Sustainable forest management aims to maintain and enhance the economic, social and environmental value of all types of forests, for the benefit of present and future generations. In Swaziland, despite the existence of numerous local, national, regional and international policies and legislation, sustainable forest management is far fetched. The objective of this paper was to review previous studies on policy reviews, the current status of the non-timber forest products (NTFP) sector, community consultations on resource use and management, user surveys to determine the actual quantities of harvested and utilized edible and medicinal NTFPs, and economic analyses for their direct use value, and inventory and economic valuation of standing stock of various NTFPs. Ulimatelty, this paper has made policy recommendations for the development of a theoretical framework for the sustainable management of NTFPs at the local, national, regional and international levels. This theoretical framework is divided into a set of eleven strategies. These are: Information and social communication; secure rights and access to products from natural forests and woodlands; adoption of innovative policies, revising and updating legislation and elaborating national forestry programmes; development and implementation of national level criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management; project planning and control techniques; local level guidelines for sustainable NTFP management; conservation and financing mechanisms; collaboration and networking between all institutions involved in research and development of NTFPs; institutional strengthening and capacity building; education and training at all levels of community structures; and research and development.
Key words: Non-timber forest products (NTFPs), policy, strategy, policies, legislation, economic valuation, sustainable management, assessment, sustainable resource use.
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