In Kenya, it has been documented that demand for fish is endlessly rising; however, supply of fish continues to lag behind due to dwindling of natural fish stocks. Besides, there is still insignificant aquaculture production in Kenya compared to a global scale, which is not in tandem with the worldwide rapid growth of the sector. Nonetheless, Kenya exhibits great yet to be fully explored potential for aquaculture activities. In 2009, aquaculture commercialization and development of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was captured in the Economic Stimulus Programme (ESP) of the government which is aimed at promoting economic growth through creation of jobs and business opportunities, and also to lighten the burden of poverty and food insecurity. So far, poverty alleviation has been enhanced by the program, regional development has been encouraged, and commercial perception among Kenyan fish farmers has increased. Certainly, there has been a marked increase in national aquaculture production from 1,000 Metric Tons (MT/y) in the year 2000 (corresponding to 1% of national fish production) to 12,000 MT/y, signifying 7% of the national harvest, in the year 2010. Over the next 5 years, the projected production rate is 20,000 MT/y, implying 10% of overall production and valued at 22.5 million USD. The findings of this review highlights that the opportunities exist in the Kenyan aquaculture industry which include the supportive ecological conditions, live fish food production, for instance, daphnia and rotifers, Artemia, shellfish larviculture and marine fish; cage culture; seaweed farming; integrated fish farming; investment in the fish feed industry; and culture of indigenous fish species. The findings shows that aquaculture activities can result into more production of animal proteins in developing countries, furnishing a precious contribute to the national food security, poverty alleviation, rural livelihoods, employment and income generation.
Keywords: Fish farming, solution, food insecurity, poverty, Kenya