In this study, the co-infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) andMycobacterium tuberculosis was investigated among patients. HIV serology was performed on 100 tuberculosis patients whose sputum samples were AFB positive as tested at the General Hospital Umuguma, Owerri, Imo State, between 2nd May 2010 and 3rd February 2011. Seven (7.0%) of the 100 tuberculosis patients were HIV seropositive. HIV seropositivity was higher in females than in males (ratio, 5:2) and the groups infected were between 18 to 42 years. The HIV seropositive tuberculosis patients had signifcantly lower median total leucocyte count (2,700/mm3) compared with that of the healthy control group (6,000/mm3). Also the median percentage lymphocyte count was significantly lower in those seropositive (18%) when compared with the healthy control group (38%). The study shows that M. tuberculosis remains a high risk factor in HIV/AIDS infection in Nigeria. Routine HIV screening test of all tuberculosis patients is highly recommended.
Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, HIV, risk factor, Nigeria.
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