International NGO Journal

  • Abbreviation: Int. NGOJ
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1993-8225
  • DOI: 10.5897/INGOJ
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 265


Measuring gender disparity at primary school level in Pakistan

Mazhar-ul-Haq Baluch* and Saima Shahid
Lahore School of Economics, Main Campus Burki Road Lahore, Pakistan.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 15 January 2009
  •  Published: 31 May 2009



Though the furnished educational quality of the enrolled students leads towards the positive example of success of not only in education but also in practical life of the ensuing generation, yet to alleviate gender disparity in social and cultural context, special measures are needed for the success and improvement of females overall in the country to participate in share contributed by experience of development. This experience would help to gain the required momentum and extol a new development practice in implementation of educational policy. Millennium development goal (MDG 3) for gender equality and the empowerment of women was the goal that was set with the earliest date for achievement. The target associated with MDG 3 was an end to gender disparity in primary and secondary education (Unterhalter, 2006). Despite adoption of the several policy measures and program initiatives, gender gap at primary school level was estimated to the extent to 11.13%. The gap due to treatment of parent with the boys and girls under normal routine and societal aspirations was estimated at 10.956 or 98.4% of the estimated entire gap. This situation leads towards the dimension that boys are preferable group in Pakistan. Since the disparity was due to preference to males over females at school level, underlying reasons might be the cultural, societal, and traditional expectations, that is, linked future of females with expected husband s’ households after marriage and all obligations of parents  for males, considering them heir of all types of  properties. 


Key words: Gender disparity, education, policy measures, preferable societal aspirations