International Journal of
Physical Sciences

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Phys. Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-1950
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJPS
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2539

Full Length Research Paper

Mantle electrical conductivity determination employing the ionospheric solar quiet day (Sq) currents in the Southern African regions

Ngozi Agatha Okwesili
  • Ngozi Agatha Okwesili
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Francisca Nneka Okeke
  • Francisca Nneka Okeke
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Daniel Nnaemeka Obiora
  • Daniel Nnaemeka Obiora
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
John Akor Yakubu
  • John Akor Yakubu
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Johnson Uchenna Abangwu
  • Johnson Uchenna Abangwu
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Kiyohumi Yumoto
  • Kiyohumi Yumoto
  • Space Environment Research Centre, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 30 October 2021
  •  Accepted: 08 December 2021
  •  Published: 31 January 2022

References

Abidin ZZ, Jusoh MH, Abbas M, Yoshikawa A (2019). Application of solar quiet (Sq) current in determining mantle conductivity-depth structure in Malaysia. Journal of African Earth Sciences 192:104776.
Crossref

 

Agha SO, Okeke FN (2007). Estimation of the conductivity-depth ratio of the various sub-regions of the upper mantle using Sq current. The Nigerian Journal of Space 3:57-67.

 
 

Anderson DL, Dziewonski AM (1984). Seismic tomography. Scientific American 251(4):60-71.
Crossref

 
 

Arora BR, Campbell WH, Schiffmacher ER (1995). Upper Mantle Electrical Conductivity in the Himalayan Region. Journal of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity 47(7):653-665.
Crossref

 
 

Banks RJ (1972). The overall conductivity distribution of the Earth. Journal of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity 24(3): 337-351.
Crossref

 
 

Bolaji O, Adimula I, Adeniyi J, Yumoto K (2015). Variability of horizontal magnetic field intensity over Nigeria during low solar activity. Earth Moon Planets 110(1-2):91-103.
Crossref

 
 

Campbell WH, Anderssen RS (1983). Conductivity of the subcontinental upper mantle: an analysis using quiet- day records of North America. Journal of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity 35(10):367-382.
Crossref

 
 

Campbell WH, Schiffmacher ER (1985). Quiet ionospheric currents of the northern hemisphere derived from Geomagnetic field records. Journal of Geophysical Research 90: 6475-6486
Crossref

 
 

Campbell WH, Schiffmacher ER (1986). Quiet ionospheric currents of the Northern Hemisphere derived from geomagnetic field records. Journal of Geophysics 90: 6475-6486.
Crossref

 
 

Campbell WH, Schiffmacher ER (1988). Quiet ionospheric currents of the Southern Hemisphere derived from geomagnetic records. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 93(A2):933-944.
Crossref

 
 

Campbell WH, Schiffmacher ER (1988b). Upper mantle electrical conductivity for seven subcontinental regions of the Earth. Journal of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity 40(11):1387-1406.
Crossref

 
 

Campbell WH (1987). The upper mantle conductivity analysis method using observatory records of the geomagnetic field. Pure and Applied Geophysics 125(2):427-457.
Crossref

 
 

Campbell WH (1997). Introduction to geomagnetic fields. Cambridge University Press, New York.

 
 

Campbell WH (2003). Introduction to geomagnetic fields. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Crossref

 
 

Campbell WH, Barton CE, Chamalaun FH, Welsh W (1998). Quiet-day ionospheric currents and their application to upper mantle conductivity in Australia. Earth Planet Space 50(4):347-360.
Crossref

 
 

Canton J (1759). An attempt to account for the regular diurnal variation of the horizontal magnetic needle. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 49:398-445.

 
 

Chapman S (1919). The solar and lunar diurnal variation of the Earth's magnetism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 218(561-569):1-118.
Crossref

 
 

Chapman S, Price A (1930). The electric and magnetic state of the interior of the Earth, as inferred from terrestrial magnetic variations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 229(670-680):427-460.
Crossref

 
 

Chandrasekhar E (2011) "Regional Electromagnetic Induction Studies Using Long Period Geomagnetic Variations". Chapter 3, in The Earth's Magnetic Interior, Vol. 1, edited by E. Petrovský, E. Herrero-Bervera, T, Harinarayana and D. Ivers, pp. 31 - 42, Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New, York.
Crossref

 
 

Chen CH, Liu JY, Yumoto K, Lin C H, Fang TW (2008). Equatorial ionization anomaly of total electron content and equatorial electrojet in ground-based geomagnetic field strength. The Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 70(17):2172-2183.
Crossref

 
 

Cleveland WS (1979). Robust locally weighted regression and smoothing scatter plots. American Statistical Association 74(368):829-836.
Crossref

 
 

Didwall EM (1984). The electrical conductivity of the upper mantle as estimated from satellite magnetic field data. Journal of Geophysics Research 89(B1):537-542.
Crossref

 
 

Drury MJ (1978). Partial melt in the asthenosphere: evidence from electrical conductivity data. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors. 17(2):P16-P20.
Crossref

 
 

Dziewonski AM, Anderson DL (1981). Preliminary reference Earth model. Physics of the Earth and Planetary 25(4):297-356.
Crossref

 
 

Hawary RE, Yumoto K, Yamazaki Y, Mahrous A, Ghamry E, Badi K, Meloni A, Kianji G, Uiso CBS, Mwiinga N, Joao L, Affluo T, sutcliffe PR, Mengistu G, Baki P, Abe S, Ikeda A, Ikeda A, Fujimoto A, Tokunaga T (2012). Annual and semi-annual Sq variations at 960 MM MAGDAS I and II stations in Africa. Earth Planets Space 64(6):425-432.
Crossref

 
 

Gauss CF (1838). Allgemeine Theories des Erdmagnetismus, in Resultate aus den Beobachtungen des magnetischem Vereins in Yahr, edited by C. F. Gauss and W. Weber: translated from the German by E. Sabine and R. Taylor. Sci. Mem. Select. Trans. For. Acad. Learned Soc. Foreign J. 2:184 -251, 1841.

