In his book "The World Is Flat," Thomas Friedman experiences the first signs of globalization while on a trip to India. Friedman realizes the implications of a world connected economically, and the political ramifications that may ensue. This convergence is due to the advent of computerized systems that make information and workflow easy to share anywhere in the world. With the potential to produce consumer goods where labor and supplies are cheaper, Friedman calls it "a flattening effect" for the world of international trade. He believes the world is flat in the sense competition is now equalized; first world countries, third world countries, small entrepreneurs and large global supply chains all have an equal chance of success in the global economy. A flat world creates a zeitgeist of metropolitanism, a world of global citizens where nationalism is blurred across borders. A flat world also creates transnational inter-dependence. Keohane and Nye stand behind it being a deterrent to nationalism: “For those who wish the United States to retain world leadership, interdependence has become part of the new rhetoric, to be used against both economic nationalism at home and assertive challenges abroad. In the height of globalization, how is it that nationalism is fostered, and how can it influence Pan-Africanism?
Key words: Nationalism, Pan Africanism, globalization, individualism, development, international relations theory.
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