Journal of
Entomology and Nematology

  • Abbreviation: J. Entomol. Nematol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9855
  • DOI: 10.5897/JEN
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 135

Full Length Research Paper

Composition and termidicidal activity of essential oils of Ritchiea reflexa (Thonn.) Gilg & Benedict and Ctenium elegans Kunth. against Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri, 1912

DOSSOUVI Denis Sènouwa
  • DOSSOUVI Denis Sènouwa
  • Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et des Substances Naturelles, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Lomé, 01 BP 1515 Lomé 01, Lomé, Togo.
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KASSENEY Boris Dodji
  • KASSENEY Boris Dodji
  • Laboratoire d’Entomologie Appliquée, Département de Zoologie, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Lomé, 01 BP 1515 Lomé 01, Lomé, Togo.
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SIMALOU Oudjaniyobi
  • SIMALOU Oudjaniyobi
  • Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et des Substances Naturelles, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Lomé, 01 BP 1515 Lomé 01, Lomé, Togo.
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ELOH Kodjo
  • ELOH Kodjo
  • Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et des Sciences de l’Environnement, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université de Kara, BP 404, Kara, Togo.
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MOLLONG Eyabana
  • MOLLONG Eyabana
  • Laboratoire d’Entomologie Appliquée, Département de Zoologie, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Lomé, 01 BP 1515 Lomé 01, Lomé, Togo.
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KPEGBA Kafui
  • KPEGBA Kafui
  • Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et des Substances Naturelles, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Lomé, 01 BP 1515 Lomé 01, Lomé, Togo.
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GLITHO Adolé Isabelle
  • GLITHO Adolé Isabelle
  • Laboratoire d’Entomologie Appliquée, Département de Zoologie, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Lomé, 01 BP 1515 Lomé 01, Lomé, Togo.
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  •  Received: 08 February 2022
  •  Accepted: 16 May 2022
  •  Published: 31 May 2022

Abstract

Leaves of Ritchiea reflexa (Thonn.) Gilg & Benedict and aerial parts of Ctenium elegans (Kunth, 1829) were steam distillated to obtain their respective essential oils. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to characterize essential oil components. The susceptibility of these volatile oils on Amitermes evuncifer (Silvestri, 1912) was tested using contact test with washer of filter paper inside Petri dish. Twenty (20) workers of A. evuncifer were put in contact with 4 different doses of each tested essential oil. The doses were compared to two controls (negative and positive). The mortality of termites was recorded daily until the death of the last individual. GC-MS data showed that R. reflexa oils contained 3 components while that of C. elegans contained 14 compounds. Benzyl cyanide (> 80%), Benzyl isothiocyanate (> 4%), and Diisooctyl phthalate (8.98%) were the three components in R. reflexa essential oils. α-Cadinol (21.43%), Elemol (16.27%), Methyl (2Z)-3-(2,2,6-trimethyl-5-oxo-7-oxabicyclo[4.1.0]hept-1-yl)-2-propenoate (10.67%), δ-Cadinene (8.46%), and τ-Muurolol (7.56%) were the main components of C. elegans essential oil. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes (58.6%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (24.55%) were then the two main groups of volatile oil components of C. elegans. All the tested doses significantly reduced the survival duration and life expectancy of A. evuncifer in comparison to controls. However, the effect of essential oils was dose dependent: the highest doses (0.19 and 0.30 µl/cm2) killed all the termites one hour after the contact (for R. reflexa). It clearly appeared that these oils significantly affected A. evuncifer. Thus, they could be regarded as potential alternatives to synthetic chemicals.

 

Key words: Ritchiea reflexa, Ctenium elegans, essential oils, termidicidal activity, Amitermes evuncifer.