The present study is designed to study bacteremia and to measure some immunological parameters of diabetic patients in Kerbala City, Iraq during the period from November 2006 until May 2007. This study included a total of 125 patients with diabetes mellitus (30 type I and 95 type II), and 55 healthy persons as Control subjects. Blood samples were collected from both patients and Controls, blood culture was done for bacterial isolation and identification, virulence factors as well as antibiotic susceptibility tests were assessed for each isolate. This study also included the estimation of T-cells count, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) concentration, interleukin-4 concentration, IgG, and IgM concentration. The obtained results showed that bacteremia was observed in 24% of the diabetic patients. Gram-positive bacterial isolates were more predominant; 21:30 (70%); than Gram-negative isolates; 9:30 (30%). Cefotaxime, tetracycline and trimethoprime-sulphamethazole antibiotics were the most effective drugs on both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Immunological tests showed decrease in T-cells count significantly (p<0.05) in type I and II diabetic patients (9.1%, 10.63%, respectively). Concentration of IFN-γ also decreased significantly (p<0.05) in same patients (0.285 and 0.313 I.U/ml, respectively) as compared with control subjects (0.860 I.U/ml). Levels of IL-4 decreased non-significantly (p>0.05) in patients with type I and II diabetes (7.050 and 7.703 pg/ml, respectively). The levels of IgG were increased significantly (p<0.05) in both types I and II (1674.45 and 2095.86 mg/dL) respectively, but the levels of IgM were increased significantly (p<0.05) in type II (177.64 mg/dL) and non-significantly (p>0.05) in type I.
Key words: Bacteremia, diabetes mellitus, antibiotics, IL-4, IFN-γ, Iraq.
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