The puma (Puma concolor, Carnivora: Felidae), extinct from considerable extensions of its former distribution, is considered threatened in south, southeast and northeast Brazil. Areas in the south and southeast have only recently been recolonized by the species, following decrease in logging activities after depletion of the Atlantic rainforest in the 1960s, and measures implemented since 1993 to protect this ecosystem. The evidence of decline and posterior recolonization of pumas in Brazil, over a total area of 1,500,000 km2 is given here. This is the only known natural recolonization event of a large wild felid in Brazil, and one of a few in the world.
Key words: Araucaria forest, Atlantic forest, deforestation, puma concolor, recolonization, recovery.
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