Journal of
Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology

  • Abbreviation: J. Environ. Chem. Ecotoxicol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-226X
  • DOI: 10.5897/JECE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 173

Full Length Research Paper

Evaluation of the physicochemical and heavy metal content of ground water sources in Bantaji and Rafin-Kada settlements of Wukari Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria

Odiba John Oko
  • Odiba John Oko
  • Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University Wukari, P. M. B. 1020, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Matthew Olaleke Aremu
  • Matthew Olaleke Aremu
  • Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University Wukari, P. M. B. 1020, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Chrysanthus Andrew
  • Chrysanthus Andrew
  • Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University Wukari, P. M. B. 1020, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 13 July 2017
  •  Accepted: 01 September 2017
  •  Published: 31 October 2017

Abstract

Boreholes and hand dug wells from Bantaji and Rafin-Kada settlements of Wukari L.G.A. were analyzed for fourteen physicochemical parameters and seven heavy metals collected within July, 2015 to March, 2016 using standard methods. The mean difference in concentration of dissolved oxygen between the wet and dry seasons in the Bantaji boreholes was statistically significant at p<0.05. In addition, the electrical conductivity, nitrate nitrogen, phosphate and dissolved oxygen concentration were also statistically significant in the Rafin-Kada Boreholes. For the well water samples, total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrate nitrogen and chlorides were also statistically significant between the wet and dry seasons of the Bantaji wells while in the Rafin-Kada wells, with only dissolved oxygen having mean concentration that was statistically significant at p<0.05. All the physicochemical parameters in the boreholes and hand dug wells fall within the Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) acceptable limits. The heavy metals, Pb and Mn had mean concentrations in the wet and dry seasons that were statistically significant in the Bantaji borehole, Bantaji well and Rafin-Kada borehole while Rafin-Kada borehole had statistically significant mean concentrations of Cd, As and Mn at p<0.05. All the heavy metals analyzed fall within the NSDWQ acceptable limits except Pb which had higher mean concentrations in the wet and dry seasons than the acceptable limits from Rafin-Kada wells (0.0190 and 0.0203 mg/L), Bantaji boreholes (0.1487 and 0.1086 mg/L) and Bantaji wells (0.0145 and 0.0154 mg/L). The mean concentrations of Pb reported may indicate presence of lead containing materials around the water sources. Frequent monitoring of these water sources is recommended over time.

 

Key words: Boreholes, wells, Bantaji, Rafin-Kada, physic-chemical parameters, heavy metals, groundwater.