The present study shows at least 32 animal diseases of different etiological factors found to be prevalent in South Kordofan State. The most economically important ones are: foot and mouth disease, pox infections, lumpy skin disease, hemorrhagic septicemia, black quarter, contagious bovine pleuro pneumonia, and parasites infestations. Practically, all of these diseases have local names and most of them can be diagnosed by animal owners from the clinical signs. Traditional treatment of many animal diseases was found to be a common practice particularly herbal treatment. Tar (Gutran), Aradaib (Tamarindus mdica), Garad (Acacia nilotica) and cauterization (Kai) were the most used traditional treatment for a number of diseases and non-inflammatory conditions. The study also showed that the animal owners receive veterinary services from the government, private sector, NGOs and Community Base Animal Health Workers (CBAHWs). They are aware of all important infectious conditions and zoonotic diseases in the area as well as their treatment using veterinary drugs preparations or traditional therapies. The trial of treating natural mange infection in donkeys showed that treatment by veterinary drugs (combined drug- mangezal, cypermethrine and ivermectin paste) was most superior followed by the traditional treatment with tar (Gutran) which was considered to be the best alternative for treating mange in animals. The current study revealed that infection with blood parasites was common. 70% of bovine blood smears were positive for the blood parasites:Theileria spp., Babesia spp., Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma conglense. 80, 3.7, 19.4, 16 and 7.1% of blood samples taken from sheep, goats, camels, donkeys and horses, were positive for blood parasites, respectively. In sheep and goats, Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. were detected. The prevalence was much higher in sheep. On the other hand, only Trypanosoma evansi was diagnosed in camels and only Babesia equi infection was found in equines. The prevalence of babesiosis and trypanosomosis was higher in the rainy season compared with the dry season, but that of thieleriosis in ruminants was higher in the dry season.
Keywords: Animal Diseases, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, Sudan
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