The developments of nucleic acid-based testing have been necessitated by newer approaches to therapy and disease diagnosis through techniques involving genetic analysis. This has been achieved by the introduction of molecular diagnostic techniques that target the biosynthesis interactions between specific biomolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. These molecular diagnostic techniques include molecular cloning, macromolecule blotting and probing, gel electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction, fluorescent in situ hybridization, spectral karyotyping imaging and DNA microarrays. These techniques have been applied in cases of prenatal tests, and diagnoses of infectious diseases and cancer. In situations of disease risk management, modern techniques in clinical diagnosis including molecular techniques have been applied. However, molecular diagnostics are rapid but are very expensive to install, hence the costs of health care should be considered alongside their potential advantages. Also, well-controlled outcome studies have been essential in demonstrating the efficacy of these technologies. In conclusion, the application of molecular diagnostics has advanced the practice of medicine with enhanced management and follow-up studies of comparative clinical (medical and surgical) cases.
Keywords: Molecular cloning, gel electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction, fluorescent in sutu hybridization, spectral karyotyping imaging, DNA microarrays, RNA.