Journal of
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

  • Abbreviation: J. Chem. Eng. Mater. Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6605
  • DOI: 10.5897/JCEMS
  • Start Year: 2010
  • Published Articles: 96

Full Length Research Paper

Characterization of palm kernel shell for materials reinforcement and water treatment

Edmund C. Okoroigwe*
  • Edmund C. Okoroigwe*
  • National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Enugu State, Nigeria
  • Google Scholar
Christopher M. Saffron
  • Christopher M. Saffron
  • Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA.
  • Google Scholar
Pascal D. Kamdem
  • Pascal D. Kamdem
  • Department of Packaging, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 13 January 2014
  •  Accepted: 29 April 2014
  •  Published: 31 May 2014


As developing nations strive for economic sustainability, effort is geared towards exploiting biomass materials that could have alternative uses to their conventional low valued uses in order to achieve this goal. It is because of this that palm kernel shell, a byproduct of oil palm processing, is characterized for its application in construction and water treatment industries. The materials physical and chemical properties determined using standard methods show that it can find useful application in light weight construction as material filler and as sorbent material for industrial water treatment. The results of the x-ray photo spectrometry (XPS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal that the palm kernel shell (PKS) contains surface elements, morphology and crystalline qualities well required of material fillers in construction and adsorption industries. These can add to the market values of palm kernel shell as against its direct combustion and wastage of the material at oil palm processing mills.

Key words: Oil palm kernel shell, characterization, adsorbent, x-ray diffraction, micro porosity.