Journal of
Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology

  • Abbreviation: J. Environ. Chem. Ecotoxicol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-226X
  • DOI: 10.5897/JECE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 195

Full Length Research Paper

Physicochemical properties of the effluents of Forcados Terminal in Warri, Delta State

Amaku Grace Ebele*
  • Amaku Grace Ebele*
  • Department of Environmental Sciences, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Akani Nedie Patience
  • Akani Nedie Patience
  • Department of Applied and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, P.M.B. 5080, Port Hacourt, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 13 November 2015
  •  Accepted: 04 January 2016
  •  Published: 29 February 2016


Physicochemical properties of the effluent samples from Forcados Terminal in Warri, Delta State were studied from May 2008 to June 2009. Effluent samples were collected from the two Barge Jetties A and B and Two Saver Pits 1 and 2 inside the tank farm. A total of 96 effluent samples were collected throughout the study period. Physicochemical properties of the effluent samples were determined using Hach methods as recommended by the American Public Health Association (APHA) and American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM). The results of the physicochemical parameters tested showed that most of the physicochemical parameters complied with their respective Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) and Federal Ministry of Environment (FEMENV) limits for near shore environments while values of turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity, and electrical conductivity (EC) were above statutory requirements. There was statistical difference at p≤0.05 in the levels of the physicochemical parameters analysed. The range of values obtained for physicochemical parameters analysed was from 4.86 to 8.09 pH, 22.7 to 28.8°C  temperature, 7.5 to 27 NTU  turbidity, 81 to 37,500 µmhos/cm EC, 19.15 to 18,800 mg/L TDS, 4.6 to 19.6 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS), 10.35 to 7,735 mg/L salinity, 4.7 to 8.05 mg/L dissolved oxygen (DO), 1.35 to 6.75 mg/L biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 0.006 to 4.80 mg/L  NH4, 0.002 to 1.46 mg/L P04, 0.001 to 0.01 mg/L H2S. Turbidity, TDS, EC, and salinity had levels above DPR statutory requirements.

Key words: Forcados Terminal, effluents, water quality, compliance.