Journal of
Cell and Animal Biology

  • Abbreviation: J. Cell Anim. Biol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0867
  • DOI: 10.5897/JCAB
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 261

Full Length Research Paper

Application of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system in dairy farms in Khartoum State, Sudan

Ranya Siddeeg Omer
  • Ranya Siddeeg Omer
  • Private Sector, Khartoum North, Sudan
  • Google Scholar
Atif Elamin Abdelgadir*
  • Atif Elamin Abdelgadir*
  • Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 32, Khartoum, Sudan
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 16 March 2014
  •  Accepted: 25 April 2014
  •  Published: 31 May 2014


An attempt was made to apply hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) system in dairy farms in Khartoum State and to suggest control limits for them based on the international standard. World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recommended the HACCP system as a modern tool for prevention. Critical points associated with animal health were investigated using screening tests such as California mastitis test (CMT) and rose bengal plate test (RBPT) for detection of bovine mastitis and brucellosis, respectively. The results reveal that the overall prevalence rate of bovine mastitis at the animal level was very high, 69.3% (n=104, out of 150). While, the overall prevalence rate of 36% (n=54, out of 150) was recorded for brucellosis in dairy farms in Khartoum State. Other critical points were obtained from the owners of the dairy farms by means of a questionnaire using non-probability sampling method or willingness of the owners for interview. The main results showed that tick infestation was present in most of the dairy farms, 94% (n=141, out of 150) and application of the odds ratio indicated that tick infestation could be a risk factor (OR=1.694). Using antibiotics for treatment of infected animals was also confirmed in this study as 54.7% (n=82, out of 150). On the other hand, the critical points associated with environment in dairy farms and distribution of the milk in Khartoum State was investigated using questionnaire survey and non probability sampling method was employed. The main results show that the condition of beddings was poor in 105 dairy farms (out of 150), given a percentage of 70%. Absence of the cleaning and disinfection of the teat were recorded in 108 and 104 dairy farms (out of 150), respectively. Many critical points associated with animals or environment as observed in dairy farms in Khartoum State included infectious and zoonotic disease, presence of flies and tick infestation, using antibiotics for treatment or in feed and drinking water and absent of veterinary care in the most dairy farms. While, critical points associated with environment were poor hygienic conditions during different practices, handling, storage and distribution of the milk. Moreover, the control limits for the all mentioned critical points were as follow: access to veterinary service using disinfections and detergents, vectors control, improvement of general hygienic conditions in the environments in the dairy farms during different practice as well as consideration of the issue of temperature during storage and distribution of the milk.

Key words: Critical control points, dairy farms, Khartoum State, Sudan.