
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJPS
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2510

Full Length Research Paper

Evaluation of thermal mud characteristics of Erzurum (Köprüköy) clayey raw materials (NE Turkey)

Ekrem Kalkan1*, Mustafa Yıldırım Canbolat2, Necmi Yarbaşi1 and Müdahir Özgul2
  1Geological Engineering Department, Oltu Earth Sciences Faculty, Ataturk University, 25400 Oltu-Erzurum, Turkey. 2Soil Science Department, Agriculture Faculty, Ataturk University, 25250 Erzurum, Turkey.  
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 03 July 2012
  •  Published: 23 October 2013



In Turkey, there are several natural occurrences of clays/muds which are used for therapeutic, aesthetic, and pharmaceutical purposes. The aim of this study was to assess the mineralogical and physicochemical properties of Erzurum clayey raw materials from Koprukoy (Erzurum, NE Turkey) for their therapeutic purposes. Raw material samples were collected from Pliocene geological formation deposited in the lacustrine environment and located Koprukoy (Erzurum) thermal area. The samples of geological formation including some fossil were tested by X-ray powder refraction and diffraction methods to determine the mineralogical and physicochemical properties. The experimental results showed that smectite clay mineral was abundant, as well as kaolinite, illite, zeolite, mica, quartz, calcite, plagioclase, feldspar and non-clay minerals. Physicochemical properties, such as specific surface area, cation exchange capacity and plasticity index were also determined using ammonium acetate, ethylene glycol mono ethylene ether and consistency test methods, respectively. From the physicochemicalchemical and mineralogical properties, all samples have thermal properties, which make them potentially suitable for therapeutic or aesthetic purposes.


Key words: Clayey material, thermal mud, clay mineralogy, technological property, pelotherapy.