In order to obtain reliable data on vaginal carriage of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women and to formulate a prevention program of neonatal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease, we carried out a prospective cross sectional study for 6 months. The general objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of vaginal carriage and the resistance profile of GBS. The study involved 142 pregnant women presenting for antenatal care in Yaoundé Gynecology-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (YGOPH). Participants were interviewed using a standard structure questionnaire. Low vaginal swabs were collected and cultured on specific media. A presumptive identification of isolates was made using standard bacteriological methods. Confirmative identification of Group B Streptococcus was done and antimicrobial sensitivity testing was performed. Among the 142 pregnant women GBS colonization was confirmed in 11 (7.7%). The rate of carriage was 3.8% in the first trimester, 7% in the second trimester and 11.1% in the third trimester. The predominant germ was Candida albicans with a frequency of 45.2% among the germs found in monomicrobial culture and Gardnerella vaginalis (77.8%) among the germs in polymicrobial culture, followed by Candida spp (11.8%), S. agalactiae (8.6%) and Escherichia coli (4.3%). The result of antimicrobial sensitivity testing showed that all the GBS strains were sensitive to major antibiotics drugs tested. The highest rates of resistance were found with gentamycin (100%) and Cefuroxim (81.8%). The vaginal carriage of GBS among pregnant women is still high. Thus, well-planned, prospective studies will be necessary to fully appreciate the magnitude of the problem of GBS in our hospitals.
Key words: Group B Streptococcus, neonatal infections, antibiotic, low vaginal swabs.
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