This study was designed to compare information on parasitic diseases occurrence in nomadic cattle herds in Abyei area. Collection of data from the veterinary records, Veterinary drug centres, questionnaire and external parasites, faecal and blood samples from animals were carried out for one year. The clinical records showed that, parasitic diseases constitute a major problem, and formed 53% of the total diseases recorded in the clinical records. Veterinary drug centers records also revealed that, within parasitic drugs, anthelmentic drugs were the most used in high quantities constituting 48%, then blood parasites as 37% and external parasites drugs which were 15%. During the wet season, many cattle herds were found in a restricted area sharing the available water and pasture. There were no proper slaughter houses, and also disposal of the offals and carcasses during meat inspection. Cattle parasitic diseases were surveyed at four administrative units in the study area at Muglad, Mayram, Abyei and Dibab. Faecal samples, blood smear, ticks and biting flies were collected. The results of this survey showed the followings: the faecal samples from cattle using floatation and sedimentation methods showed that: Paramphistomum sp. constituted 11.25%,Fasciola gigantica 5.00%, Schistosoma bovis, 1.50%, Oesophagustomum sp. 2.50%, Moniezia sp. 0.63% and Eimeria sp. 4.38%. The occurrence of internal parasites was found higher during the wet season. Blood smear examination revealed that there were Theileria species and Babesia sp. at prevalence rates of 5.88 and 5.15% respectively. Theileria sp. was more prevalent in Muglad compared to other locations, while Babesia was more frequently detected in Mayram. It is noticeable that the overall prevalence is almost the same for the two parasites. Herds were found to be 100% infested with hard ticks. 9 different tick species were identified. They belong to three genera:Amblyomma, Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus. Identified tick species collected from cattle, sheep, goats and camel were: Amblyomma lepidum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus evertsi, Rhipicephalus simus. simus, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, Hyalomma truncatum and Hyalomma dromedarii. The most abundant tick species were R. sanguineus (38.60%), A. lepidum (29.06%) and H. m. rufipes (27.91%). The total count of ticks showed that A. lepidum and Hyalomma m. rufipes were actively distributed throughout the year among the hosts with relative preference to cattle and camel. Similarly R. sanguineus had a significant distribution in sheep with restricted presence on other animal species. The biting flies identified revealed; Atylotus agrystus, Atylotus fuscipus, Tabanus taeniola and Ancala latipes. The total count showed that, A. agrystus and T. taeniola were actively distributed in the area. Parasitic disease burden as calculated for individual animals revealed that examined animals (100%) were infested with ticks. 64% of the animals were infested with ticks only. The rest showed 32% with one internal parasite and ticks, and 4% with two internal parasites and ticks. The nomads were found scattered during the dry season, whereas they were found in concentration in five locations during the wet season. The main water sources in the wet season are Rahad, Butta, Hafeir and Al Wadi.Whereas in the dry season, the main water sources are Ragaba and Downki and other additional sources such as Hafeir, Id and Bahr Al Arab. The animal owners have a good knowledge about the parasitic diseases and their symptoms, but their knowledge about the treatment and control was not adequate. They ranked the most important diseases as follows: mixed infection (Alk) 71%, Ticks and tick-borne diseases 27%, Biting flies and Trypanosomosis 20%, Foot and mouth disease and Black quarter as 20% each. The majority of the livestock keepers were 58.60% treating their animals several times throughout the year, and they find the drug in the temporary markets and sometimes in the (Farig). Ticks were 61 and 39%for biting flies were found during wet season, whereas, in the dry season 91% ticks and 9% biting flies.
Key words: Parasitic diseases, Abyei, Sudan.
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