ISABB Journal of
Health and Environmental Sciences

  • Abbreviation: ISABB J. Health Environ. sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1937-3236
  • DOI: 10.5897/ISABB-JHE
  • Start Year: 2011
  • Published Articles: 16

Full Length Research Paper

Review of the effects of adequate sanitary facilities on the participation and performance of the school girl child in Ghana

Jane Akanzum
  • Jane Akanzum
  • Department of Planning, College of Art and Built Environment, Kwame Nkrumah University for Science and Technology, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar
Cornelius K. A. Pienaah
  • Cornelius K. A. Pienaah
  • Department of Environment and Sustainability Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, University for Development Studies, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 01 May 2021
  •  Accepted: 08 July 2021
  •  Published: 28 February 2023


Girl-child self-esteem, self-confidence and coping capacity with positive effects on their school performance is increase when. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) topics are included in health education. This review explored the relationship and effect of sanitary facilities in schools on Girl-child participation, health impact on Girl-child education, the state of sanitary facilities and sanitary behaviors in public Junior High Schools and as well identified sustainable solutions and made recommendations on how to provide adequate sanitary facilities to reduce inequality in schools. This qualitative review gathered and analyzed secondary data at both global and local levels (with focus on the Ghana experience). Results: availability of sanitary facilities in schools has the potential to reduce students’ absenteeism especially among the girl child. Poor sanitary facilities have an adverse impact on girls’ privacy and comfort. Girls’ inability to manage their menstrual hygiene affects their participation during events at school because of panic over outflow. Girls avoid eating or drinking during the day to further avoid using the sanitary facilities making it difficult to concentrate while in school. This study shows that school WASH issues are associated with health conditions like vector-borne illnesses among others and embarrassment in school toilets. The state of hygienic conveniences and services in schools are poor and inadequate. For schools with basic amenities, they are in an awful state as a result of neglect. Therefore, it is vital to provide adequate sanitary facilities in schools. This will improve the health and wellbeing of the gild child in Ghanaian schools.


Key words: Gender, girl-child education, health, hygiene, sanitation, water.