Prison as one of society institutes and organizations contains a group of people and a chain of incidents necessarily happens inside it. To become familiar with the incidents happening all the time in this small social unit and with its related consequences, the identification of its culture, economical, social, and behavioral, pathology dimensions is necessary. Studies show that before the management of jails begins its operations including behavioral control of newcomer prisoners tries to lead them to the desired social circuit, the prison itself and its prisoners, the inveterate prisoners come along teaching the prison alphabets to the newcomer prisoners. From the sociological point of view, prison’s tendency towards prison policy with its present conditions, management has lost its remedial and renovation functions and motives considerably. According to the existing statistics, between 30 to 50% of the prisoners who are released from jails, recommit crime out of jail. Although imprisoning the criminals and completing their punishment stages is to be regarded as a responding approach towards declining the rate of crimes, in most of the cases this leave behind many economical, social, and cultural expenses in prisons and consequently it does not play a meaningful role in the reduction of crimes. This paper is a study of the sociology of prison and a study of tendency of prison policy from pathological point of view (considering its consequences and related expenses). Harms related to the aforementioned matter have been described under three different titles: "Harms Addressing Prisoner", "Harms Addressing Family" and "Harms Addressing Society".
Key words: Prison, jail, sociology, pathology, costs, consequences.
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