The ecosystem of Ethiopia classified as Afroalpine and Sub-Afroalpine, Dry Evergreen Montane Forest and Grassland Complex, Moist Evergreen Montane Forest, Acacia-Commiphora Woodland, Combretum-Terminalia Woodland, Lowland Semi-evergreen Forest, Desert and Semi- Desert Scrubland, and Inland Waters. These diverse ecosystems have endowed Ethiopia with a diverse biological wealth of plants, animals, and microbial species. This diversity of ecosystem have over 6,000 species of vascular plant (with 625 endemic species and 669 near-endemic species, and one endemic plant genus), 860 avian species (16 endemic species and two endemic genera), 279 species of mammal (35 endemic species and six endemic genera), 201 species of reptile (14 endemic species), 23 species of amphibians (23 endemic species), 150 freshwater fish (6 endemic species). Ethiopia has a long history in conservation of biological diversity and contains the oldest records of conservation efforts and the oldest conservation area on the continent (Girma Timer ,et al,2011).The first recorded indigenous conservation-oriented activity took place during the reign of Emperor Zerea Yacob (1434-1468). He noted the loss of forest cover on what is now known as Wachacha Mountain near Addis Ababa. Seedlings and seeds were collected from juniper forests areas elsewhere in the country, and the present Menagesha area was replanted. This occurred over 550 years ago, and the area is today known as the â€œMenagesha State Forest (Daan Vreugdenhil et al, 2012).
Keywords: Protected area, Species, National Park