Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in Senegal. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance and molecular profiles of mycobacterial strains isolated over a four-year period in Senegal. Mycobacterial isolates worked on were obtained at the National Reference Laboratory of the National Antituberculosis Program (NAP) in Senegal. These strains were cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium or on LJ medium supplemented with pyruvate, between January 2011 and December 2014. Depending on the availability of reagents, the drug susceptibility tests were performed by the proportion method or molecular methods. Strains were characterized by spoligotyping. This study focused on 208 samples with 160 strains and 48 sputa. Antibiotic resistance testing was carried out on 151 samples among which 32 (21.2%) came from new patients and 119 (78.8%) from previously treated patients. Seventy (43.35%) MDR strains were detected. Spoligotyping were performed on 64 strains, essentially MDR strains which mostly belong to three families: T, Beijing and Cameroon. In Senegal, anti-tuberculosis drug resistance rates are very high among retreatment patients with a high percentage of MDR strains in patients with treatment failure. The strains belong to three main families: T superfamily, Beijing and Cameroon. Multidrug resistance compromises the effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment with a high risk of spread of these MDR strains in the community, hence, the importance of strengthening the fight against tuberculosis in general and MDR-TB in particular.
Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spoligotypes, resistance, Senegal.
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