Journal of
Entomology and Nematology

  • Abbreviation: J. Entomol. Nematol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9855
  • DOI: 10.5897/JEN
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 129

Full Length Research Paper

Pathophysiological effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica) derivatives to Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, the tick vector for Theileriosis (East Coast Fever)

Godwin P. Kaaya
  • Godwin P. Kaaya
  • School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Marius Hedimbi
  • Marius Hedimbi
  • School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Namibia, P. O. Box 13301, Windhoek, Namibia.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 12 September 2016
  •  Accepted: 10 April 2017
  •  Published: 30 June 2017


Borges FML, De Sousa AL, Barbosa DC (2011). Perspectives for the use of plant extracts to control the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Revista Brasileira de Para. Vet. 20(2):89-96.


Dossa SC, Kaaya GP, Essuman S, Odulaja A, Assoku RGK (1996). Acquisition of resistance to the tick Amblyomma variegatum in Boran cattle, Bos indicus and the effects of Trypanosoma congolense and Babesia bigemina on the resistance. Vet. Para. 62:317-330.


Gachohi J, Skilton R, Hansen F, Ngumi P, Kitala P (2012). Epidemiology of East Coast Fever (Theileria parva) infection in Kenya: past, present and the future. Para. Vec. 5(1):1.


Hedimbi M, Kaaya GP, Samish M, Gindin G, Glazer I (2011). Pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to the red-legged tick, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. J. Ento. Nema. 3(7):68-72.


Homewood K, Trench P, Randall S, Lynen G, Bishop, B (2006). Livestock health and socio economic impacts of a veterinary intervention in Maasailand: infection-and- treatment vaccine against East Coast Fever. Agri. Systems 89:248-271.


Jacobson M (1989). The Neem tree. Focus on pytochemical pesticides. CRC, Boca Raton. Vol. 1.


Jonsson NN (1997). Control of cattle ticks (Boophilus microplus) on Queensland dairy farms. Austra. Vet. J. 75:802-807.


Kaaya GP (1992). Non-chemical agents and factors capable of regulating tick populations in nature. A mini-review. Inter. J. Tropical Insect Sci. 13(4):587-594.


Kaaya GP, Mwangi EN, Malonza MM (1995). Acaricidal activity of Margaritaria discoidea plant extracts against the ticks Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Amblyomma variegatum. Inter. J. Aca. 21:123 - 129.


Kaaya GP, Saxena RC, Gebre S (2007). The potential of neem products for control of economically-important African ticks. Biosci. Biotechnol. Res. Asia 4:95-104.


Kivaria FM, Ruheta MR, Mkonyi PA, Malamsha PC (2007). Epidemiological aspects and economic impact of bovine theileriosis (East Coast fever) and its control: A preliminary assessment with special reference to Kibaha district, Tanzania.Vet. J. 173(2):384-90.


Laisser EL, Kipanyula MJ, Msalya G, Mdegela RH, Karimuribo ED, Mwilawa AJ, Mwega ED, Kusiluka L, Chenyambuga SW (2014). Tick burden and prevalence of Theileria parva infection in Tarime zebu cattle in the lake zone of Tanzania. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 46(8):1391-6.


Landau S.Y, Provenza FD, Gardner DR, Pfister JA, Knoppel EL, Peterson C, Kababya D, Needham GR, Villalba JD (2009). Neem tree (Azadirachta indica Juss.) extract as feed additive against the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) in sheep (Ovis aries). Vet. Parasitology 165:311-317.


Lawrence JA, Perry BD, Williamson SM (1992). East coast fever. In infectious diseases of livestock. Vol. 1, 2nd edition. Eds. Coetzer JAW, Tustin RC, southern Africa, Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 448-467.


Maradufu A (1982). Furanosesquiterpenoids of Commiphora erythraea and Commiphora myrrh. Phytochem. 21:677-680.


Mbogo SK, Kariuki DP, McHardy N, Payne R (1995). Training Manual for Veterinary Staff on Immunisation against East Coast Fever Using the ECFiM System. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute and Overseas Development Administration of UK,Nairobi, P 2.


Minjauw B, Mc Leod, A. (2003). Tick-borne diseases and poverty. The impact of ticks and tick-borne diseases on the livelihood of small-scale and marginal livestock owners in India and eastern and southern Africa. UK research report, DFID Animal Health Programme, Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburg.


Mukhebi AW, Perry BD, Kruska R (1992). Estimated economics of theileriosis control in Africa. Preventive Vet. Med.12(1):73-85.


Mukhebi AW (1992). Economic impact of theileriosis and its control in Africa. The epidemiology of theileriosis in Africa [Eds. Norval RAI, Perry BD; Young AS]. Academic Press, London. 379-403.


Norval RA, Perry BD, Young AS (1992). The epidemiology of Theileriosis in Africa. London Academic Press, P 481.


Polar P, Moore D, Kairo MT, Ramsubhag A (2008). Topically applied myco-acaricides forte control of cattle ticks: overcoming the challenges. Experimental and Applied Acarology 46:119-148.


Rice M (1993). Development of Neem research and industry in Australia. World Neem conference (Bangalore, India), Souverir, 8-24.


Saxena RC (1989). Insecticides from Neem. In: Arnason TT, Philogene BJR, Morand P (eds), Insecticides of plant origin. ACS Symposium Series 387, American Chemical Society, Washington Entomology 35(1):271-297.


Schmutterer H (1995). Toxicity of Neem to vertebrates and side effects Sources of unique natural products for integrated pest management, medicine, industry and other purposes. VCH, Weinheim. pp. 484-517.


Schmutterer H (1990). Properties and potential of natural pesticides from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica. Annual Review Entomol. 35(1):271-297.


Schwalback MJ, Greyling JPC, David M (2003). The efficacy of a 10% aqueous Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extract for tick control in Small East African and Toggenburg female goat kids in Tanzania. South African Journal of Animal Science 33:83-88.


Solomon G, Kaaya GP (1998). Development, reproductive capacity and survival of Amblyomma variegatum and Boophilus decoloratus in relation to host resistance and climatic factors under different field conditions. Veterinary Parasitology 75:241-253.


Sutherst RW (2001). The vulnerability of animal and human health to parasites under global change. Inter. J. Parasitology 31:933–948.


Webb EC, David M (2002). The efficacy of neem seed extract (Azadirachta indica) to control tick infestation in Tswana, Simmentaler and Brahman cattle. South Afri. J. Ani. Sci.32(1):1-6.


Wharton RH (1976). Tick-borne livestock diseases and their vectors.5. Acaricide resistance and alternative methods of tick control. World Animal Review 20:8-15.


Wharton RH, Roulston WJ (1970). Resistance of ticks to chemicals. Annual Review of Entomology 15:381-404.