Journal of
Entomology and Nematology

  • Abbreviation: J. Entomol. Nematol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9855
  • DOI: 10.5897/JEN
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 139

Article in Press

Spatial distribution and ecological niche modeling of Schistosoma haematobium Bilharz and Schistosoma mansoni Sambo: risk maps assessment for schistosomiasis spread in Benin (West Africa)

Emmanuel Schadrac TODO, Rock Yves AIKPON, Kourouma KOURA, Antoine Salomon LOKOSSOU, Augustin AOUDJI, Jean Cossi GANGLO

  •  Received: 22 October 2022
  •  Accepted: 27 February 2023
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that induces severe complications and remains silent for a long period of time. Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are the incriminating agents along with freshwater gastropod mollusks as the disease vectors. In order to map the potential for schistosomiasis transmission in present and future, pathogen and vector occurrence data were collected from the literature and fieldwork through a retrospective survey with 175 individuals in high disease endemicity areas. Also, complementary occurrence and environmental data were downloaded to model the spatial distribution and ecological niche of the disease using the algorithms (Maxent, GLM, BRT, RF, and GAM). A total of four disease vectors (Bulinus globosus, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus forskalii, and Biomphalaria pfeifferi) were identified by the surveyed population. Similarly, community rejection; reduced growth and limited school performance in infested children and reduced agricultural production are the socio-economic consequences of the disease. According to the different models used, all of Benin is exposed to the disease in the present, but low risk areas are found in majority of Alibori department in North Benin. The future projection indicates the northern departments as high risk area for schistosomiasis. Through the impact of climate change on the parasite transmission, some low risk areas of the disease in present will become high risk in the future by 2055, especially the majority area of Alibori departments and significant parts of Atacora, Borgou, and Donga departments. It is therefore necessary to strengthen the implementation of existing control measures with rigorous surveillance in these departments in order to limit the potential expansion of the disease.

Keywords: Schistosomiasis, Spatial distribution, Modeling, Ecological niche, Benin, West Africa