African Journal of
Bacteriology Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Bacteriol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9871
  • DOI: 10.5897/JBR
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 120

Full Length Research Paper

Evaluating the antimicrobial potency of crude extracts of Psidium guajava bark, leaves of Vernonia amygdalina, Carica papaya and whole plant of Phyllanthus niruri against specific pathogenic bacteria

Adetunde, L. A.
  • Adetunde, L. A.
  • Department of Applied Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University for Development Studies-Tamale, Ghana
  • Google Scholar
Ninkuu, V.
  • Ninkuu, V.
  • Department of Biotechnology, University for Development Studie, Tamale, Ghana
  • Google Scholar
Sacky, I.
  • Sacky, I.
  • Department of Applied Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University for Development Studies-Tamale, Ghana
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 30 September 2015
  •  Accepted: 22 February 2016
  •  Published: 30 April 2017


Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A (2002). Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7):713-715.


Abosi AO, Raseroka BH (2003). In vivo antimalarial activity of Vernonia amygdalina. Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 60(2):89-91.


Akah PA, Okafor CI (1992). Hypoglycemic effect of Vernonia amygdalina (Del) in experimental rabbits. Plant Med. Res. 1:6-10.


Akinpelu DA Onakoya TM (2006). Antimicrobial avtivities of medicinal plants used in folklore remedies in south-western Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 5(11):1078-1081.


Alabi OA, Haruna MT, Anokwuru CP, Jegede T, Abia H, Okegbe VU, Esan BE (2012). Comparative studies on antimicrobial properties of extracts of fresh and dried leaves of carica papaya (L) on clinical bacterial and fiungal isolates. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 3(5):3107-3114.


Aruljothi S, Uma C, Sivagurunathan P and Bhuvaneswari M. (2014).Investigation on Antibacterial Activity of Carica Papaya Leaf Extracts against Wound Infection-Causing Bacteria. Int. J. Res. Stud. Biosci. 2(11):8-12.


Atta, K. Bonsu (1999). "The Power of Garlic".Cardiovascular disease prevention Association, Buea, Cameroon. P 72.


Bala SA (2006). Psidium guajava. In, some ethnomedicinal plants of the savannah regions of west Africa: Description and phytochemicals. Triumph publishing company limited, Kano, Nigeria.Bala SA (ed). Vol. II. pp. 21-56.


Bhasha S, Kondeti R. S, Sahukari R, Venkata S. Korivi and Kesireddy S. R. (2014). Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Phyllanthus niruri in Ethanolic, Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts.Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res: 27(2):85-89.


Bhumyamalaki, (1983). Phyllanthus Niruri and jaundice in children. J. Natl. Integr. Med. Assoc. 1983; 25(8):269-72.


Blumenthal M (1999). Harvard study estimates consumers spend $5.1 billion on herbal products. Herbal Gram. 45:68.


Bonsi MLK, Osuji PO, Tuah AK, Umunna MN (1995). Vernonia amygdalina as a supplement of teff straw (Eragrostis tef) fed to Ethiopian Menz. Sheep. Agroforestry syst. 31(3): 229-244.


Burkil HM (1994): The useful plants of west Tropical Africa. R.Bot. Gard. Kew pp. 21-150.


Coates A, Hue Y, Bax R, Page C. (2002). The future challenges facing the development of new antimicrobial drugs. Nat. Rev. Drug. Discov. 1:895-910.


De Smet PA (1997): The role of plant-derived drugs and herbal medicines in healthcare. Drugs 54:801-840.


Diallo D, Paulsen BS, Hveem B (1996). Production of Traditional Medicine: Preparations Accepted as Medicine in Mali. In: Properties of African Medicinal Plants (Hostettmann K, Chinyanganya F, Millard M and Wolfender J-L, eds.). University of Zimbabwe Publications, Harare. pp. 235-241.


Duke JA (1984b). Borderline herbs.CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL.pp. 401-436


Ejoh RA, Nkonga DV, Inocent G, Moses MC (2007). Nutritional components of some non conventional leafy vegetables consumed in Cameroon. Pak. J. Nutr. 6: 712-717.


Eleyinmi AF, Sporns P, Bressler DC (2008). Nutritional composition of Gongronema latifolium and Vernonia amygdalina. Nutr. Food Sci. 38:99-109.


Elizabeth Kafaru, (1994). Immense help from nature,s workshop. 1st Ed. Elikaf Health Services Ltd. Ikeja, Lagos. pp. 207-209.


Emeruwa AC(1982). Anti bacterial substance from Carica papaya fruit extract. J. Nat. Prod. 45:123-127.


Evans W.C (2002). Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. Elsevier, India. 15th ed. pp. 137-393.


Gill L S. (1992). Carica papaya L. In: Ethnomedicinal uses of plants in Nigeria. Benin City: UNIBEN Press. pp. 57-58.


Hamowia AM, Saffaf AM (1994). Pharmacological studies on Vernonia amygdalina(Del) and Tithonia diversifolia (Gray). Vet. Med. Giza 2:91-97.


Heinrich M (1998): Plants as antidiarrhoeals in medicine and diet. Proceeding from a Joint Meeting of the Society for Economic Botany and the International Society London (JMSEBISL'98), R. Bot. Gard. Kew, UK. pp. 17-30.


