The current orthodox treatment modalities for diabetes mellitus have many drawbacks including undesirable side-effects and the high cost of long-term treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the anti-diabetic and some haematological effects of ethylacetate and n-butanol fractions of Indigofera pulchraextract in alloxan-induced diabetic. Preliminary phytochemical screening and acute toxicity studies of the two fractions of I. pulchra were carried out. A dose of 50 mg/kg of ethylacetate and 250 mg/kg n-butanol fractions of the extract was given intraperitoneally daily, for two weeks to the alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Insulin was also used as a standard anti-diabetic drug and was given intraperitoneally to alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. The fasting blood glucose levels were determined weekly for two weeks. At the end of the two weeks, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples were taken from all the groups for the determination of hematological parameters. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the two fractions I. pulchra extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins. The LD50 was 775 and 2,154 mg/kg for ethylacetate and n-butanol fractions of the I. pulchra extract respectively. There was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the fasting blood glucose levels of the alloxan-induced diabetic groups after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment with ethylacetate fraction. As regard to the n-butanol, there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the fasting blood glucose levels of the alloxan-induced diabetic groups after 2 weeks of treatment. Also, in relation to the erythrocyte indices, there was no significant change in the two fractions tested when compared to control. However, there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the white blood cells, neutrophils and eosinophils counts treated with the two fractions after 2 week of treatment when compared with the control. In conclusion, both ethylacetate and n-butanol fractions of I.pulchra extract were found to have potent anti-diabetic effects.
Key words: Blood glucose, diabetes mellitus, Indigofera pulchra, erythrocyte, leucocytes.
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