 
 

Gauss CF (1939). Allgemeine Theories des Erdmagnetismus 1.

View

 
 

Gough DI (1983). Electromagnetic geophysics and global tectonics. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 88(B4):3367-3377.
Crossref

 
 

Glaßmeier KH, Soffel H, Negendank J (2009). Geomagnetic Field Variations, Advances in Geophysical and Environmental Mechanics and Mathematics. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Crossref

 
 

Glover PW, Vine F (1994). Electrical conductivity of the continental crust. Geophys. Research Letters. 21(22):2357-2360.
Crossref

 
 

Graham G (1724). An account of the observations made of the variation of the horizontal needle in London in the later part of the year 1722 and beginning of 1723. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A32:96-107.
Crossref

 
 

Katsura T, Ito E (1989). The system Mg2SiO4 _ Fe2SiO4 at high pressures and temperatures: precise determination of stabilities of olivine, modified spinel and spinel. Journal of Geophysical Research 94(B11):15663-15670.
Crossref

 
 

Kennett B, Engdahl E (1991). Travel times for global Earthquake location and phase identification. Geophysical Journal International. 105(2):429-465.
Crossref

 
 

Kono M (2009). Geomagnetism Treatise on Geophysics. Elsevier Journal 5:1:30.

 
 

Langel RA (1982). Results from the magsat mission. Issue of the Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest 3:307-324.

 
 

Law LK, Riddihough RP (1971). A geographical relation between geomagnetic variations anomalies and tectonics. Journal of Earth Science 8(9):1094-1106
Crossref

 
 

Maxwell JC (1873). Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. Cambridge University Press, London.

 
 

Neal SL, Mackie RL, Larsen JC, Schultz A (2000). Variations in the electrical conductivity of the upper mantle beneath North America and the Pacific Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 105(B4):8229-8242.
Crossref

 
 

Obiekezie TN, Okeke FN (2010). Upper Mantle Conductivity Determined from the Solar Quiet Day Ionospheric Currents in the Dip Equatorial Latitudes of West Africa. Moldavian Journal of Physical Sciences 9(2):199-204.

 
 

Obiora DN, Okeke FN (2013). Crustal and upper mantle electrical conductivity structure in North Central Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences 8(42):1975-1982.

 
 

Obiora DN, Okeke FN, Yumoto K (2015). Electrical conductivity of mantle in the North Central region of Nigeria. Journal of Earth System Science 101:274-281.
Crossref

 
 

Ohtani E, Sakai T (2008). Recent advances in the study of mantle phase transitions. Physics of the Earth and Planetary 170:240-247.
Crossref

 
 

Olsen N (1999). Induction studies with satellite data. Surveys in Geophysics 20:309-340.
Crossref

 
 

Onwumechili CA, Ogbuehi PO (1967). Analysis of the magnetic field of the equatorial electrojet. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics 29(5):553-566.
Crossref

 
 

Roberts G (1986). Global electromagnetic induction. Surveys in Geophysics 8(3):339-374.
Crossref

 
 

Sabine E (1846). Contributions to Terrestrial Magnetism. No.VII. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 136(240):237-336.
Crossref

 
 

Schluter T (2006). Geological Atlas of Africa. Springer pp. 180-183.

 
 

Schmucker U (1970). An introduction to induction anomalies. Journal of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity 2:9-33.
Crossref

 
 

Schuster A (1908). The diurnal variation of terrestrial magnetism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 208:163-204.
Crossref

 
 

Schuster A (1889). The diurnal variation of terrestrial magnetism. Philosophical Transactions London A180:467-518.
Crossref

 
 

Tachard G (1688). A relation of the voyage to Siam: performed by six Jesuits sent by the French king, to the Indies and China in the year 1685.Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

 
 

Takeda M (2002). The correlation between the variation in ionospheric conductivity and that of the geomagnetic sq field. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 64(15):1617-1621.
Crossref

 
 

Tarits P (1994). Electromagnetic studies of global geodynamic processes. Surveys in Geophysics 15(2):209-238.
Crossref

 
 

Thybo H (2006). The heterogeneous upper mantle low velocity zone. Tectonophysics 416(1-4):53-79.
Crossref

 
 

Ugbor DO, Okeke FN, Yumoto K (2016). Mapping the earth conductivity-depth structure of African geomagnetic equatorial anomaly regions using solar quiet current variations. Journal of African Earth Sciences 116: 81-88.
Crossref

 
 

Von Humboldt A (1863). Cosmos. Vol. V. English translation by E. C. Otte and W. S. Dallas. Harper and Bros. Pub., New York.

 
 

Wang D, Mookherjee M, Xu Y, Karato SI (2006). The effect of water on the electrical conductivity of olivine. Nature 443: 977.
Crossref

 
 

Yamazaki, Y, Richmond AD, Liu HL, Yumoto K, Tanaka Y (2012c). Sq current system during stratospheric sudden warming events in 2006 and 2009. Journal of Geophysical Research 117: A12313.
Crossref