Huffman MA (2003) Animal self-medication and ethno-medicine: Exploration and exploitation of the medicinal properties of plants. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 62(2):371-81.


Idu M, Timothy O, Omogbai EKI, Amaechina F (2008). Hypotensive effects and acute toxicity property of methanol extract of Baissea axillaries Hau. J. Biol. Sci. 8: 675-678.


Igile GO, Oleszek W, Jurzysta M, Burda S, Fanfunso M, Fasanmade AA (1994): Flavonoids from Vernonia amygdalina and their antioxidant activities. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:2445-2448.


Igile GO, Oleszyek W, Burda S, Jurzysta N (1995). Nutritional assessment of Vernonia amygdalina leaves in growing mice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43:2126-2166.


Ijeh II, Nwugo VO, Obidoa O (1996). Comparative studies on the nutritive, phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of two varieties of Vernonia amygdalina. Plant Prod. Res. Comm. 1:71-75.


Kamath JU, Rahul N, Ashok Kumar CK, Lakshm SM (2008). Psidium guajava. In a review. Int.Green Pharm. pp. 29-12.


Kupcham SM (1971). Drugs from Natural products. Plant source in drugs discovery, science and development. Am. Chem. Soc. 6:311- 318.


Leonti M, Vibrans H, Stiche O, Heinrich M (2001). Ethnopharmacology of the Popoluca, Mexico: An Evaluation. J. Pharmacol. 53:1653-1669.


Lozoya X, Reyes-Morales H, Chavez-Soto MA, Martinez-Garcia MC, Soto-Gonzalez Y, Doubova SV (2002). Intestinal antispasmodic effect of a phytodrug of Psidium guajava folia in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal diseases. J. Ethnopharmacol. 83(12):19-24.


Lutete T, Kambu K, Ntondele D, Cimanga K, Luki N (1994). Antimicrobial activity of tannins. Fitoterapia 65(3):276-278.


Mantok C (2005). Multiple Usage of Green Papaya in Healing at Tao Garden. Tao Garden Health spa & Resort.Thailand. Available at:


Mbuh FA, Asika U, Doughari J H. (2008). Studies on antibacterial activities of leaf extract of psidium guajava. Best J. 5(1):44-47.


Morton JF (1987). Fruits of Warm Climates. Creative Resouces Inc., Winterville, N.C.


Nirosha N, Mangalanayaki R. (2013). Antibacterial Activity of Leaves and Stem Extract of Carica papaya L. Int. J. Adv.Pharm. Biol. Chem. 2(3):473-476


Nwanjo HU (2005). Efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina on the plasma lipoprotein and oxidative status of diabetic rat models. Niger. J. Physiol. Sci. 20:39-42.


Nwinyi OC, Chinedu NS, Ajani OO (2008). Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava and Gongronema Latifolium. J. Med. Plants Res. 2(8):189-192


Nyika A (2007). Ethical and regulatory issues surrounding African traditional medicine in the context of HIV/AIDS. Dev. World Bioeth. 7:25-34.


Okechukwu E C, Amaechi A A, Mundi K S, Ibekwe NN, Chah K F, (2012). Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava Linn, stem extracts against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 11(89):15556-15559.


Peter RN (1991). Pawpaw (Asimina). In: J.N. Moore and J. R. Ballington (eds). Genetic resources of temperate fruit and nut trees. Acta Hort. 290:567-600.Phyllanthus niruri on Paracetamol- induced liver cell damage in albino mice. J. Exp. Med. 12 (14): 211- 213.


Rosina K, Barrira I, Mohd, Shazi S, Anis A, Manazir SA, Mashiatullah S. Asad UK (2009). Antimicrobial activity of five herbal extracts against muti-drug reserve (MDR) strains of Bacteria and Fungi of clinical origin. Molecule 14:586-597.


Sofowora A (2008). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. Spectrum Books Limited Ibadan, Nigeria. 3rd edn, pp. 199-204.


Syamasundar KV, Singh B, Thakur RS, Husain A, Kiso Y, Hikino H (1985): Antihepatotoxic principles of Phyllanthus niruri herb. J. Ethnopharmacol. 14:41-44.


Thabrew M R (1996). Phytogenic agents in the therapy of liver disease." Phytother. Res. 10(6):461-67.


Thomas, K.D., Ajani, B. et al., (1987): Antisickling agent in an extract of unripe pawpaw fruit. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 81:510-511.


Tona LK, Ngimbi N, Cimanga K, Vlitink AJ (1998): Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese Medicinal Plants. J. Ethnopharmacol. 61(1):57-65.


Udensi EA, Ijeh II, Ogbonna U (2002): Effect of traditional processing on the phytochemical and nutrient composition of some local Nigerian leafy vegetables. J. Sci. Technol. 8:37-40.


Uma DS Beena L. (2014).Antibacterial Activity of Phyllanthus niruri growing near mobile towers.Biosci. Discov. 5(2):221-226.


Umarani D (1985). Ethanol induced metabolic alterations and the effect of Phyllanthus niruri in their reversal. Anc. Sci. Life 4(3):174-80.